Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Dissolution of the Lumumba Government
On 5 September 1960 President Joseph Kasa-Vubu of the Democratic Republic of the Congo dismissed Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba from office. He dismissed six other members of his government: Deputy Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga, Minister of Justice Rémy Mwamba, Minister of Interior Christophe Gbenye, Minister of Information Anicet Kashamura, Secretary of State Antoine-Roger Bolamba, Secretary of State Jacques Lumbala; the 37-strong Lumumba Government was diverse, with its members coming from different classes, different tribes, holding varied political beliefs. Though many had questionable loyalty to Lumumba, most did not contradict him out of political considerations or fear of reprisal, he dominated the Council of Ministers, most of the ministers did respect his abilities. MNC-L members controlled eight ministries, including four major portfolios: national defence, economic coordination, agriculture. Tshombe objected to the fact that the former two were held by MNC-L members, while the majority of PUNA and MNC-K members were displeased that their party leaders had not been included in the government.
European circles were displeased that the portfolio for economic affairs, controlled by a CONAKAT member, was undercut by the positioning of nationalists in control of the Ministry and Secretariat for Economic Coordination, that mines and land affairs were placed under separate portfolios. Tshombe declared that it rendered his agreement to support the government "null and void". By the end of July opposition to the Lumumba Government had solidified in Parliament. Lumumba's absence from the country allowed these elements to advertise their position. Van den Bosch had taken advantage of the time to establish contacts with the moderate ministers: Bomboko, Kabangi and Mbuyi. Bomboko was relayed messages from Wigny. Van den Bosch developed a relationship with Joseph Iléo, the President of the Senate, who pledged that he would work in tandem with other senators to remove Lumumba from power. On 9 August Albert Kalonji announced the secession of the "Mining State of South Kasai". Dissension and subversion campaigns, including the dissemination of anti-Lumumba leaflets and inciting of army mutinies, were organised in Brazzaville with the support of President Fulbert Youlou, Belgian intelligence services, the French Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage, the United States Central Intelligence Agency.
Batshikama, though a secretary of state in the Lumumba Government, spent two hours every evening in Brazzaville hosting an anti-Lumumba radio programme. Wigny directed the Belgian agents there to encourage the Congolese opposition to remove Lumumba through presidential revocation, as a parliamentary motion of censure was deemed too to fail. In a meeting with his advisers on 18 August President Eisenhower suggested that he wanted Lumumba to be killed. Belgium made similar plans. By the end of the month rumors were circulating in the capital of Western overtures to Kasa-Vubu to replace Lumumba's government. Lumumba soon thereafter met with the Council of Ministers; the following day he proclaimed an état d'exception throughout the Congo, his government carried out its expulsion order against Ambassador Van den Bosch. Mandi informed the ambassador of the direction, but insisted that his ousting did not signify a permanent rupture between Belgium and the Congo. Lumumba soon arrived to oversee Van den Bosch's departure and announced that all other Belgian diplomatic staff would face arrest if they did not leave the country.
He recalled all Congolese students residing in Belgium. The Prime Minister subsequently issued several orders in an attempt to reassert his dominance on the political scene; the first outlawed the formation of associations without government sanction. A second asserted the government's right to ban publications that produced material to bring the administration into disrepute. On 11 August the Courrier d'Afrique printed an editorial which declared that the Congolese did not want to fall "under a second kind of slavery"; the editor was summarily arrested and four days publication of the daily ceased, followed shortly thereafter by the delivery of shut-down orders against the Belga and Agence France-Presse wire services. The press restrictions garnered a wave of harsh criticism from the Belgian media. Another order stipulated that official approval had to be obtained six days in advance of public gatherings. On 16 August Lumumba announced the installation of a régime militaire espécial for the duration of six months, including the establishment of military tribunals.
