Fritz Karl Preikschat
Fritz Karl Preikschat was a German American and telecommunications engineer and inventor. He had more than three German patents and more than 23 U. S. patents, including a dot matrix teletypewriter, a blind-landing system for airports, a phased array system for satellite communications, a hybrid car system, a scanning laser diode microscope for particle analysis. In 1934, he graduated from Hindenburg Polytechnic in Oldenburg, Germany with a degree in "Elektrotechnik", he served in a minesweeper unit of Kriegsmarine. From 1940–1945, he worked as an engineer and lab manager in the radar group of GEMA. At the end of WW2, his family fled to Dresden and survived the Bombing of Dresden in World War II, his family resettled as refugees in the Bavarian town of Amberg. In 1946, he was one of the more than two thousand German specialists forcibly brought to the Soviet Union under Operation Osoaviakhim, he was one of the more than 170 German specialists – headed by Helmut Gröttrup - brought to Branch 1 of NII-88 on Gorodomlya Island in Lake Seliger.
From 1946–1952, he was an engineer and head of the high frequency lab, working on a guidance system, among other things, for the early Soviet rocket program. He worked on a design for a 6-dish deep-space tracking station for the early Soviet space program. In 1960, the Soviet Union implemented the full 8-dish deep-space tracking station called Pluton in the Crimea. In June 1952, he was returned to East Germany; the Berlin Wall had not yet been constructed, so he was able to cross the border via the Berlin U-Bahn from East Berlin, East Germany, to West Berlin. He met an American MP, who put him in a safe house where he spent two months getting debriefed by the U. S. Army on the Soviet Union's rocket program, he was interviewed over several months by Reinhard Gehlen. He published a 114-page report for the Army on the Soviet Union's "Microwave-based Control System for Long-Distance Rockets". In September 1952, he was flown from West Berlin to Frankfurt, West Germany, where he was reunited with his family ending a difficult, six-year separation.
In 1952–1954, he filed five patent applications for a dot matrix teletypewriter granted in 1957. In April 1953, he was hired by Telefonbau und Normalzeit GmbH. In 1956, TuN introduced the device to the Deutsche Bundespost. In his final contract with TuN, he sold the five patent applications to TuN for 12,000 Deutsche Marks and 50% of the device's net future profits. Photos and working papers of the dot matrix teletypewriter prototype were submitted to his first U. S. employer, General Mills, in 1957. A set of working papers for the dot matrix teletypewriter were published in 1961. At Boeing in 1966–1967, the dot matrix teletypewriter design was the basis for a portable facsimile machine, prototyped and evaluated for military use by teams at Boeing, including sales. On June 28, 1957, he emigrated to the United States via Operation Paperclip, sponsored by an Army contract with General Mills; the contract was cancelled shortly afterwards, so he hired on as principal scientist at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, where he worked on satellite transponder communications.
He became a U. S. citizen in 1962. From 1959–1970, he worked as lead engineer in the Space Division of Boeing, he had a stint in the Military Products Group at Honeywell. In 1965, while at Boeing, he invented a blind-landing system for airports, it was an automated blind-landing system and featured a 3D-display showing the virtual landing strip overlaid on the actual visual display. The system was not implemented. In 1971, while lead engineer in the telecommunications group of the space division of Boeing in Kent, Washington, he, along with Orral Ritchey and John Nitardy, invented a phased array system for satellite communications; the patent was assigned to Boeing and a technical paper was written. The invention won Boeing's Technical Paper Award for 1970. In 1968 -- 1974, he invented a new moisture meter for paper mills, he co-founded F. P. Research Lab to commercialize the moisture meter. In 1979, F. P. Research Lab was acquired by BTG AB, a technology company serving the global pulp and paper industry.
