A parakeet is any one of a large number of small to medium-sized species of parrot, in multiple genera, that have long tail feathers. Older spellings still sometimes encountered are paraquet; the name parakeet is derived from the French word perroquet. It is however a pseudo-francism as perroquet means parrot in French, while the French for parakeet is perruche; the Australian budgerigar known as "budgie", Melopsittacus undulatus, is the most common parakeet. It was first described by zoologists in 1891, it is the most popular species of parakeet kept as a pet in North Europe. The term "grass parakeet" refers to a large number of small Australian parakeets native to grasslands such as the genus Neophema and the princess parrot; the Australian rosellas are parakeets. Many of the smaller, long-tailed species of lories may be referred to as "lorikeets"; the vernacular name ring-necked parakeet refers to a species of the genus Psittacula native to Africa and Asia, popular as a pet and has become feral in many cities outside its natural range.
In aviculture, the term "conure" is used for small to medium-sized parakeets of the genera Aratinga, a few other genera of the tribe Arini, which are endemic to South America. As they are not all from one genus, taxonomists tend to avoid the term. Other South American species called parakeets include the genus Brotogeris parakeets, the monk parakeet, lineolated parakeets, although lineolateds have short tails. A larger species may be referred to as "parrot" or "parakeet" interchangeably. For example, "Alexandrine parrot" and "Alexandrine parakeet" are two common names for the same species, Psittacula eupatria, one of the largest species referred to as a parakeet. Many different species of parakeets are bred and sold commercially as pets, the budgerigar being the third most popular pet in the world, after cats and dogs. Budgerigars are great companions for any age and can be trained. Parakeets breed more in groups; the presence of other parakeets encourages a pair to breed, why breeding in groups is more successful, however many breeders choose to breed in pairs to avoid conflicts and because that way they know for sure which parents produced any given birds.
Parakeets produce about three to eight eggs on average. Cockatiel Budgerigar
A war cabinet is a committee formed by a government in a time of war. It is a subset of the full executive cabinet of ministers, it is quite common for a war cabinet to have senior military officers and opposition politicians as members. During the First World War, lengthy cabinet discussions came to be seen as a source of vacillation in Britain's war effort. In December 1916 it was proposed that the Prime Minister H. H. Asquith should delegate decision-making to a small, three-man committee chaired by the Secretary of State for War, David Lloyd George. Asquith agreed before changing his mind after being infuriated by an article in The Times which portrayed the proposed change as a defeat for him; the political crisis grew from this point. The original members of the war cabinet were: David Lloyd George Lord Curzon of Kedleston Andrew Bonar Law Arthur Henderson Lord Milner Lloyd George and Bonar Law served throughout the life of the war cabinet. Members included: Jan Smuts George Barnes Edward Carson Austen Chamberlain Sir Eric Geddes Unlike a normal peacetime cabinet, few of these men had departmental responsibilities – Bonar Law, Chamberlain, served as chancellors of the exchequer, but the rest had no specific portfolio.
Among others, the Foreign Secretary, Arthur Balfour, was never a member of the war cabinet, nor were the service ministers Lord Derby and Sir Edward Carson. From the spring of 1917, the Imperial War Cabinet was formed, it had representation from the Dominions. Its members were: Lloyd George Sir Robert Borden, Prime Minister of Canada Louis Botha, Prime Minister of South Africa Billy Hughes, Prime Minister of Australia William Massey, Prime Minister of New Zealand Jan Smuts the British Secretary of State for India and other senior ministers from Britain and the dominions. Germany invaded Poland early on 1 September 1939, after to-ing and fro-ing with French Foreign Minister Georges Bonnet, an ultimatum was presented to the Germans and on its expiry war was declared at 11am on 3 September 1939. On 3 September 1939, Neville Chamberlain announced his War Cabinet. Prime Minister: Neville Chamberlain Lord Privy Seal: Sir Samuel Hoare Chancellor of the Exchequer: Sir John Simon Foreign Secretary: Viscount Halifax Secretary of State for War: Leslie Hore-Belisha Secretary of State for Air: Sir Kingsley Wood First Lord of the Admiralty: Winston Churchill Minister for the Coordination of Defence: Lord Chatfield Minister without Portfolio: Lord Hankey Dominated by Conservative ministers who served under Chamberlain's National Government between 1937 and 1939, the additions of Lord Hankey and Winston Churchill seemed to give the Cabinet more balance.