He initiated the arrest of public figures who opposed him. Throughout August Lumumba withdrew from his full cabinet and instead consulted officials and ministers he trusted, such as Mpolo, Kashamura and Kiwewa. Kasa-Vubu's wishes went unheeded by the government. Kasa-Vubu faced criticism from ABAKO and President Youlou for not curbing Lumumba's authoritarian actions, he resisted their pressure, on 13 August he broadcast an appeal for unity and support for the government. He cautioned the government against arbitrariness and excess: If I am under a moral obligation to support and defend the government within the limits set by the law, the members of the government themselves have a duty to work together as a team, their policy must be not that of one party, one race, or one tribe. It must be a policy which reflects the interests of the nation and which allows humanitarian values to flourish in freedom. T
Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
The Republic of the Congo was a sovereign state in Central Africa, created with the independence of the Belgian Congo in 1960. From 1960 to 1966, the country was known as Congo-Léopoldville in order to distinguish it from its north-western neighbour called the Republic of the Congo or Congo-Brazzaville. With the renaming of Léopoldville as Kinshasa on 1 June 1966, it was known as Congo-Kinshasa until 1971. On 1 August 1964, the state's official name was changed to Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 1971, the state's name changed to Zaire; the period between 1960 and 1965 is referred to as the First Congolese Republic, the current Democratic Republic of the Congo is the Third Republic. Unrest and rebellion continued to plague the government until 1965, when Lieutenant General Joseph Désiré Mobutu, commander-in-chief of the national army, seized control of the country. Mobutu changed the country's name to the Republic of Zaire in 1971 and remained its president until 1997. Conditions in the Congo improved following the Belgian government's takeover in 1908 of the Congo Free State, a personal possession of the Belgian king.
Some Bantu languages were taught in a rare occurrence in colonial education. Colonial doctors reduced the spread of African trypanosomiasis known as sleeping sickness. During World War II, the small Congolese army achieved several victories against the Italians in East Africa; the Belgian Congo, rich in uranium deposits, supplied the uranium, used by the United States to build the atomic weapons that were used in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. The colonial administration implemented a variety of economic reforms to improve infrastructure: railways, roads, mines and industrial areas; the Congolese people, lacked political power and faced legal discrimination. All colonial policies were decided in Léopoldville; the Belgian Colony-secretary and Governor-general, neither elected by the Congolese people, wielded absolute power. Among the Congolese people, resistance against their undemocratic regime grew over time. In 1955, the Congolese upper class, many of whom had been educated in Europe, initiated a campaign to end the inequality.
In May 1960, the MNC party or Mouvement National Congolais, led by Patrice Lumumba, won the parliamentary elections, Lumumba was appointed Prime Minister. Joseph Kasa-Vubu of ABAKO was elected President by the parliament. Other parties that emerged include the Parti Solidaire Africain, led by Antoine Gizenga, the Parti National du Peuple, led by Albert Delvaux and Laurent Mbariko); the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960. On 1 July Lumumba sent a wire to the UN to request membership, stating that the Congo "accepts without reservation the obligations stipulated in the Charter of the UN and undertakes to abide by the same in absolute good faith." UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld cabled the Foreign Ministry, pointing out the difficulty in admitting the country into the UN under its name in the face of another application for membership from the neighboring Congo, preparing for independence from French control. A delegation was sent from Brazzaville, the capital of the French Congo, to Léopoldville to resolve the matter.
In the end, it was decided that the former Belgian Congo would be recognised as the Republic of the Congo or Congo-Léopoldville while the former French Congo would be known as the Congolese Republic or Congo-Brazzaville. Following a constitutional referendum in 1964 it was renamed the "Democratic Republic of the Congo", in 1971 it was changed again to "Republic of Zaïre". Shortly after independence, the provinces of Katanga and South Kasai engaged in secessionist struggles against the new leadership. Subsequent events led to a crisis between Prime Minister Lumumba. On 5 September 1960, Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba from office. Lumumba declared Kasa-Vubu's action "unconstitutional" and a crisis between the two leaders developed. Lumumba had appointed Joseph Mobutu chief of staff of the new Congolese army, the Armee Nationale Congolaise. Taking advantage of the leadership crisis between Kasa-Vubu and Lumumba, Mobutu garnered enough support within the army to inspire mutinous action. With financial support from the United States and Belgium, Mobutu made payments to his soldiers to generate their loyalty.