In 1982, he invented an electric propulsion and braking system for cars. The system allows for significant improvement of fuel efficiency by recycling energy from the car's braking system. While not the only patent relating to the hybrid electric vehicle, the patent was important based on more than 120 subsequent patents directly citing it; the system was only patented in the U. S. and not commercialized. In 1997, with the introduction of the Prius in Japan, Toyota was one of the first companies to commercialize a hybrid electric vehicle. In July 2000 - the same month the patent expired - Toyota introduced the Prius globally; the Prius became America's best selling hybrid electric car. In 1989, he, with son Ekhard Preikschat, invented a scanning laser diode microscope for particle-size analysis, he and Ekhard Preikschat co-founded Lasentec to co
The V-2, technical name Aggregat 4, was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile. The missile, powered by a liquid-propellant rocket engine, was developed during the Second World War in Germany as a "vengeance weapon", assigned to attack Allied cities as retaliation for the Allied bombings against German cities; the V-2 rocket became the first man-made object to travel into space by crossing the Kármán line with the vertical launch of MW 18014 on 20 June 1944. Research into military use of long range rockets began when the studies of graduate student Wernher von Braun attracted the attention of the German Army. A series of prototypes culminated in the A-4, which went to war as the V-2. Beginning in September 1944, over 3,000 V-2s were launched by the German Wehrmacht against Allied targets, first London and Antwerp and Liège. According to a 2011 BBC documentary, the attacks from V-2s resulted in the deaths of an estimated 9,000 civilians and military personnel, a further 12,000 forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners died as a result of their forced participation in the production of the weapons.
As Germany collapsed, teams from the Allied forces—the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union—raced to capture key German manufacturing sites and technology. Wernher von Braun and over 100 key V-2 personnel surrendered to the Americans. Many of the original V-2 team ended up working at the Redstone Arsenal; the US captured enough V-2 hardware to build 80 of the missiles. The Soviets gained possession of the V-2 manufacturing facilities after the war, re-established V-2 production, moved it to the Soviet Union. In the late 1920s, a young Wernher von Braun bought a copy of Hermann Oberth's book, Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen. Starting in 1930, he attended the Technical University of Berlin, where he assisted Oberth in liquid-fueled rocket motor tests. Von Braun was working on his doctorate. An artillery captain, Walter Dornberger, arranged an Ordnance Department research grant for von Braun, who from on worked next to Dornberger's existing solid-fuel rocket test site at Kummersdorf.
Von Braun's thesis, Construction and Experimental Solution to the Problem of the Liquid Propellant Rocket, was kept classified by the German Army and was not published until 1960. By the end of 1934, his group had launched two rockets that reached heights of 2.2 and 3.5 km. At the time, Germany was interested in American physicist Robert H. Goddard's research. Before 1939, German engineers and scientists contacted Goddard directly with technical questions. Von Braun used Goddard's plans from various journals and incorporated them into the building of the Aggregat series of rockets, named for the German word for mechanism or mechanical system. Following successes at Kummersdorf with the first two Aggregate series rockets, Wernher von Braun and Walter Riedel began thinking of a much larger rocket in the summer of 1936, based on a projected 25,000 kg thrust engine. After the A-4 project was postponed due to unfavourable aerodynamic stability testing of the A-3 in July 1936, von Braun specified the A-4 performance in 1937, after an "extensive series of test firings of the A-5" scale test model, using a motor redesigned from the troublesome A-3 by Walter Thiel, A-4 design and construction was ordered c.
1938/39. During 28–30 September 1939, Der Tag der Weisheit conference met at Peenemünde to initiate the funding of university research to solve rocket problems. By late 1941, the Army Research Center at Peenemünde possessed the technologies essential to the success of the A-4; the four key technologies for the A-4 were large liquid-fuel rocket engines, supersonic aerodynamics, gyroscopic guidance and rudders in jet control. At the time, Adolf Hitler was not impressed by the V-2. In early September 1943, von Braun promised the Long-Range Bombardment Commission that the A-4 development was "practically complete/concluded," but by the middle of 1944, a complete A-4 parts list was still unavailable. Hitler was sufficiently impressed by the enthusiasm of its developers, needed a "wonder weapon" to maintain German morale, so he authorized its deployment in large numbers; the V-2s were constructed at the Mittelwerk site by prisoners from Mittelbau-Dora, a concentration camp where 12,000-20,000 prisoners died during the war.