Unlike Lloyd George's War Cabinet, the members of this one were heads of Government Departments. In January 1940, after disagreements with the Chiefs of Staff, Hore-Belisha resigned from the National Government, refusing a move to the post of President of the Board of Trade, he was succeeded by Oliver Stanley. It was the practice for the Chiefs of Staff to attend all military discussions of the Chamberlain War Cabinet. Churchill became uneasy with this, as he felt that when they attended they did not confine their comments to purely military issues. To overcome this, a Military Co-ordination Committee was set up, consisting of the three Service ministers chaired by Lord Chatfield; this together with the Service chiefs would co-ordinate the strategic ideas of'top hats' and'brass' and agree strategic proposals to put forward to the War Cabinet. Except when chaired by the Prime Minister, the Military Co-ordinating Committee lacked sufficient authority to override a Minister "fighting his corner".
When Churchill took over from Chatfield, whilst continuing to represent the Admiralty, this introduced additional problems, did little to improve the pre-existing ones. Chamberlain announced a further change in arrangements in the Norway debate, but this was overtaken by events, the Churchill War Cabinet being run on rather different principles; when he became Prime Minister during the Second World War, Winston Churchill formed a war cabinet consisting of the following members: Prime Minister & Minister of Defence: Winston Churchill Lord President of the Council: Neville Chamberlain Lord Privy Seal: Clement Attlee Foreign Secretary: Lord Halifax Minister without Portfolio: Arthur Greenwood Churchill believed that the War Cabinet should be kept to a small number of individuals to allow efficient execution of the war effort. So, there were a number of ministers who, though they were not members of the war cabinet, were "Constant Attenders"; as the War Cabinet considered issues that pertained to a given branch of the service or government due input was obtained from the respective body.
The War Cabinet would undergo a number of changes in composition over the next five years. On 19 February 1942 a reconstructed War Cabinet was announced by Churchill consisting of the following members: Prime Minister and Min
The Westland Wessex was a British-built turbine-powered development of the Sikorsky H-34. It was produced under licence by Westland Aircraft. One of the main changes from Sikorsky's H-34 was the replacement of the piston-engine powerplant with a turboshaft engine. Early models were powered by a single Napier Gazelle engine, while builds used a pair of de Havilland Gnome engines; the Wessex was produced for the Royal Navy and for the Royal Air Force. The Wessex operated as an anti-submarine utility helicopter; the type entered operational service in 1961, had a service life in excess of 40 years before being retired in Britain. In 1956, an American-built S-58 was shipped to Britain for Westland to use as a pattern aircraft. Assembled with its Wright Cyclone, it was demonstrated to the British armed services leading to a preliminary order for the Royal Navy. For British production, it was re-engined with a single Napier Gazelle turboshaft engine, first flying in that configuration on 17 May 1957.
The lighter Gazelle engine meant some redistribution of weight. The first Westland-built Wessex serial XL727, designated a Wessex HAS.1, first flew on 20 June 1958. The first production Wessex HAS1 were delivered to Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm in early 1960. In service, the Wessex was found to be a major improvement over the older Westland Whirlwind; the revolutionary turbine propulsion, in addition to giving the Wessex a larger load capacity, was quieter and generated less vibration, the latter quality being beneficial when treating casualties during flight. The Gazelle engine allowed for rapid starting and thus faster response times; the Wessex could operate in a wide range of weather conditions as well as at night due to its use of an automatic pilot system. These same qualities that made the Wessex well-suited to the anti-submarine role lent themselves to the search and rescue mission, which the type would become used for. An improved variant, the Wessex HAS3, succeeded the HAS1 in the anti-submarine role.
