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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc is a flat circular disc which encodes binary data in the form of pits and lands on a special material on one of its flat surfaces. The encoding material sits atop a thicker substrate which makes up the bulk of the disc and forms a dust defocusing layer; the encoding pattern follows a continuous, spiral path covering the entire disc surface and extending from the innermost track to the outermost track. The data is stored on the disc with a laser or stamping machine, can be accessed when the data path is illuminated with a laser diode in an optical disc drive which spins the disc at speeds of about 200 to 4,000 RPM or more, depending on the drive type, disc format, the distance of the read head from the center of the disc. Most optical discs exhibit a characteristic iridescence as a result of the diffraction grating formed by its grooves; this side of the disc contains the actual data and is coated with a transparent material lacquer.

The reverse side of an optical disc has a printed label, sometimes made of paper but printed or stamped onto the disc itself. Unlike the 3​1⁄2-inch floppy disk, most optical discs do not have an integrated protective casing and are therefore susceptible to data transfer problems due to scratches and other environmental problems. Optical discs are between 7.6 and 30 cm in diameter, with 12 cm being the most common size. A typical disc is about 1.2 mm thick. An optical disc is designed to support one of three recording types: read-only, recordable, or re-recordable. Write-once optical discs have an organic dye recording layer between the substrate and the reflective layer. Rewritable discs contain an alloy recording layer composed of a phase change material, most AgInSbTe, an alloy of silver, indium and tellurium. Optical discs are most used for storing music, video, or data and programs for personal computers; the Optical Storage Technology Association promotes standardized optical storage formats.

Although optical discs are more durable than earlier audio-visual and data storage formats, they are susceptible to environmental and daily-use damage. Libraries and archives enact optical media preservation procedures to ensure continued usability in the computer's optical disc drive or corresponding disc player. For computer data backup and physical data transfer, optical discs such as CDs and DVDs are being replaced with faster, smaller solid-state devices the USB flash drive; this trend is expected to continue as USB flash drives continue to increase in capacity and drop in price. Additionally, music purchased or shared over the Internet has reduced the number of audio CDs sold annually; the first recorded historical use of an optical disc was in 1884 when Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter recorded sound on a glass disc using a beam of light. An early optical disc system existed in 1935, named Lichttonorgel. An early analog optical disc used for video recording was invented by David Paul Gregg in 1958 and patented in the US in 1961 and 1969.

This form of optical disc was a early form of the DVD. It is of special interest that U. S. Patent 4,893,297, filed 1989, issued 1990, generated royalty income for Pioneer Corporation's DVA until 2007 —then encompassing the CD, DVD, Blu-ray systems. In the early 1960s, the Music Corporation of America bought Gregg's patents and his company, Gauss Electrophysics. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record a digital signal on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was first filed in 1966 and he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s. Both Gregg's and Russell's disc are floppy media read in transparent mode, which imposes serious drawbacks. In the Netherlands in 1969, Philips Research physicist, Pieter Kramer invented an optical videodisc in reflective mode with a protective layer read by a focused laser beam U. S. Patent 5,068,846, filed 1972, issued 1991.

Kramer's physical format is used in all optical discs. In 1975, Philips and MCA began to work together, in 1978, commercially much too late, they presented their long-awaited Laserdisc in Atlanta. MCA delivered the Philips the players. However, the presentation was a commercial failure, the cooperation ended. In Japan and the U. S. Pioneer succeeded with the videodisc until the advent of the DVD. In 1979, Philips and Sony, in consortium developed the audio compact disc. In 1979, Exxon STAR Systems in Pasadena, CA built a computer controlled WORM drive that utilized thin film coatings of Tellurium and Selenium on a 12" diameter glass disk; the recording system utilized blue light at red light at 632.8 nm to read. STAR Systems was bought by Storage Technology Corporation in 1981 and moved to Boulder, CO. Development of the WORM technology was continued using 14" diameter aluminum substrates. Beta testing of the disk drives labeled the Las

Niskala Wastu Kancana

King Niskala Wastu Kancana or known as Prabu Raja Wastu or popularly known as Wastu Kancana was one of a great king of Sunda Galuh Kingdom reigned throughout 15th century. He ruled for 104 years, between 1371–1475, his reign is remembered as a long era of prosperity. Wastu was the youngest son of Prabu Maharaja and the brother of Princess Pitaloka Citraresmi, which together, with most of Wastu's family, perished in Pasunda Bubat incident. In 1357, his family went to Majapahit in East Java to marry Wastu's eldest sister, Princess Pitaloka, with Maharaja Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit; as a toddler, Wastu however, were left to stay in Kawali palace, did not accompany his family to travel to faraway Trowulan in Majapahit. Gajah Mada, the ambitious prime minister of Majapahit, saw the event as an opportunity to demand Sunda Kingdom submission to Majapahit overlordship, he demanded Princess Pitaloka to be given as a token of submission. Enraged, the Sundanese party felt humiliated and refused, thus subsequently violence broke out, the entire Sundanese royal party were killed, including Wastu's parents and extended family.