The A-4 used a 74 % ethanol/water mixture for liquid oxygen for oxidizer. At launch the A-4 propelled itself for up to 65 seconds on its own power, a program motor controlled the pitch to the specified angle at engine shutdown, after which the rocket continued on a ballistic free-fall trajectory; the rocket reached a height of 80 km after shutting off the engine. The fuel and oxidizer pumps were driven by a steam turbine, the steam was produced by concentrated hydrogen peroxide with sodium permanganate catalyst. Both the alcohol and oxygen tanks were an aluminium-magnesium alloy; the combustion burner reached a temperature of 2,500 to 2,700 °C. The alcohol-water fuel was pumped along the double wall of the main combustion burner; this cooled the combustion chamber. The fuel was pumped into the main burner chamber through 1,224 nozzles, which assured the correct mixture of alcohol and oxygen at all times. Small holes permitted some alcohol to escape directly into the combustion chamber, forming a cooled boundary layer tha
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of Russian SFSR, the agency was tasked with conducting regular police work and overseeing the country's prisons and labor camps, it was disbanded in 1930, with its functions being dispersed among other agencies, only to be reinstated as an all-union ministry in 1934. The functions of the OGPU were transferred to the NKVD in 1934, giving it a monopoly over law enforcement activities that lasted until the end of World War II. During this period, the NKVD included both ordinary public order activities, as well as secret police activities; the NKVD is known for its role in political repression and for carrying out the Great Purge under Joseph Stalin. It was led by Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria; the NKVD undertook mass extrajudicial executions of untold numbers of citizens, conceived and administered the Gulag system of forced labour camps. Their agents were responsible for the repression of the wealthier peasantry, as well as the mass deportations of entire nationalities to uninhabited regions of the country.
They oversaw the protection of Soviet borders and espionage, enforced Soviet policy in communist movements and puppet governments in other countries, most notably the repression and massacres in Poland. In March 1946 all People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries, the NKVD became the Ministry of Internal Affairs. After the Russian February Revolution of 1917, the Provisional Government dissolved the Tsarist police and set up the People's Militsiya; the subsequent Russian October Revolution of 1917 saw a seizure of state power led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who established a new Bolshevik regime, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. The Provisional Government's Ministry of Internal Affairs under Georgy Lvov and under Nikolai Avksentiev and Alexei Nikitin, turned into NKVD under a People's Commissar. However, the NKVD apparatus was overwhelmed by duties inherited from MVD, such as the supervision of the local governments and firefighting, the Workers' and Peasants' Militsiya staffed by proletarians was inexperienced and unqualified.
Realizing that it was left with no capable security force, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR established a secret political police, the Cheka, led by Felix Dzerzhinsky. It gained the right to undertake quick non-judicial trials and executions, if, deemed necessary in order to "protect the Russian Socialist-Communist revolution"; the Cheka was reorganized in 1922 as the State Political Directorate, or GPU, of the NKVD of the RSFSR. In 1922 the USSR formed, with the RSFSR as its largest member; the GPU became the OGPU, under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. The NKVD of the RSFSR retained control of the militsiya, various other responsibilities. In 1934 the NKVD of the RSFSR was transformed into an all-union security force, the NKVD, the OGPU was incorporated into the NKVD as the Main Directorate for State Security; as a result, the NKVD took over control of all detention facilities as well as the regular police. At various times, the NKVD had the following Chief Directorates, abbreviated as "ГУ"– Главное управление, Glavnoye upravleniye.
ГУГБ – государственной безопасности, of State Security ГУРКМ– рабоче-крестьянской милиции, of Workers and Peasants Militsiya ГУПВО– пограничной и внутренней охраны, of Border and Internal Guards ГУПО– пожарной охраны, of Firefighting Services ГУШосДор– шоссейных дорог, of Highways ГУЖД– железных дорог, of Railways ГУЛаг– Главное управление исправительно-трудовых лагерей и колоний, ГЭУ – экономическое, of Economics ГТУ – транспортное, of Transport ГУВПИ – военнопленных и интернированных, of POWs and interned persons Until the reorganization begun by Nikolai Yezhov with a purge of the regional political police in the autumn of 1936 and formalized by a May 1939 directive of the All-Union NKVD by which all appointments to the local political police were controlled from the center, there was frequent tension between centralized control of local units and the collusion of those units with local and regional party elements resulting in the thwarting of Moscow's plans. Following its establishment in 1934, the NKVD underwent many organizational changes.