A'commando assault' variant, the Wessex HU5, was developed as a battlefield transportation helicopter. The Wessex HU5 was powered by coupled de Havilland Gnome engines, which provided nearly double the power of the original HAS1 model and hugely expanded the aircraft's range; this allowed for operations in a wider range of conditions. As an anti-submarine helicopter, the Wessex could be alternatively equipped with a dipping sonar array to detect and track underwater targets or armed with either depth charges or torpedoes, it was this limitation that soon led the Royal Navy to search for a more-capable helicopter that could provide this capability. The Wessex was successfully employed as a general-purpose helicopter for the RAF, capable of performing troop-carrying, air ambulance and ground support roles; the Wessex was the first of the RAF's helicopters in which instrument flying, thus night time operations, were realistically viable. Unlike the Navy's Wessex fleet, composed of early single-engine models, the RAF mandated that its Wessex helicopters should be all twin-engined.
The Wessex was first used by the Royal Navy, which introduced the Wessex HAS.1 to operational service in 1961. Having been satisfied by the favourable initial performance of the Wessex but seeking to improve its avionics and equipment, the Navy soon pressed for the development of the improved HAS.3, which came into service in 1967. Operationally, younger models would be assigned to perform the key anti-submarine warfare and commando transport missions, while older and less capable models would be be assigned to land bases for search and rescue; the RAF became an operator of the Wessex in 1962. As one of the RAF's standing duties, multiple Wessex helicopters were permanently kept on standby to respond to an emergency located anywhere within 40 miles of the British coastline within 15 minutes during daytime, at night hours this response time was decreased to 60 minutes. SAR-tasked Wessex helicopters were stationed abroad, such as at Cyprus; the qualities of the Wessex were described as being "ideal for mountain flying".
The Wessex found itself being used on the battlefield as a utility transport.
Battle of San Carlos (1982)
The Battle of San Carlos was a battle between aircraft and ships that lasted from 21 to 25 May 1982 during the British landings on the shores of San Carlos Water in the 1982 Falklands War. Low-flying land-based Argentine jet aircraft made repeated attacks on ships of the British Task Force, it was the first time in history that a modern surface fleet armed with surface-to-air missiles and with air cover backed up by STOVL carrier-based aircraft defended against full-scale air strikes. The British sustained severe losses and damage but were able to create and consolidate a beachhead and land troops. After the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands the United Kingdom initiated Operation Corporate, sending a Task Force 12000 km south in order to retake the islands. Under the codename Operation Sutton the British forces planned amphibious landings around San Carlos, on an inlet located off Falkland Sound, the strait between East Falkland and West Falkland; the location was chosen as the landing force would be protected by the terrain against Exocet and submarine attacks, it was distant enough from Stanley to prevent a rapid reaction from Argentine ground troops stationed there.
The landing took the Argentines by surprise. Argentine forces operated under range and payload limitations as they had limited refuelling resources and were operating at maximum range. A-4 Skyhawk: The A-4 was used by both the Argentine Air Force and Argentine Naval Aviation. In spite of using two 295-gallons drop tanks, they needed aerial refuelling twice during missions. Bomb load used during the conflict was one British-made 1000 lb unguided bomb or four 227 kg Spanish/American built retarding tail bombs; the aircraft were armed with two 20 mm Colt Mk 12 cannon. IAI Dagger: The Israeli-built Mirage 5 did not have aerial refuelling capacity, using two 550-gallon drop tanks to carry extra fuel, they were flying at the absolute limit of their range, their main weapon during the conflict was the British-made 1000 lb unguided bomb. They retained their 30 mm DEFA cannon. Mirage IIIEA: The French-built interceptor has an internal fuel tank smaller than that of the Dagger, so they could not fly low enough to escort the strike aircraft.
