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Operation Jericho

Operation Jericho was a low-level Second World War bombing raid on 18 February 1944, by Allied aircraft on Amiens Prison in German-occupied France. The objective of the raid was to political prisoners; the raid is remarkable for the precision and daring of the attack, filmed by a camera on one of the aeroplanes. There is debate as to whether it was necessary. Mosquito bombers succeeded in breaching the walls and buildings of the prison, as well as destroying guards' barracks. Of the 717 prisoners, 102 were killed, 74 wounded and 258 escaped, including 79 Resistance and political prisoners, although two-thirds of the escapees were recaptured. In 1943, many members of the French resistance movement in the Amiens area had been caught by the Germans and imprisoned in Amiens Prison; some had been betrayed by collaborators and the entire movement in the area was at risk. By December 1943, 12 members of the resistance had been executed at the prison and it was learned that more than 100 other members were to be shot on 19 February 1944.

Dominique Ponchardier began sending information about the prison to London, including details of the layout and duty rosters. When two Allied intelligence officers were captured and sent to Amiens prison, a precision air attack on the prison was requested and the mission was allocated to the 2nd Tactical Air Force; the prison was next to a long straight road and surrounded by high walls. The guards ate in a building adjacent to the main prison building, making lunch the best time to kill the maximum number of guards; the balance of munitions used had to be arranged so that when hitting the main prison walls, they were breached and the cell doors sprung open without the building being destroyed. As well as destroying the guards' mess hall, the outer walls had to be breached to allow the inmates to escape. There were around 700 inmates in the prison and loss of life was inevitable during an air raid but it was thought that many had been condemned to death and it would give a chance for some at least to escape.

No. 140 Wing of the RAF Second Tactical Air Force, based at RAF Hunsdon in Hertfordshire, was selected to carry out the raid using Mosquito FB Mk VIs. The Wing comprised 18 Mosquitos from No. 464 Squadron RAAF, No. 487 Squadron RNZAF and No. 21 Squadron RAF and was led by the Wing's commander, Group Captain Percy Charles Pickard. The Mosquitos of 487 Squadron were to breach the outer walls of the prison, while 464 Squadron was to bomb the guard's quarters and the mess hall. No. 21 Squadron was to breach the walls if the first two squadrons failed. The raid was to be was ready to go from 10 February. Close escort was to be provided by Hawker Typhoons from No. 198 Squadron RAF and No. 174 Squadron RAF. Embry was intended to command the attack but was forbidden from flying on the mission, as he was involved in the planning of the invasion of Europe. Pickard took his place, despite his limited experience of low-level attack; the mission was delayed by poor weather, which worsened after 10 February, with low cloud and snow across Europe.

By 18 February, it was not possible to wait any longer and the 18 Mosquitos, plus a PR Mosquito, were prepared. The crews were briefed at 08:00 under high security, the first time they had been made aware of the target. Pickard, in "F" for Freddie, was to bring up the rear of the second wave of aircraft, to assess the damage and to call in 21 Squadron if necessary. In the event of anything happening to Pickard's aircraft, the crew of the PR Mosquito would broadcast the signal instead; the final decision to carry out the attack was made two hours before the deadline for striking the target and the Mosquitos took off from Hunsdon, into weather worse than many of the crews had experienced. Four Mosquitos lost contact with the formation and had to return to base and one had to turn back due to engine trouble, leaving nine to carry out the main attack with four in reserve. At one minute past noon they reached the target, three of the 487 Squadron aircraft aiming for the eastern and northern walls of the prison, with bombs fitted with eleven-second delayed-action fuses, while the other two made a diversion attack on the local railway station, before returning to the prison.