During Yezhov's time in office, the Great Purge reached its height from the years 1937 and 1938 alone, at least 1.3 million were arrested and 681,692 were executed for'crimes against the state'. The Gulag population swelled by 685,201 under Yezhov, nearly tripling in size in just two years, with
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were taken from Germany to America for U. S. government employment between 1945 and 1959. Many were former members, some were former leaders, of the Nazi Party; the primary purpose for Operation Paperclip was U. S. military advantage in the Soviet–American Cold War, the Space Race. The Soviet Union was more aggressive in forcibly recruiting more than 2,200 German specialists—a total of more than 6,000 people including family members—with Operation Osoaviakhim during one night on October 22, 1946; the Joint Chiefs of Staff established the first secret recruitment program, called Operation Overcast, on July 20, 1945 "to assist in shortening the Japanese war and to aid our postwar military research". The term "Overcast" was the name first given by the German scientists' family members for the housing camp where they were held in Bavaria.
In late summer 1945, the JCS established the JIOA, a subcommittee of the Joint Intelligence Community, to directly oversee Operation Overcast and Operation Paperclip. The JIOA representatives included the army's director of intelligence, the chief of naval intelligence, the assistant chief of Air Staff-2, a representative from the State Department. In November 1945, Operation Overcast was renamed Operation Paperclip by Ordnance Corps officers, who would attach a paperclip to the folders of those rocket experts whom they wished to employ in America. In a secret directive circulated on September 3, 1946, President Truman approved Operation Paperclip and expanded it to include one thousand German scientists under "temporary, limited military custody". In the part of World War II, Nazi Germany found itself at a logistical disadvantage, having failed to conquer the USSR with Operation Barbarossa, the Siege of Leningrad, Operation Nordlicht, the Battle of Stalingrad; the failed conquest had depleted German resources, its military-industrial complex was unprepared to defend the Großdeutsches Reich against the Red Army's westward counterattack.
By early 1943, the German government began recalling from combat a number of scientists and technicians. The recall from frontline combat included 4,000 rocketeers returned to Peenemünde, in northeast coastal Germany. Overnight, Ph. D.s were liberated from KP duty, masters of science were recalled from orderly service, mathematicians were hauled out of bakeries, precision mechanics ceased to be truck drivers. The Nazi government's recall of their now-useful intellectuals for scientific work first required identifying and locating the scientists and technicians ascertaining their political and ideological reliability. Werner Osenberg, the engineer-scientist heading the Wehrforschungsgemeinschaft, recorded the names of the politically cleared men to the Osenberg List, thus reinstating them to scientific work. In March 1945, at Bonn University, a Polish laboratory technician found pieces of the Osenberg List stuffed in a toilet. S. Intelligence. U. S. Army Major Robert B. Staver, Chief of the Jet Propulsion Section of the Research and Intelligence Branch of the U.
S. Army Ordnance Corps, used the Osenberg List to compile his list of German scientists to be captured and interrogated. In Operation Overcast, Major Staver's original intent was only to interview the scientists, but what he learned changed the operation's purpose. On May 22, 1945, he transmitted to the U. S. Pentagon headquarters Colonel Joel Holmes's telegram urging the evacuation of German scientists and their families, as most "important for Pacific war" effort. Most of the Osenberg List engineers worked at the Baltic coast German Army Research Center Peenemünde, developing the V-2 rocket. After capturing them, the Allies housed them and their families in Landshut, Bavaria, in southern Germany. Beginning on July 19, 1945, the U. S. JCS managed the captured ARC rocketeers under Operation Overcast. However, when the "Camp Overcast" name of the scientists' quarters became locally known, the program was renamed Operation Paperclip in November 1945. Despite these attempts at secrecy that year the press interviewed several of the scientists.
