Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, as well as for executions in the United States. Potent opioids such as carfentanil are approved only for veterinary use. Opioids are frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal. Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, nausea, respiratory depression and euphoria. Long-term use can cause tolerance, meaning that increased doses are required to achieve the same effect, physical dependence, meaning that abruptly discontinuing the drug leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms; the euphoria attracts recreational use and frequent, escalating recreational use of opioids results in addiction. An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs like benzodiazepines results in death from respiratory depression.
Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors mediate the somatic effects of opioids. Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors; because opioids are addictive and may result in fatal overdose, most are controlled substances. In 2013, between 28 and 38 million people used opioids illicitly. In 2011, an estimated 4 million people in the United States used opioids recreationally or were dependent on them; as of 2015, increased rates of recreational use and addiction are attributed to over-prescription of opioid medications and inexpensive illicit heroin. Conversely, fears about over-prescribing, exaggerated side effects and addiction from opioids are blamed for under-treatment of pain.
Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself. Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone and fentanyl; the terms opiate and narcotic are sometimes encountered as synonyms for opioid. Opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy although some include semi-synthetic derivatives. Narcotic, derived from words meaning'numbness' or'sleep', as an American legal term, refers to cocaine and opioids, their source materials. In some jurisdictions all controlled drugs are classified as narcotics; the term can have pejorative connotations and its use is discouraged where, the case. The weak opioid codeine, in low doses and combined with one or more other drugs, is available without a prescription and can be used to treat mild pain. Other opioids are reserved for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain. For immediate relief of moderate to severe acute pain opioids are the treatment of choice due to their rapid onset and reduced risk of dependence.
However a new report showed a clear risk of prolonged opioid use when opioid analgesics are initiated for an acute pain management following surgery or trauma. They have been found to be important in palliative care to help with the severe, disabling pain that may occur in some terminal conditions such as cancer, degenerative conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. In many cases opioids are a successful long-term care strategy for those with chronic cancer pain. Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, fibromyalgia, thus they should be used cautiously in chronic non-cancer pain. If used the benefits and harms should be reassessed at least every three months. In treating chronic pain, opioids are an option to be tried after other less risky pain relievers have been considered, including paracetamol/acetaminophen or NSAIDs like ibuprofen or naproxen; some types of chronic pain, including the pain caused by fibromyalgia or migraine, are preferentially treated with drugs other than opioids.
The efficacy of using opioids to lessen chronic neuropathic pain is uncertain. Opioids are contraindicated as a first-line treatment for headache because they impair alertness, bring risk of dependence, increase the risk that episodic headaches will become chronic. Opioids can cause heightened sensitivity to headache pain; when other treatments fail or are unavailable, opioids may be appropriate for treating headache if the patient can be monitored to prevent the development of chronic headache. Opioids are being used more in the management of non-malignant chronic pain; this practice has now led to a new and growing problem with misuse of opioids. Because of various negative effects the use of opioids for long-term management of chronic pain is not indicated unless other less risky pain relievers have been found ineffective. Chronic pain which occurs only periodically, such as that from nerve pain and fibromyalgia is better treated with medications other than opioids. Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including ibuprofen and naproxen are considered safer alternatives.
They are used co
Marie-José van der Kolk, better known by her stage name Loona, is a Dutch singer and dancer. Van der Kolk was born on 16 September 1974 in Netherlands. In 1991, she met producer DJ Sammy at Zorba's Club in El Arenal Mallorca. In 1992, DJ Sammy became resident DJ at the Joy Palace Club in El Arenal, while Van der Kolk was a resident dancer there, for whom she started to be a background singer for live performances, she soon performed as a featured artist on DJ Sammy's music. In 1996, they released their first singles "Life is Just a Game" and "You Are My Angel", their first hit. In 1997, with the release of their third single "Prince of Love", they scored a Top 30 hit in Germany, followed by the singles "Golden Child" and "Magic Moment". DJ Sammy's debut studio album Life Is Just A Game, which involved van der Kolk on vocals, peaked at 62 in the German album chart. In the Summer of 1998. Van der Kolk came up with a new project called Loona produced by DJ Sammy. Started as a Duo, DJ Sammy stayed in the background for music videos and cover arts.