They carried a pair of R550 Magic IR missiles in their high-altitude flights to the islands, but the British Harrier combat air patrols concentrated on the low-flying bombers. FMA IA-58 Pucara: The Argentine-built counter-insurgency aircraft operated from the Goose Green grass airstrip during the battle; the aircraft were armed with rocket pods, two 20 mm cannons, four 7.62 mm machine guns. British air cover was provided for the first time by "Harrier carriers"; these carriers deployed vertical-landing Harriers. Air Cover: Aircraft carrier HMS Hermes 800 Squadron 809 Squadron Aircraft carrier HMS Invincible 801 Squadron 809 Squadron Landing force: HMS Fearless, HMS Intrepid, RFA Sir Geraint, RFA Sir Tristram, RFA Sir Galahad, RFA Sir Percivale, RFA Sir Lancelot, SS Canberra, RFA Fort Austin, Europic Ferry 4 and Elk 5. Escort force: HMS Antrim, HMS Coventry, HMS Broadsword, HMS Brilliant, HMS Ardent, HMS Antelope, HMS Argonaut, HMS Plymouth and HMS Yarmouth This is a list of the main sorties carried out by Argentine air units showing approximate local time and Call signal.
The Argentine Army force on site was a section from the 25th Infantry Regiment named Combat team Güemes located at Fanning Head. The British fleet entered San Carlos during the night and at 02:50 was spotted by EC Güemes which opened fire with 81mm mortars and two recoilless 105mm rifles, they were soon engaged by British naval gunfire and a 25-man SBS team and forced to retreat, losing their communications equipment but shooting down two Gazelle helicopters with small-arms fire, killing three members of the two aircrews. 1st Lt Carlos Daniel Esteban from EC Güemes informed Goose Green garrison about the landings at 08:22. The Argentine high command at Stanley thought that a landing operation was not feasible at San Carlos and the operation was a diversion. At 10:00, a COAN Aermacchi MB-339 jet based on the islands was dispatched to San Carlos on a reconnaissance flight. In the meantime, the FAA had started launching their mainland-based aircraft at 09:00. Between 10:15 and 17:12 seventeen sorties were carried out by FAA and COAN.
Dagger and A-4C of the FAA made attacks on HMS Antrim, HMS Argonaut, HMS Broadsword, HMS Brilliant, HMS Ardent, HMS Brilliant. Sorties of MIIIEA aircraft were used as diversions as-well. While many of the bombs did not explode, HMS Ardent and HMS Argonaut were hit, sustaining damage and casualties. Sea Harriers intercepted some of the attackers. Bad weather over the Patagonia airfields prevented the Argentines from carrying out most of their air missions; the British completed their surface-to-air Rapier battery launcher deployments. On 23 May Argentine aircraft resumed attacking, striking HMS Antelope, HMS Broadsword, HMS Yarmouth, HMS Antelope. Only HMS Antelope was damaged. Of the attacking aircraft, two were shot down. An additional COAN pilot was killed after ejecting from his A-4Q after a tyre burst upon landing. On 24 May the Argentine pilots on the continent expressed their concern about the lack of collaboration between the three branches of the ar
ARA General Belgrano
ARA General Belgrano was an Argentine Navy light cruiser in service from 1951 until 1982. Commissioned by the U. S. as USS Phoenix, she saw action in the Pacific theatre of World War II before being sold by the United States Navy to Argentina. The vessel was the second to have been named after the Argentine founding father Manuel Belgrano; the first vessel was a 7,069-ton armoured cruiser completed in 1896. She was sunk on 2 May 1982 during the Falklands War by the Royal Navy submarine Conqueror with the loss of 323 lives. Losses from General Belgrano totalled just over half of Argentine military deaths in the war, she is the only ship to have been sunk during military operations by a nuclear-powered submarine and the second sunk in action by any type of submarine since World War II, the first being the Indian frigate INS Khukri, sunk by the Pakistani submarine PNS Hangor during the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War. The warship was built as USS Phoenix, the sixth ship of the Brooklyn-class cruiser design, in Camden, New Jersey, by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation starting in 1935, launched in March 1938.
She survived the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 undamaged, went on to earn nine battle stars for World War II service. At the end of the war, she was placed in reserve at Philadelphia on 28 February 1946, decommissioned on 3 July that year and remained laid up at Philadelphia. Phoenix was sold to Argentina in October 1951 and renamed 17 de Octubre after the "People's Loyalty day", an important symbol for the political party of the then-president Juan Perón. Sold with her was another of her class, the USS Boise, renamed ARA Nueve de Julio, withdrawn in 1977.17 de Octubre was one of the main naval units that joined the 1955 coup in which Perón was overthrown, was renamed General Belgrano after General Manuel Belgrano, who founded the Escuela de Náutica in 1799 and had fought for Argentine independence from 1811 to 1819. General Belgrano accidentally rammed her sister ship Nueve de Julio on exercises in 1956, which resulted in damage to both. General Belgrano was outfitted with the Sea Cat anti-aircraft missile system between 1967 and 1968.