Early on, the United States created the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee. This provided the information on targets for the T-Forces that went in and targeted scientific and industrial installations for their know-how. Initial priorities were advanced technology, such as infrared, that could be used in the war against Japan. A project to halt the research was codenamed "Project Safehaven", it was not targeted against the Soviet Union. In order to avoid the complications involved with the emigration of German scientists, the CIOS was responsible for scouting and kidnapping high-profile individuals for the deprivation of technological advancements in na
State Security General Ivan Alexandrovich Serov was a prominent leader of Soviet security and intelligence agencies, head of the KGB between March 1954 and December 1958, as well as head of the GRU between 1958 and 1963. He was Deputy Commissar of the NKVD under Lavrentiy Beria, played a major role in the political intrigues after Joseph Stalin's death. Serov helped establish a variety of secret police forces in Central and Eastern Europe after the lowering of the Iron Curtain, played an important role in crushing the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Serov headed both the political intelligence agency and the military intelligence agency, making him unique in Soviet/Russian history. Inside the Soviet security forces, Serov was known for boasting to his colleagues that he could "break every bone in a man's body without killing him". Serov was born on 13 August 1905, in Afimskoe, a village in the Vologda Governorate of the Russian Empire, in a family of Russian ethnicity. Major changes in Russia occurred during his childhood, culminating in the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917.
In 1923, when he was 18, he joined the Red Army shortly after the end of the Russian Civil War. A major step in his career as a Red Army officer was the attendance in the mid-1930s of Higher Academic Courses in the prestigious Frunze Military Academy. In 1939, Serov entered the People's Commissariat in a major capacity. Serov became the Ukrainian Commissar of the NKVD in 1939, from this point onwards he played a major role in many of the actions of the Soviet secret police in World War II, helping to organize the deportation of the Chechens and people from the Baltic States, becoming Beria's primary lieutenant in 1941. Serov was the Ukrainian commissar of the NKVD from 1939 to 1941. Time magazine has accused him of being responsible for the death of "hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian peasants" during this period. Serov was a colleague in Ukraine of Nikita Khrushchev, the local Head of State, who himself was nicknamed the "Butcher of the Ukraine"; as well as performing his duties in this post, Serov was responsible for the co-ordination of deportation from the Baltic States and Poland.
He was one of the top ranked officials responsible for the Katyn massacre of Polish officer POWs. In 1941, Serov was promoted to become Deputy Commissar of the NKVD as a whole, serving under Beria as one of his primary lieutenants, he issued the so-called Serov Instructions, which detailed procedures for mass deportations from the Baltic States. He coordinated the mass expulsion of Crimean Tatars from the Crimean ASSR at the end of World War II. Viktor Suvorov claims that in 1946, Serov took part in the execution of Andrey Vlasov, along with the rest of the command of the Russian Liberation Army, an organization that had co-operated with the Nazis in World War II. Serov was one of the senior figures in SMERSH, the wartime counterintelligence department of the Red Army, Navy and NKVD troops, a deputy to Viktor Abakumov, it was in this function that Serov established the Polish Ministry of Public Security, the Polish secret police until 1956, acting as its main Soviet adviser and organizer. Serov organized the persecution of the Armia Krajowa as Deputy Commissar, helping to bring about the Stalinist era of Polish history.
In 1945, Serov went to Berlin in May that year. He stayed there until 1947 and helped to organise the building of the Stasi, the East German secret police. After the death of Stalin, who had Beria's trust, betrayed him, he conspired with the officers of GRU against Beria to avoid his own downfall. Serov was one of the few senior members of the political police to survive the incident. In 1954, Serov became Chairman of the KGB and so was the head of the greater part of the Soviet secret police. Serov organized security for the tours of Nikolai Bulganin and Nikita Khrushchev in Britain and he was decried by the British media as "Ivan the Terrible" and "the Butcher". Serov played a key role in the Hungarian crisis, sending reports to the Kremlin from Budapest, escorting visiting Soviet Presidium leaders Anastas Mikoyan and Mikhail Suslov via an armoured personnel carrier into Budapest on 24 October, as there was too much shooting in the streets. In 1956, the Hungarian Revolution overthrew the incumbent Communist Hungarian government, in response, János Kádár formed a new government, more loyal to Moscow, which received little popular support.