The aversion of Western powers towards communism and leftist ideology, in general, influenced their decision to finance Mobutu's quest to maintain "order" in the new state by neutralizing Kasa-Vubu and Lumumba in a coup by proxy. On 17 January 1961, Katangan forces, supported by the Belgian government, which desired to retain mining rights for copper and diamonds in Katanga and South Kasai, the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency, which desired to remove leftist sympathizers from the region, assassinated Patrice Lumumba. From 1960 to 1964 the peacekeeping effort was the largest, most complex, most costly operation carried out by the United Nations. Amidst widespread confusion and chaos, a temporary government led by technicians with Evariste Kimba, several short governments Joseph Ileo, Cyrille Adoula, Moise Tshombe took over in quick succession. Following five years of extreme instability and civil unrest, Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, now Lieutenant General, overthrew Kasa-Vubu in a 1965 CIA-backed coup.
He had the support of the US for his staunch opposition to communism, which would make him a roadblock to communist schemes in Africa. Mobutu declared himself president for five years, saying that he needed that long to undo the damage that
Siege of Jadotville
The Siege of Jadotville was an engagement during the Congo Crisis in September 1961. "A" Company, 35th Battalion of the Irish Army ONUC contingent was attacked by Katangese Gendarmerie troops loyal to the Katangese Prime Minister Moïse Tshombe. The armed Irish soldiers, besieged in Jadotville, resisted Katangese assaults for six days as a relief force of Irish and Swedish troops unsuccessfully attempted to reach the Irish force; the outnumbered Irish company was forced to surrender after ammunition and supplies were exhausted, but not before inflicting heavy casualties on the Katangese and their mercenaries. They were held as prisoners of war for one month, with no loss of life. On Wednesday 13 September 1961, United Nations forces in Katanga launched a military offensive, code named Operation Morthor, against mercenary military units serving the State of Katanga, which had seceded from Congo-Léopoldville in July 1960. According to its mandate, the United Nations Operation in the Congo forces were to remain impartial in the conflict.
But the Katangese political leadership believed the UN had broken its mandate and its forces were siding with their opponent, the Congolese central government. Soon after the start of Morthor, the Katangese led a counterattack on an isolated UN military unit based at the mining town of Jadotville 100 kilometers up-country from the main UN base in Elisabethville. A contingent of 155 Irish UN troops, styled as "A Company" and commanded by Commandant Pat Quinlan, had been sent to the mining town, ostensibly to assist in the protection of its citizens; the foreign minister of Belgium had called the UN secretary-general, reporting that Belgian settlers and the local population were unprotected, feared for their safety. But when the Irish troops arrived at Jadotville, they were not welcomed by the local people, due to strong pro-Katangese and anti-UN feeling. Two previous companies of ONUC peacekeepers — one Swedish and one Irish — had been withdrawn from Jadotville in the days prior to the arrival of Quinlan's force.
It is not clear why the Katangese wanted to isolate the Irish UN troops, although some commentators have suggested that the goal may have been to take the Irish as prisoners for leverage in negotiations with the UN. The Katangese attacked. Expecting to take the men off guard, the first attackers moved in but were spotted by an Irish sentry. A warning shot by Private Billy Ready alerted the company to the threat. A five-day battle ensued. A combined force of mercenaries, Belgian settlers and local Luba tribesmen attacked the Irish; the attackers had a strength of 3,000–5,000 men bands of Luba warriors, but many Belgian and Rhodesian mercenaries armed with a mix of light and heavy armament. They had air support from a Fouga Magister trainer jet, fitted with underwing bombs and machine guns. For the most part, the Irish UN soldiers were armed with only light personal weapons, a small number of water-cooled Vickers machine guns and 60mm mortars; the besieged Irish a number of days radioed to their headquarters: "We will hold out until our last bullet is spent.
Could do with some whiskey". The Katangese attacked in waves of 600 or so, preceded by bombardment from 81mm mortars and a French 75mm field gun; the Irish soldiers defended against successive waves of attackers from their positions. The Irish Support Platoon knocked out most of the Katangese mortar and artillery positions with accurate counter-battery fire from 60mm mortars. After withstanding four days of repeated attacks, the Irish fired on identified Katangese mortar and machine-gun positions with several hours of continuous and concentrated fire from their own mortars and machine guns; the fire from the UN Irish positions proved effective. Mercenary officers were observed shooting native gendarmes to stem the rout caused in Katangese lines; the Katangese asked Quinlan for a cease-fire, as their forces had been diminished. By this time their effective strength may have been reduced to 2,000 men. Quinlan agreed; the 500 Irish and Swedish UN troops based in Kamina, Indian army Gurkhas made several attempts to relieve the besieged Irish soldiers.