The outer walls were breached but the 464 Squadron Mosquitos were too close behind and had to circle while the bombs detonated. The eastern wall appeared un-breached at 12:06, when two aircraft from 464 Squadron attacked it from an altitude of 50 feet, with eight 500 lb bombs but observers did not see any damage to the prison. Two Mosquitos from 464 Squadron bombed the main building from 100 feet with eight 500 lb bombs. A direct hit on the guardhouse killed or disabled the occupants and a number of prisoners were killed or wounded, while many were able to escape. Pickard, circling at 500 ft, saw prisoners escape and signalled the No. 21 Squadron Mosquitos to return home. As he turned for home, hits from a Fw 190 fighter of JG 26 severed the tail of his Mosquito and the crash killed him and his navigator. A total of 255 prisoners escaped; the diversion attack on the railway station delayed German reinforcements, sent to recapture the escapees, by two hours. The circumstances involving the request and the true purpose of the mission have remained a secret.

While it has been believed that the request came from the French resistance, which had members in the prison scheduled to be executed, a post-war investigation by the RAF revealed that resistance leaders were not aware of the raid until the RAF requested a detailed description of th

Lou Roe

Louis Marquel Roe is an American former professional basketball player. Roe played collegiate basketball at the University of Massachusetts, with the Minutemen, where in 1995, he was the Atlantic 10 Player of the Year, a consensus Second Team All-American. Roe was selected in the 2nd round of the 1995 NBA Draft. Roe played in two NBA seasons with the Pistons and Golden State Warriors. In his brief NBA career, he appeared in 66 games, scored a total of 130 points. After his NBA career wound up, Roe played professionally in the CBA, South Korea, Italy and Argentina. Roe was working with the men's basketball team at the University of Massachusetts, in an administrative role, assisting his former UMass teammate and former head coach, Derek Kellogg. Lou Roe is an undergraduate student at the University of Massachusetts Amherst through the University Without Walls program. Spanish League MVP: 2× Spanish League Top Scorer: Spanish League Profile Italian League Profile UMass College Bio

Timeline of Niamey

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Niamey, Niger. 1902 Village designated seat of administrative cercle of Djerma. French school opens. 1922 - Administrative cercle of Niamey created. 1926 - Seat of French colonial Colonie du Niger relocated to Niamey from Zinder "in order to facilitate trade with other French colonies along the Niger River." 1931 - Jules Brevie Hospital established. 1932 - Catholic church built. 1937 - "Urban Development Plan" created. 1942 - Roman Catholic diocese of Niamey established. 1953 Le Niger newspaper begins publication. Archives Nationales du Niger headquartered in Niamey. 1956 - Djibo Bakary becomes mayor. 1958 - Radio Niger begins broadcasting. 1959 December: Musée National du Niger opens. 1960 - City becomes part of newly independent Republic of Niger. 1961 - Le Temps du Niger newspaper begins publication. 1962 Lycée La Fontaine established. Population: 40,000. 1964 - Télé Sahel begins broadcasting. 1965 13 April: President Diori attacked. Centre Culturel Franco-Nigérien inaugurated.

1967 - Office of Radio and Television of Niger headquartered in Niamey. 1968 - Société des Mines de l'Air headquartered in city. 1970s - Grand Mosque of Niamey built. 1970 Kennedy Bridge opens. Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique headquartered in city. 1971 - Centre d'Enseignement Superieur founded. 1972 - Airport opens. 1973 University of Niamey active. Tillabéri-Niamey road constructed. 1974 Le Sahel and Sahel Dimanche newspapers in publication. Olympic FC de Niamey formed. Telephone ministry headquarters built. 1977 - Population: 225,314. 1982 30 March: Central Market burns down. Niamey Literacy Center built. American International School of Niamey built. 1984 - Urban development plan created. 1985 - Court of Appeals building constructed. 1986 - Niamey Grand Market built. 1988 - Population: 397,437. 1989 City becomes the "Niamey Urban Community," containing administrative Commune I, Commune II, Commune III. Stade Général-Seyni-Kountché opens. 1990 - February: Student economic protest. 1991 - Le Républicain newspaper begins publication.