Serov was responsible for arresting the supporters of Imre Nagy who were trying to negotiate with Soviet military officials. Serov organized deportations of one being Nagy. Serov co-ordinated the abduction of Pál Maléter, the Hungarian general, the disruption of peace talks between the Red Army and the Hungarian forces. Serov was removed from his post as head of the KGB in 1958 after hints by Nikita Khrushchev, who had said that Western visitors could expect that they "wouldn't see so many policemen around the place" and that the Soviet police force would undergo a restructuring. Serov became the director of the GRU. In the GRU, he was a player in the Cuban Missile Crisis, helping the Soviet leadership with American intelligence. After the failure of the Soviet Union to gain the upper hand in the crisis, Serov was dismissed. In 1965, he was stripped of his Party membership. Serov died in 1990, the year before
Allied Control Council
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and referred to as the Four Powers, was the governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany and Austria after the end of World War II in Europe. The members were the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom, France; the organization was based in Berlin-Schöneberg. The council was convened to determine several plans for postwar Europe, including how to change borders and transfer populations in Eastern Europe and Germany; as the four Allied Powers had joined themselves into a condominium asserting'supreme' power in Germany, the Allied Control Council was constituted the sole legal sovereign authority for Germany as a whole, replacing the extinct civil government of Nazi Germany. Allied preparations for the postwar occupation of Germany began during the second half of 1944, after Allied forces began entering Germany in September 1944. Most of the planning was carried out by the European Advisory Commission established in early 1944.
By 3 January 1944, the Working Security Committee in the EAC concluded that It is recognized that, in view of the chaotic conditions to be anticipated in Germany, whether a capitulation occurs before invasion or after invasion and consequent establishment of military government, an initial period of military government in Germany is inevitable and should be provided for. The EAC recommended the creation of a tripartite US, British agency to conduct German affairs following the surrender of the Third Reich; the British representative at the EAC, Sir William Strang, was undecided on whether a partial occupation of Germany by Allied troops was the most desirable course of action. At the first EAC meeting on January 14, 1944, Strang proposed alternatives that favored the total occupation of Germany, similar to the situation following the First World War when Allied rule was established over the Rhineland. Strang believed that a full occupation would limit the reliance on former Nazis to maintain order within Germany.
He believed that it would make the lessons of defeat more visible to the German population and would enable the Allied governments to carry out punitive policies in Germany, such as transferring territories to Poland. The main arguments against total occupation were that it would create an untold burden on Allied economies and prolong the suffering of the German population driving new revanchist ideologies. However, his final conclusion was that a total occupation would be most beneficial, at least during the initial phase. In August 1944, the US government established the United States Group to the Control Council for Germany, which served as a liaison group within the EAC for planning the future occupation of Germany; the chairman of this group was Brig. Gen. Cornelius Wendell Wickersham; as the German collapse approached, Strang became convinced that Germany was about to undergo a total collapse, in which case a total occupation and control would be inevitable. He proposed a draft declaration to be issued by the Allied governments in case no political authority remained in Germany due to chaotic conditions.
For a brief period, this prospect was feared by some Allied representatives. After the death of Adolf Hitler on 30 April 1945, Karl Dönitz assumed the title of president of Germany in accordance with Hitler's last political testament; as such, he authorised the signing of the unconditional surrender of all German armed forces, which took effect on 8 May 1945, tried to establish a government under Ludwig Graf Schwerin von Krosigk in Flensburg. This government was not recognised by the Allies, Dönitz and the other members were arrested on 23 May by British forces; the German Instrument of Surrender signed in Berlin had been drafted by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force and was modeled on the one used a few days for the surrender of the German forces in Italy. They did not use the one, drafted for the surrender of Germany by the "European Advisory Commission"; this created a legal problem for the Allies, because although the German military forces had surrendered unconditionally, no counterpart civilian German government had been included in the surrender.
This was considered a important issue, inasmuch as Hitler had used the surrender of the civilian government, but not of the military, in 1918, to create the "stab in the back" argument. The Allies understandably did not want to give any future hostile German regime any kind of legal argument to resurrect an old quarrel, and determined not to accord any recognition to the Flensburg administration, they agreed to sign a four-power declaration of the terms of the German surrender instead. On 5 June 1945, in Berlin, the supreme commanders of the four occupying powers signed a common Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany, which formally confirmed the total dissolution of the Third Reich at the death of Adolf Hitler, the consequent termination of any German governance over the nation: The Governments of the United States of America, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, hereby assume supreme authority with respect to Germany, including all the powers possessed by the German Government, the High Command and any state, municipal, or local government or authority.
The assumption, for the purposes stated above, of the said authority and powers does not effect the annexation of Germany. This imposition was in line with Article 4 of the Instrument of Surrender that had b