The first single, which appeared as a bonus track on Life is Just a Game, was a cover of Paradisio's song "Bailando" and it became the summer song of 1998 in Germany, reaching the number 1 of the German charts and Echo-awarded as "Best International Dance Single". By Autumn, it was followed by another single "Hijo de la Luna" which reached number 1 on the German charts; these two singles sold millions and became gold- and platinum selling records in Germany and Switzerland. In 1999, Loona's first studio album titled Lunita was released, followed by the third and final single from this album, the Top 30 hit "Dónde Vas". Afterwards, the song "Mamboleo", a cover version of Herbert Grönemeyer's song "Mambo", was released from the second album Entre dos Aguas, it was Echo-awarded as "Best Dance Single". Due to a lawsuit set up by Herbert Grönemeyer for infringement, a second black and white music video was shot, both videos were banned from music stations and only played for just one day of airing.
The song itself had to be removed from Entre dos Aguas, the re-issued versions of the album do not include the track and only can be found on rare and early pressings. Still the song re-appeared and included on Loona's first compilation album Greatest Hits in 2000. Entre dos Aguas saw three more single releases "Salvador Dalí", another cover of the Spanish band Mecano, "La Vida es una Flor" and the Christmas single "Navidad", becoming minor hits which did not reach the Top 50 in Germany. In 2000, Loona's first compilation album Greatest Hits and its first single, "Latino Lover", was released and peaked at #6 in German and Swiss single chart. In 1999, van der Kolk again provided guest vocals as Carisma for DJ Sammy's single "In 2 Eternity" from his first remix album DJ Sammy at Work. In 2001, Loona released the singles "Baila mi Ritmo" and "Viva el Amor" followed by her second compilation album Baila mi Ritmo. "Viva el Amor" became a number 1 hit in Spain. In 2002, she released the singles "Rhythm of the Night" and "Colors" from the third studio album Colors.
For this album, Loona experimented with a more mature and oriental sound, which can be heard on songs like "Land of broken dreams", "If you want my love" or on the third single release and #4 hit "Rhythm of the Night", a remake of "Hadi Bakalim" from Sezen Aksu's 1991 album Gülümse. In 2002, van der Kolk continued providing guest vocals for DJ Sammy's singles "Sunlight" and the Don Henley cover version "The Boys of Summer" from his second studio album Heaven, but this time for the first time credited as "DJ Sammy feat. Loona". In 2004, Loona was featured on DJ Sammy's single "Rise Again" and released her first and only single, the Eric Clapton classic "Tears In Heaven", of her fourth studio album Wind of Time, followed in 2005. Both singles became moderate hits; the album is a collection full of cover versions. According to van der Kolk, she dedicated the album title, selected track list and the entire album to her mother, whom she lost ten years ago, it features covers such as Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale", Peter Sarstedt's "Where Do You Go to My Lovely", Ralph McTell's "Streets Of London", Sting's "Fragile" or Bob Dylan's "Blowin' In The Wind".
She performed "Tears In Heaven" at "The Dome" crying and pregnant with her first child, her daughter named Saphira Maria, welcomed in 2005. In 2005, Loona went on hiatus for her baby. In 2007, Loona's third compilation album Everybody on the Floor and the same titled single, a reggaeton song titled "Everybody on the Floor" have been released. In May 2008, Loona signed a new contract with Sony BMG/Ariola and returned with her fifth studio album "Moonrise" in October, preceded by its two single releases "Por la Noche" and "Salam Aleikoum", all with limited success. Professionally and in private, van der Kolk parted ways with her longtime collaborator and father of her daughter, DJ Sammy, she was a Judge in the seventh season of the German version of "Popstars" alongside rapper Sido and choreographer Detlef Soost. In 2009, Loona returned with the cover version of Cidinho & Doca, "Parapapapapa" to her summer tune roots since "Viva el Amor" in 2001; the single peaked #29 in the German single chart.