1996 27 January: 1996 Nigerien coup d'état occurs. Sociéte Nigerienne de Transports de Voyageurs headquartered in city. 1997 - United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Subregional Development Centre for West Africa headquartered in Niamey. 1998 - Nigerien hip hop musical style develops in Niamey. 1999 - 9 April: President Maïnassara assassinated. 2001 - Population: 707,951. 2002 August: Military mutiny. Administration of Niamey Urban Community reorganized into Commune I, Commune II, Commune III, Commune IV, Commune V. 2005 - 2005 Jeux de la Francophonie sport/cultural event held in Niamey. 2006 June: 2006 Abdou Moumouni University protests. Areva NC Niger headquartered in city. 2007 - Dounia TV begins broadcasting. 2009 - Population: 943,055. 2010 18 February: 2010 Nigerien coup d'état occurs. August: 2010 West African floods. 2011 Oumarou Dogari Moumouni becomes mayor of the Niamey Urban Community. Kandadji Dam construction begins 180 km from Niamey. 2012 August: Flood. Population: 1,026,848. 2013 United States military drone base begins operating at airport.

December: Economic protest. Assane Seydou becomes mayor of the Niamey Urban Community. 2014 - Niamey railway station opens. 2015 - 17–18 January: Protest against Parisian satirical publication Charlie Hebdo issue No. 1178. 2017 - August: Flood. Niamey history Urbanization in Niger This article incorporates information from the French Wikipedia and German Wikipedia. "". Directory of Open Access Journals. UK. "" – via Europeana. "" – via Digital Public Library of America. "". Internet Library Sub-Saharan Africa. Germany: Frankfurt University Library. "". Connecting-Africa. Leiden, Netherlands: African Studies Centre. "". AfricaBib.org. Christian Zimmermann. "". Research Papers in Economics. St. Louis, US: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Index to scientific research related to Niamey, via Institut de recherche pour le développement of France, Centre de documentation de Niamey "Niamey, Niger". BlackPast.org. US

Peromyscus nesodytes

The giant island deer mouse became extinct 8000 years BP and lived during the late Pleistocene on California’s Channel Islands. In 1934, Robert W. Wilson designated P. nesodytes as a new species after discovering a mouse bone. He writes, “The outstanding character of P. nesodytes is its large size, greater than any living species of Peromyscus native to the United States.” The only larger mice known are the extant mice of the genus Megadontomys, which are found in Mexico and Central America. The mouse “generally considered ancestral to P. nesodytes” is Peromyscus anyapahensis. P. anyapahensis is extinct, it is smaller in body size than P. nesodytes. The engrossed size of P. nesodytes follows Foster's rule of insular gigantism and dwarfism in which some rodents become enlarged because of their inhabitation of islands lacking a multitude of predators. Foster’s rule helps to explain the diminished sizes of the extinct pygmy mammoth and the critically endangered island fox of the Channel Islands.

The habitat of P. nesodytes was located on the northern California Channel Islands. Remains of P. nesodytes have been found on Santa Rosa Island, California. The northern Channel Islands were once connected as a “super-island” called Santa Rosae, but increased sea levels have separated the islands for thousands of years. P. nesodytes became extinct because of the accidental introduction of a smaller mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, by the Chumash people who lived in the Santa Barbara area. The Chumash traded on the northern Channel Islands and could have been unknowing transporters of P. maniculatus to the islands. Phillip Walker notes, “Considering the nesting and feeding opportunities provided by the plant foods traded to the islands, it is possible that Peromyscus crossed the Santa Barbara Channel secreted in baskets of cargo.”P. maniculatus fared better in avoiding the most frequent mouse predator on the islands, the barn owl, than P. nesodytes. A possible example of this is shown in an archaeological site on Daisy Cave.