After the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands, on 2 April 1982 Britain declared a Maritime Exclusion Zone of 200 nautical miles around the Falkland Islands within which any Argentine warship or naval auxiliary entering the MEZ might be attacked by British nuclear-powered submarines. On 23 April, the British Government clarified in a message, passed via the Swiss Embassy in Buenos Aires to the Argentine government that any Argentine ship or aircraft, considered to pose a threat to British forces would be attacked. On 30 April this was upgraded to the total exclusion zone, within which any sea vessel or aircraft from any country entering the zone might be fired upon without further warning; the zone was stated to be "...without prejudice to the right of the United Kingdom to take whatever additional measures may be needed in exercise of its right of self-defence, under Article 51 of the United Nations Charter." The concept of a total exclusion zone was a novelty in maritime law. Its purpose seems to have been to increase the amount of time available to ascertain whether any vessel in the zone was hostile or not.
Regardless of the uncertainty of the zone's legal status it was respected by the shipping of neutral nations. The Argentine military junta began to reinforce the islands in late April when it was realised that the British Task Force was heading south; as part of these movements, Argentine Naval units were ordered to take positions around the islands. Two Task Groups designated 79.1, which included the aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo plus two Type 42 destroyers, 79.2, which included three Exocet missile armed Drummond-class corvettes, both sailed to the north. General Belgrano had left Ushuaia in Tierra del Fuego on 26 April. Two destroyers, ARA Piedra Buena and ARA Hipólito Bouchard were detached from Task Group 79.2 and together with the tanker YPF Puerto Rosales, joined General Belgrano to form Task Group 79.3. By 29 April, the ships were patrolling the Burdwood Bank, south of the islands. On 30 April, General Belgrano was detected by the British nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarine Conqueror.
The submarine approached over the following day. On 1 May 1982, Admiral Juan Lombardo ordered all Argentine naval units to seek out the British task force around the Falklands and launch a "massive attack" the following day. General Belgrano, outside and to the south-west of the exclusion zone, was ordered south-east. Lombardo's signal was intercepted by British Intelligence; as a result, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her War Cabinet, meeting at Chequers the following day, agreed to a request from Admiral Terence Lewin, the Chief of the Defence Staff, to alter the rules of engagement and allow an attack on General Belgrano outside the exclusion zone. Although the group was outside the British-declared total exclusion zone of 370 km radius from the islands, the British decided that it was a threat. After consultation at Cabinet level, Thatcher agreed that Commander Chris Wreford-Brown should attack General Belgrano. At 15:57 on 2 May, Conqueror fired three 21 inch Mk 8 mod 4 torpedoes, each with an 805-pound Torpex warhead.
While Conqueror was equipped with the newer Mark 24 Tigerfish homing torpedo, there were doubts about its reliability. Initial reports from Argentina claimed that Conqueror fired two Tigerfish torpedoes on General Belgrano. Two of the three torpedoes hit General Belgrano. According to the Argentine gove
HMS Conqueror (S48)
HMS Conqueror was a British Churchill-class nuclear-powered fleet submarine which served in the Royal Navy from 1971 to 1990. She was the third submarine of her class, following the earlier Churchill and Courageous, that were all designed to face the Soviet threat at sea, she was built by Cammell Laird at Birkenhead. Conqueror is the only nuclear-powered submarine to have engaged an enemy ship with torpedoes, sinking the cruiser General Belgrano during the 1982 Falklands War. Conqueror was ordered on 9 August 1966 and was laid down at Cammell Laird's Birkenhead shipyard on 5 December 1967. Construction was delayed by slow working by Cammell Laird's workforce, sabotage of the ship's gearbox, which delayed completion by several months. Conqueror was commissioned on 9 November 1971. Conqueror, commanded by Commander Chris Wreford-Brown, was deployed during the Falklands War, setting sail from Faslane Naval Base on the Gareloch in Scotland on 3 April 1982, one day after the Argentine invasion. Conqueror arrived in the exclusion zone around the Falkland Islands 21 days and was ordered to scan the area for Argentine shipping the aircraft carrier Veinticinco de Mayo.