Van der Kolk attended the VOX television program "Das perfekte Promidinner im Schlafrock". In 2010, the single "Vamos a la playa", a Miranda cover, she landed another summer hit, charted at No. 2 in Belgium, "El Cucaracho, El Muchacho", a collaborat
Copiapó is a city in northern Chile, located about 65 kilometers east of the coastal town of Caldera. Founded on December 8, 1744, it is the capital of Atacama Region. Copiapó lies about 800 km north of Santiago in the valley of the same name. In recent years, the river has dried up; the town receives 12 mm of rain per year. The population of Copiapó was 9,128 in 1903, 11,617 in 1907 and, as of 2012, there are 158,438 inhabitants. Copiapó is in a rich copper mining district, it possesses a bronze statue of Juan Godoy, discoverer of the Chañarcillo silver mines in the 19th century. The Copiapó-Caldera railway line, built in 1850, was the first one in South America; the first section between Caldera and Monte Amargo was inaugurated on July 4 of 1850 in honor of the nationality of William Wheelwright, the American business man responsible for the project. The original wooden railway station is now a National Monument; the town was christened San Francisco de la Selva de Copiapó or Saint Francis of the Jungle of Copiapó, due to its lush vegetation.
Prior to Spanish occupation, the area was inhabited by the Diaguita people under the rule of the Inca Empire. The earliest archaeological remains of human activity in the Copiapó Valley have been dated at ten thousand years BP. Copiapó was, until the annexation of Antofagasta and Iquique during the War of the Pacific, Chile's northernmost city and main mining city; the city was extensively damaged in an earthquake on 4 December 1918. On 5 August 2010, a copper/gold mine collapsed; the miners survived underground for 69 days until their rescue on 13 October 2010, a record period of time. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Copiapó had 129,091 inhabitants. Of these, 125,983 lived in 3,108 in rural areas; the population grew by 27.9 % between the 2002 censuses. According to the same census, the religious affiliation in Copiapó, is the following: 75.97% Roman Catholicism 10.74% Protestantism 1.29% The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1.25% Jehovah's Witnesses 0.04% Judaism 0.03% Islam 0.02% Greek Orthodoxy 3.56% Other 7.10% None, atheism or agnosticism.
Copiapó has a desert climate with mild temperatures year round. Winters are mild with Cool temperatures during the day, with a July maximum of 19.3 °C and Cool to Cold temperatures during the night, averaging 7 °C. The cold Humboldt Current offshore leads to cool summer temperatures for being inland on its low latitude, contributes to the low annual rainfall. Temperatures fall below freezing. Most of the precipitation falls during this time of the year with June and July being the wettest months. While winters are dry, precipitation is variable; this was the case when June 1998 recorded 68 millimetres of precipitation but in most years, precipitation is rare. Summers are warm with a January average of 22.2 °C and precipitation is non-existent. Temperatures can exceed 30 °C anytime of the year; the average annual precipitation is 18.8 millimetres though this is variable with some years recording no precipitation such as in 1970, 1978, 1990, 1992-1993 and in 1998 and other years where precipitation is recorded.
There are 3.2 days with measureable precipitation. The record high was 34.0 °C in August 1972 and the record low was −2.0 °C in June 1975. Copiapó has a diversified and potential economy; the Copiapó Basin has a great deal of copper ore, mined by companies such as Minera Candelaria, which extracts copper near Tierra Amarilla, a neighboring commune. This generates a need for transportation, light industry, services. "Small mining" represents over 30% of the production. The copper obtained by pirquineros goes to the copper smelter at Paipote. Agriculture is the second largest source of income in this area, it consists of grape production, with olives, tomatoes and some citrus fruits playing a part. Industry: Copiapó has light industry, some medium industry such as the INACESA plant and Paipote copper refinery. Energy: Many important solar plants were built in the Atacama Region, benefiting from the high and constant solar radiation along the year. Solar photovoltaic energy production reached for 2016 to more than 400 MW connected to the Central-North grid.
Commerce is growing in Copiapó old and new small and medium enterprises. Downtown Copiapó activity mirrors Copiapó's progress; some native enterprises have grown in the last decade such as the Albasini and Don Álvaro chain-stores. Free-market policies along with a higher demand and better economic expectations have encouraged the arrival of big, national enterprises such as the supermarkets Deca and Lider. Tourism in Copiapó has been developing in the last years. An example of this is the new Casino, the new infrastructures hotels had to invest in, due to the excess of demand by domestic and foreign tourists. Significant attractions of Copiapó are the Mineralogic Museum, Plaza de Armas, Regional Museum of the Matta Family, the Wooden Railway Station, the San José Cooper Mine; as a commune, Copiapó is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal coun