The supporting force of mercenaries, many of them French, German and South African veterans of the Algerian War to a man beat back these efforts. They had been brought in by Moise Tshombe, Katanga's premier, whose secessionist government had been supported by Belgium. A series of battles took, it carried the Jadotville-to-Elisabethville Highway across the Lufira River. The Katangese forces dug in here and brought heavy and sustained ground and air fire onto the relief column, killing several Indian UN troops, injuring a number of Irish UN troops and forcing the column off the bridge."A" Company, 35th Battalion, suffered five wounded in action during the six days of the siege. The Katangese, on the other hand, suffered heavy losses. Up to 300 were killed, including 30 mercenaries, an indeterminate number were wounded, with figures ranging from 300 to 1,000. Quinlan, had no access to resupply and reinforcements and, with his transport destroyed by the Fouga Magister jet, a breakout was impossible.
At one stage in the conflict a mission to bring in water by air was successful, but due to the use of contaminated containers the water was undrinkable. Quinlan lacked any clear direction or communication from his superiors, the Katangese infringed on
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Harper is an American publishing house the flagship imprint of global publisher HarperCollins. James Harper and his brother John, printers by training, started their book publishing business J. & J. Harper in 1817, their two brothers, Joseph Wesley Harper and Fletcher Harper, joined them in the mid-1820s. The company changed its name to "Harper & Brothers" in 1833; the headquarters of the publishing house were located at 331 Pearl Street, facing Franklin Square in Lower Manhattan. Harper & Brothers began publishing Harper's New Monthly Magazine in 1850; the brothers published Harper's Weekly, Harper's Bazar, Harper's Young People. George B. M. Harvey became president of Harper's on Nov. 16, 1899. Harper's New Monthly Magazine became Harper's Magazine, now published by the Harper's Magazine Foundation. Harper's Weekly was absorbed by The Independent in 1916, which in turn merged with The Outlook in 1928. Harper's Bazar was sold to William Randolph Hearst in 1913, became Harper's Bazaar, is now Bazaar, published by the Hearst Corporation.
In 1924, Cass Canfield joined Harper & Brothers and held a variety of executive positions until his death in 1986. In 1925, Eugene F. Saxton joined the company as an editor, he was responsible for publishing many well-known authors, including Edna St. Vincent Millay and Thornton Wilder. In 1935, Edward Aswell moved to Harper & Brothers as an assistant editor of general books and became editor-in-chief. Aswell persuaded Thomas Wolfe to leave Scribner's, after Wolfe's death, edited the posthumous novels The Web and the Rock, You Can't Go Home Again, The Hills Beyond. In 1962 Harper & Brothers merged with Row, Peterson & Company to become Harper & Row. Harper's religion publishing moved to San Francisco and became Harper San Francisco in 1977. Harper & Row acquired Thomas Y. Crowell Co. and J. B. Lippincott & Co. in the 1970s. Marshall Pickering was bought by Harper & Row in 1988. In 1988, Harper & Row purchased the religious publisher Zondervan. Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation acquired Harper & Row in 1987, William Collins, Sons in 1990.
The names of these two national publishing houses were combined to create HarperCollins, which has since expanded its international reach with further acquisitions of independent publishers. The Harper imprint began being used in place of HarperCollins in 2007. After the purchase of Harper & Row by News Corporation, HarperCollins launched a new mass market paperback line to complement its existing trade paperback Perennial imprint, it was known as Harper Paperbacks from 1990 to 2000, HarperTorch from 2000 to 2006, Harper from 2007 to the present. Harper & Row v. Nation Enterprises The Long Short Cut Brooks Thomas Books in the United States Jacob Abbott, The Harper Establishment, New York: Harper & Brothers, OCLC 6798043 Barnes, James J. "Edward Lytton Bulwer and the Publishing Firm of Harper & Brothers." American Literature: 35-48. In JSTOR D'Amato, Martina. "'The Harper Establishment'. Exman, Eugene; the brothers Harper: a unique publishing partnership and its impact upon the cultural life of America from 1817 to 1853 Eugene Exman, The House of Harper, NY: Harper & Row, OCLC 586430 J. Henry Harper, The House of Harper: a century of publishing in Franklin Square, New York: Harper Mellman, John A.