On 30 April, she spotted the Argentine light cruiser General Belgrano sailing southwest of the Falklands, just outside the exclusion zone imposed by the British on all shipping. With Veinticinco de Mayo approaching the islands from the north, the commander of the British Taskforce, Admiral'Sandy' Woodward, feared a pincer attack, with General Belgrano attacking from the south and Veinticinco de Mayo from the north and requested permission from the British government to sink General Belgrano. After some debate, permission to engage General Belgrano was sent to the submarine from the Royal Navy's fleet command centre in Northwood in the United Kingdom. In the intervening period, General Belgrano had retired from its attack position and turned west, since Veinticinco de Mayo was not yet ready to engage the British fleet; this would cause some controversy, although General Belgrano's captain and the Argentine government acknowledged that the attack was a legitimate act of war. On 2 May Conqueror became the first nuclear-powered submarine to fire in anger, launching three Mark 8 torpedoes at General Belgrano, two of which struck the ship and exploded.
Twenty minutes the ship was sinking and was abandoned by her crew. General Belgrano was unable to issue a Mayday signal because of electrical failure. A total of 323 men were killed. Adding to the confusion, the crew of the Bouchard felt an impact, the third torpedo striking at the end of its run; the two ships began dropping depth charges. By the time the ships realised that something had happened to General Belgrano, it was dark and the weather had worsened, scattering the life rafts. Conqueror's war did not end there; the crew of the submarine had to face Argentine Air Force attempts to locate her in the days after the attack, which had shocked the Argentine people and ruling dictatorship. Conqueror did not fire again in anger throughout the war, but provided valuable help to the task force by using sophisticated monitoring equipment to track Argentine aircraft departing from the mainland. After the war, Conqueror returned to Faslane, flying a Jolly Roger adorned with torpedoes, a customary act of Royal Navy submarines after a kill.
When asked about the incident Commander Wreford-Brown responded, "The Royal Navy spent thirteen years preparing me for such an occasion. It would have been regarded as dreary if I had fouled it up". In 1982, Conqueror completed a raid to acquire a Soviet sonar array from its Polish-flagged towing vessel; the operation, a joint mission between British and American forces, was conducted on the boundary of Soviet territorial waters. Conqueror used cutters affixed to her bow to shear through the three-inch thick wire before silently returning to her base on the Clyde. On 2 July 1988 Conqueror was involved in a collision with the Army Sail Training Association yacht Dalriada south of the Mull of Kintyre; the yacht sank and four crew members were rescued. Conqueror did not take part in any other conflicts, was decommissioned in 1990; the periscopes, captain's cabin and main control panel from the submarine's control room are on display in the Royal Navy Submarine Museum in Gosport. Hennesey, Peter; the Silent Deep: The Royal Navy Submarine Service since 1945.
Penguin. ISBN 978-0-241-95948-0. Moore, John. Jane's Fighting Ships 1985–86. London: Jane's Yearbooks. ISBN 0-7106-0814-4. Rossiter, Mike. Sink the Belgrano. Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0-593-05842-8. Hansard: Loss of the "control room log" of HMS Conqueror
45 Commando Royal Marines is a battalion sized unit of the British Royal Marines and subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet. Tasked as a Commando amphibious unit, 45 Cdo RM is capable of a wide range of operational tasks. Based at RM Condor, their barracks in Arbroath, personnel deploy outside the United Kingdom on operations or training. While 3 Cdo Bde RM are the principal cold weather warfare formation, personnel are capable of operating in a variety of theatres including tropical jungle, desert or mountainous terrain; the Commando is a regular participant in the annual Brigade cold weather warfare exercise in Norway, having been the first UK unit to specialise in the mountain and Arctic warfare role during the early 1970s and deployed to Norway on NATO's northern flank most years until the end of the Cold War. All personnel have completed the Commando course at the Commando Training Centre at Lympstone in Devon, entitling them to wear the green beret, with attached personnel having completed the All Arms Commando Course.