Daniel Guthrie writes, "The smaller numbers of P. maniculatus from the lower levels of Daisy Cave may be due to preference by owls for the larger mouse species, on the island at the time." For behavior and information on deer mice in general, see the Wikipedia entries for Peromyscus and Peromyscus maniculatus

Iván Cruz

Luis Iván Cruz is a former professional baseball first baseman and past coach for the GCL Braves in 2018 He played during four seasons at the major league level for the New York Yankees, Pittsburgh Pirates, St. Louis Cardinals, he was drafted by the Detroit Tigers in the 28th round of the 1989 amateur draft. Cruz played his first professional season with their Class-A Niagara Falls Rapids in 1989, his last with the Chunichi Dragons of Japan's Central League in 2003, he played his last affiliated season with St. Louis and their Triple-A Memphis Redbirds in 2002, in which he won the Joe Bauman Home Run Award. In 2008, he entered his first of two seasons as manager of the U. S. Military All-Stars/Heroes of the Diamond and the Latin Stars "Red and Blue Tour" posting consecutive winning seasons. Under Cruz's tutelage, over 25 players were offered professional contracts. In 2010, he made his affiliated debut as the manager of the Peoria Padres, the Rookie Short Season A-ball affiliate of the San Diego Padres.

Cruz was named as a coach for the GCL Braves in the Atlanta Braves organization for the 2018 season. Cruz resides in St. Augustine, with his girlfriend and her daughter. List of Major League Baseball players from Puerto Rico Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

STANAG 4427 on CM

STANAG 4427 on Configuration Management in System Life Cycle Management is the Standardization Agreement of NATO nations on how to do configuration management on defense systems. The STANAG, its supporting NATO publications, provides guidance on managing the configuration of products and services, it is unique in its full life cycle perspective, requiring a Life Cycle CM Plan, in its approach to contracting for CM, using an ISO standard as the base, building-up additional requirements. STANAG 4427 is NATO's agreement on. Edition 1 was promulgated in 1997 and updated with Edition 2 in 2007; the first iteration of the Standardization Agreement was entitled Introduction of Allied Configuration Management Publications, it called on ratifying nations to use seven NATO publications as the agreed upon contractual clauses for configuration management. In 2010, NATO undertook to review and revise the STANAGs and ACMPs with two major assignments: make the NATO guidance useful and extend the guidance through the full project life cycle.

This work resulted in the promulgation of STANAG 4427 Edition 3, Configuration Management in System Life Cycle Management, in 2014. As of 2017, it has been ratified by 19 nations. With Edition 3, NATO published three new ACMPs: Policy on Configuration Management; this trio of publications uses a civil standard as the platform, requires the acquirer to prepare and maintain a Life Cycle CM Plan for the system, to use a combination of governance and insight, required to achieve the specific system objectives, to build-up contractual requirements based on defined needs, rather than boilerplates. NATO publications covered by STANAG 4427 Edition 3 ACMP-2000 Ed. A Ver. 2 – Policy on Configuration Management Promulgated ACMP-2009 Ed. A Ver. 2 – Guidance on Configuration Management Promulgated ACMP-2100 Ed. A Ver. 2 – Configuration Management Contractual Requirements ACMP-2009-SRD-10 Ed. A Ver. 1 – Nato CM Training Package Promulgated ACMP-2009-SRD-40 Ed. A Ver. 1 – Predefined Levels of CM Requirement Build-Up ACMP-2009-SRD-41 Ed.

A Ver. 2 – Examples of CM Plan Requirements ACMP-2009-SRD-51 Ed. A Ver. 1 – Nci Agency CM Tools Promulgated SRD-2009-49 Ed. A Ver. 1 – NATO-UU Configuration Management Contract Scoping Tool Copies of NATO Configuration Management publications are available, for free, at the NATO Standardization Office web sites below, or at this site: http://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/_CommonList.html http://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/stanagdetails.html?idCover=8517&LA=EN Configuration management Defense Standardization Program Journal, October/December 2011, NATO Revises Configuration Management Guidelines http://www.dsp.dla.mil/Portals/26/Documents/Publications/Journal/111001-DSPJ.pdf