"The Harper Torchbooks Series: A History and Personal Assessment", publishinghistory.com. Harper & Brothers' List of Publications, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1859 Official website Official website The Harper Brothers Founders of Harper Brothers Publishing
United States Army Combined Arms Center
The U. S. Army Combined Arms Center is located at Fort Leavenworth and provides leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education. Components are: The Army University, created in 2015 and charged with directly integrating 70 separate U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command internal school programs under one university system while synchronizing instruction with more than 100 additional TRADOC institutions. Subcomponents include the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College Army University Press, which includes the former Combat Studies Institute and publishes Military Review, NCO Journal and the Journal of Military Learning. Combined Arms Center for Training Mission Command Training Program National Simulations Center)Mission Command Center of Excellence Battle Command Knowledge System U. S. Army Information Operations Proponent Current Force Integration Directorate TRADOC Program Integration Office-Battle Command Center for Army Lessons Learned Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate Center for Army LeadershipComponents are: U.
S. Army Warrant Officer Career College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is the oldest continuously operating Regular Army installation west of the Mississippi River; this historic post, noted for its campus setting, open green spaces and hometown character, is the home of the US Army's Combined Arms Center. CAC, as a major subordinate headquarters of the US Army Training and Doctrine Command, has been referred to as the "Intellectual Center of the Army", it is, in many regards, "home base" for the majority of field grade officers across the Army. Since 1882, CAC and its predecessor organizations have been engaged in the primary mission of preparing the Army and its leaders for war. At present, this mission is divided between preparing the Army for the Global War on Terrorism and transforming it to meet future threats. In order to accomplish these critical missions, CAC provides Army-wide leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education. All of these are focused toward making CAC a catalyst for change and to support the development of a relevant and ready ground force to support joint and multinational operations anywhere in the world.
The Combined Arms Center is organized along four basic levels: The commander exercises overall responsibility over assigned personnel and subordinate organizations to ensure that assigned missions are accomplished in the most efficient and effective manner possible. The Command Sergeant Major, by tradition, is responsible for the conduct and development of enlisted soldiers and non-commissioned officers across the command; the CAC Chief of Staff manages and oversees the activities of a coordinating staff and a special staff. The coordinating staff is focused on procedure development for the command. Major subordinate organizations carry out the majority of the functions assigned to the CAC commander. In general, each is resourced for and focused on a core function and one or more specified functions. Schools and specialized activities are spread across the country and are responsible for executing a portion of the CAC mission. In general, each of these organizations is responsible for the training of specific branch skills and serving as the Army's functional expert in that area.
In this regard, CAC is an integrator of specialized skills, on one hand, an executor of common skills, on the other. Since 1922, the center has published the bimonthly journal Military Review. Since 1976 commandant of the college has been a Lieutenant General. David Petraeus was a commandant before going to command the Multinational Force - Iraq. Lieutenant General James C. Riley from Jul 01 to Jun 03 Lieutenant General William S. Wallace from Jul 03 to Oct 05 Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus from Oct 05 to Feb 07 Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell IV from Jun 07 to Nov 09 Lieutenant General Robert L. Caslen, Jr. from Feb 10 to Sep 11 Lieutenant General David G. Perkins from Nov 11 to Feb 14 Lieutenant General Robert B. Brown from Feb 14 to Apr 16 Lieutenant General Michael Lundy from Apr 16 to present Command Sergeant Major Eric C. Dostie 2018-Present Command Sergeant Major David Turnbull 2014-2018 Command Sergeant Major Jeffrey W. Wright 2013-2014 Command Sergeant Major Christopher K. Greca 2011-2013 Command Sergeant Major Philip F. Johndrow 2008-2011 Command Sergeant Major David M. Bruner 2007-2008 Command Sergeant major Cory N. McCarty 2005-2007 Command Sergeant Major John D.
Sparks 2003-2005 Command Sergeant Major Cynthia A. Pritchett 1997-2003 Command Sergeant Major Edward D. Naylor 1993-1997 Command Sergeant Major L. H. Smith 1991-1993 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command U. S. Army Command and General Staff College U. S. Army Warrant Officer Career College Buffalo Soldier Center for the Army Profession and Ethic Combined Arms Center Official Website Com