The 5th RM Battalion was raised for a brief period at the end of World War I, was again raised on 2 April 1940 following mass mobilisation and the influx of "hostilities only" marines. The battalion was raised at Cowshot Camp in Brookwood, being incorporated into 101 RM Bde, along with the 1st RM Battalion. Between August and October 1940 the battalion took part in operations in Dakar. On return until August 1943 the battalion conducted extensive training in Wales, the Isle of Wight and Burley, where the battalion reformed as 45 RM Commando on 1 August 1943. After reforming and retitling, the unit transitioned to the Commando role as a formed unit, by-passing the individual volunteer and selection process undertaken by Army Commando candidates. Personnel undertook, completed, the Commando Basic Training Course at Achnacarry, Scotland; as part of the 1st Special Service Brigade, the Commando participated in Operation Overlord, before going on to move through Europe into Germany, including Montforterbeek on 23 January 1945.
During the Ardennes Offensive, the retitled 1st Commando Brigade was given the task of holding a stretch of the River Meuse. Following the Second World War both 1st Commando Brigade and 2nd Commando Brigade disbanded, leaving 3 Cdo Bde in place in the Far East. 3 Cdo Bde reorganised, disbanding 1 and 5 Army Cdos, took on 45 RM Cdo, which joined the Bde in Hong Kong, from the UK, in January 1946. In order to preserve the heritage of a 2 Cdo Bde unit, as well as that of 1 Cdo Bde, 44 Commando was retitled 40 Commando and took on 40 RM Cdo's colours, battle honours and traditions, albeit with 44 RM Cdo's manpower; the three remaining commandos were restyled 40, 42 and 45 Commandos RM in March 1946. The Commando was based in Hong Kong between January 1946 and May 1947, conducting internal security duties, as part of 3 Cdo Bde RM. Between May 1947 and December 1948 the Commando moved to Malta, during which time it deployed to Libya, Palestine and Jordan; the Commando returned to Hong Kong in December 1948 and from there deployed to Malaya between 1950 and 1952 taking part in operations during the Emergency.
Between 1952 and 1959 the Commando was once again based in Malta. In September 1955 45 Commando was deployed to Cyprus to undertake anti-terrorist operations against the EOKA guerrillas during tensions between the Greek and Turkish inhabitants of the island; the EOKA were a small, but powerful organisation of Greek Cypriots, who had great local support from the Greek community. The unit travelled to the Kyrenia mountain area of the island and in December 1955 launched Operation Foxhunter, an operation to destroy EOKA's main base. In 1956 the unit deployed to Egypt as part of the response to the Suez Crisis, conducting the first helicopter assault in history. Between 1960 and 1967 the Commando was based in Aden, from where it conducted 10 operational tours in the Radfan during the Aden Emergency; the Commando deployed to Kuwait following an Iraqi threat to her Independence in 1961. In January 1964, part of the Tanzanian Army mutinied. Within 24 hours elements of 45 Commando had left Bickleigh Camp, Plymouth and were travelling by air to Nairobi, continuing by road into Tanzania.
At the same time, Commandos aboard HMS Bulwark sailed to East Africa and anchored off-shore from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The revolt was put down and the next six months were spent in touring Tanzanian military out-posts disarming military personnel; the last elements of the Commando left Aden on 29 November 1967 to return to the UK for the first time since the end of World War II. They set up home in Plymouth. In 1970 the Commando began Arctic training for the first time, taking on the role of Britain's mountain and Arctic warfare experts. 45 Cdo RM deployed to Norway for the first of many winters in 1971, which coincided with a move of the unit from Stonehouse, Plymouth to the old Naval Air Station, RNAS Arbroath in Arbroath, where the unit still remains. This period in the unit's history is characterised by the alternation of Northern Ireland tours and winters in Norway, protecting N