As a toddler, Wastu is considered too young to reign. Subsequently, the throne was delegated under the regency of his tutor and a relative, Hyang Bunisora, until Wastu come of age. Hyang Bunisora ruled for 14 years. In 1371, Prince Wastu ascended to throne, stylized as Prabu Raja Wastu Kancana. Raja Wastu resided in Kawali palace of Galuh. According to Kawali inscription dated from second half of the 14th century, mentioned that King Prabu Raja Wastu constructed the defensive structures; the copperplate inscription of Kebantenan I reads that Raja Rahyang Niskala Wastu Kancana sent an order through Hyang Ningrat Kancana to the Susuhunan of Pakuan Pajajaran to take care of dayohan in Jayagiri and Sunda Sembawa, banning the collection of collecting taxes from the residents because they were knowledgeable about the religion and worshiped the gods. He reigned for about 104 years, celebrated as an era of peace and prosperity. Compared to other previous Sunda kings, the Sundanese manuscript Carita Parahyangan allocated quite a lot of verses about Niskala Wastu Kancana, all of them full of praise and adoration.

The Batutulis inscription dated from period, mentioned him as Rahiyang Niskala Wastu Kancana, the father of Rahyang Niskala, the grand father of Sri Baduga Maharaja, King of Pakuan Pajajaran. According to Carita Parahyangan, the hundred years old king was abdicated and retreated to hermit life. Rahiyang Niskala Wastu Kancana was buried at Nusa Larang, which might be identified as Nusa Kambangan near the estuarine of Ci Tanduy that flow through Galuh Kingdom territory. Niskala Wastu Kancana's son, named as Tohaan di Galuh in Carita Parahyangan, succeeded him as the king; the new king however, reigned for only seven years and subsequently demoted. Carita Parahyangan tell that "... kena salah twa bogo ka estri larangan ti kaluaran.." which translate as "because wrongdoing, fell in love with a forbidden outsider woman." The term "outsider woman" has led to various proposition. Or according to tradition it was because the new king fell in love with a Javanese woman. According to tradition, in his grief, enraged by the death of his family in Majapahit, King Niskala Wastu Kancana issued edict of "estri larangan ti kaluaran" which forbade Sundanese to marry Javanese.

A law that were violated by his own son

List of CMLL Super Viernes shows in 2009

CMLL Super Viernes is professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre's Friday night wrestling show that takes place in Arena México every Friday night unless a Pay-Per-View or a major wrestling event is scheduled to take place on that night. CMLL began holding their weekly Friday night "Super Viernes" shows as far back as 1938, with 2010 continuing the trend; some of the matches from Super Viernes are taped for CMLL's weekly shows that air in Mexico the week following the Super Viernes show. CMLL presented 46 Super Viernes shows during 2009 scheduled to be 48 but the Swine Influenza epidemic of 2009 forced the cancellation of two shows, one in April and one in May. During the year Super Viernes was replaced by the 2009 Homenaje a Dos Leyendas, Infierno en el Ring, CMLL 76th Anniversary Show and Sin Salida. Super Viernes hosted both the first Campeon Universal tournament and the 2009 version of the Torneo Gran Alternativa. 2009 saw Super Viernes host eight championship matches with only two title changes.

The two title changes both occurred in January, 2009 as the CMLL World Tag Team Championship and the Mexican National Women's Championship changed hands. The shows featured 298 matches in total, 259 for the male division, 20 featuring the female division and 19 featuring the Mini-Estrellas. In 2009 129 different wrestlers appeared in matches during CMLL's Super Viernes shows. Of those 129 wrestlers 14 were Mini-Estrellas and 16 were women. Héctor Garza and Místico wrestled on 31 shows in total, the most of any individual wrestler, which meant they appeared on 67,3% of all the shows. La Amapola was the woman most featured on Super Viernes with 13 matches, appearing in 65% of the women's matches booked for Super Viernes. Mascarita Dorada was the Mini-Estrella who had the most appearances, wrestling 12 times in total, or in 63,1% of all Mini-Estrella matches. Astral, Pequeno Ninja, Mima Shimoda, Rosa Negra, Star Fire; as Jr. Bronco, Nitro, Police Man, Rene Guajardo Jr. and Camaleon all wrestled only on one Super Viernes during 2009