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Oppdal

Oppdal is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is the traditional district of Orkdalen; the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Oppdal. Other villages in the municipality include Lønset, Vognillan and Holan; the Oppdal Airport, Fagerhaug is located in the northeastern part of the municipality. The 2,274-square-kilometre municipality is the 21st largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Oppdal is the 150th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 6,970; the municipality's population density is 3.2 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has increased by 6.2% over the last decade. The prestegjeld of Oppdal was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838; the municipal boundaries have not changed since that time. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Sør-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county; the municipality is named after the old Oppdal farm, since, where the historic Oppdal Church was located.

The Old Norse form of the name was Uppdalr. The first element is upp which means "upper" and the last element is dalr which means "valley" or "dale"; the name was spelled Opdal. The coat of arms was granted on 19 February 1982; the blue and white arms represent a junction, since Oppdal is a major centre of commerce and transportation. Three important roads going to Trondheim, Dombås, Sunndalsøra cross here, the area was used for gatherings, because of this fact; the Church of Norway has three parishes within the municipality of Oppdal. It is part of the Gauldal prosti in the Diocese of Nidaros. Oppdal is an alpine community, it is located at a crossroads for traffic from Trondheim, the Dovrefjell mountain range, Sunndal on the west coast. This is reflected in the three rays in the coat-of-arms. Oppdal was first settled sometime before 600 CE. By there were about 50 farms in the area, this number grew by about 20 more in the Viking Era. There are remnants of over 700 Pagan grave mounds from the time at Vang, in which jewelry and other pieces from the British Isles were found.

This indicates that the area was affluent and participated in the Viking trade. Much of the affluence was derived from the availability of game, both in the area and from nearby mountain ranges. Several game traps can still be seen in mountains around Oppdal ditches for reindeer. There have been more than 80 finds of at least two different types of arrowheads in the area. Archeological finds in Oppdal indicate that there were less pronounced economic disparities than elsewhere in Norway. Communal efforts to hold off famine and share burdens appear to have been common throughout several centuries. During the Christian era, Pagan shrines and grave mounds were replaced by chapels. Five rural churches were built in Oppdal at the time, in Vang, Ålbu, Lønset, Lo, Nordskogen; the Oppdal Church, built to replace an earlier stave church in 1653, stands to this day. Oppdal was a stop for pilgrims on their way to the St. Olav shrine at the Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim during the Middle Ages; as a result of the heavy stream of pilgrims who followed the Pilgrim's Route prior to the Reformation, King Eystein erected mountain stations where the pilgrims could find food and shelter.

Kongsvoll, located on the Driva River along the route where pilgrims passed from the Gudbrandsdal valley into Oppdal was one of these stations, is still an inn today. Drivstua, further north, was another. Oppdal was affected by the Black Plague, which led to the abandonment of a number of farms. With a worsening of the climate, the community hadn't recovered 170 years and there were only 35 farms and 350 people left. Only one church at Vang was still in use; as late as 1742, people in Oppdal died of hunger. In the early 17th century, Oppdal's fortunes turned and population grew. By 1665, 2,200 people lived in Oppdal, a new church was built at Vang, the Oppdal Church, which stands to this day; the Lønset Chapel and Fagerhaug Chapel have been re-established, Oppdal houses several other religious communities. Since the 18th century, the inhabitants of Oppdal have made significant investments in education, leading to the establishment of several small rural schools and a high school. In the 19th century, increased fertility and reduced mortality led to population growth that could not be sustained by agricultural resources.

Many became tenant farmers, a large proportion of people from Oppdal emigrated to the United States. The population decreased until 1910, when the railroad from Oslo to Trondheim via Dovre created employment and opened the area for tourism. In 1952, the first ski lift opened, with further expansions Oppdal now offers one of Norway's largest downhill networks. In 2013, NRK said that a Labour Party politician was fighting against the establishment of a refugee center. All municipalities in Norway, including Oppdal, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Frostating Court of Appeal; the municipal council of Oppdal is made up of 25 representatives that are elected to four year terms. The party breakdown of the council is as follows: Oppdal is bordered by two municipalities in Trøndelag county (Rennebu to

Federated Shipwrights' and Ship Constructors' Association of Australia

The Federated Shipwrights' and Ship Constructors' Association of Australia was an Australian trade union which existed between 1916 and 1976. It represented shipwrights and boatbuilders in the shipbuilding and ship repair industries, as well as sea-going shipwrights aboard vessels in the merchant navy. Shipwrights were one of the first craft groups to be organised after the settlement of Australia, with the Shipwrights United Friends Society formed in 1829 to represent shipwrights in Sydney. Other unions were soon formed in the other colonies, including the Port Phillip Shipwrights Society, the Port Adelaide Shipwrights Society and the Brisbane Shipwrights Provident Union, while the Sydney union was renamed the Shipwrights Provident Union of New South Wales. After federation these small, local unions amalgamated to form a national organisation, registered federally in January 1916 as the Federated Shipwrights of Australia. Just a few months in September 1916, it changed to the Federated Shipwrights' Ship Constructors' & Boat Builders' Association of Australia.

By the end of 1917, in what was a tumultuous period, the union had changed again, this time to the Federated Shipwrights Ship Constructors Naval Architects Ships Draughtsmen and Boat Builders of Australia. The union operated under this name until 1933 when it succumbed to a further name change: the Federated Shipwrights’ & Ship Constructors’ Association of Australia; the union published. Operating until December 1976, the Federated Shipwrights’ & Ship Constructors’ Association amalgamated with the Amalgamated Metal Workers’ Union to form the Amalgamated Metal Workers’ & Shipwrights’ Union. At the time of the merger 247 of the 1,500 members of the Shipwrights Association were employed as sea-going shipwrights; as the various maritime unions objected to the AMWU expanding its coverage to ships' crews, these members were instead transferred to the Merchant Service Guild, with the transfer completed by 1978

Sindlesham

Sindlesham is an estate village in the borough of Wokingham in Berkshire, England. It is located around 4 miles southeast of Reading and around 6 miles west of the town of Bracknell, just south of the village of Winnersh, from which it is separated by the M4 motorway; the River Loddon flows just to the west. A chapel is believed to have been built as early as 1220. A large 19th-century, three-storey watermill on the Loddon has more become a hotel. Nearby is the estate of Bearwood House, built in 1864 by John Walter, the proprietor of The Times newspaper, now Reddam House, a private secondary school. In the village are Bearwood Primary School, St Catherine Bearwood Church, the offices of Winnersh Parish Council, the UK control centre for the National Grid and the Berkshire Masonic Centre at Sindlesham Court. Facilities in the village include the Nirvana Spa Health Club. Further notes on Sindlesham