Optometry is a health care profession that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the correction of refractive error with glasses or contact lenses. Traditionally, the field of optometry began with the primary focus of correcting refractive error through the use of spectacles. Modern day optometry, has evolved through time so that the educational curriculum additionally includes significant training in the diagnosis and management of ocular disease, in most of the countries of the world, where the profession is established and regulated. Optometrists are health care professionals who provide primary eye care through refractions and comprehensive eye examinations to detect and treat various vision abnormalities and eye diseases. Being a regulated profession, an optometrist's scope of practice may differ depending on the location. Thus, disorders or diseases detected outside the treatment scope of optometry are referred out to relevant medical professionals for proper care, more to ophthalmologists who are physicians that specialize in medical and surgical care of the eye.
Optometrists work together with other eye care professionals such as ophthalmologists and opticians to deliver quality and efficient eyecare to the general public. The term "optometry" comes from the Greek words ὄψις and μέτρον; the word entered the language. The root word opto is a shortened form derived from the Greek word ophthalmos meaning, "eye." Like most healthcare professions, the education and certification of optometrists is regulated in most countries. Optometric professionals and optometry-related organizations interact with governmental agencies, other healthcare professionals, the community to deliver eye and vision-care; the World Council of Optometry, World Health Organization and about 75 optometry organisations from over 40 countries have all over the world adopted the following definition, to be used to describe optometry and optometrist. Optometry is a healthcare profession, autonomous and regulated, optometrists are the primary healthcare practitioners of the eye and visual system who provide comprehensive eye and vision care, which includes refraction and dispensing, detection/diagnosis and management of disease in the eye, the rehabilitation of conditions of the visual system.
Optometric history is tied to the development of vision science optics, optical aids optical instruments, imaging techniques other eye care professionsThe history of "optometry" can be traced back to the early studies on optics and image formation by the eye. The origins of optical science date back a few thousand years BC as evidence of the existence of lenses for decoration has been found in Greece and the Netherlands, it is unknown. The British scientist and historian Sir Joseph Needham, in his Science and Civilization in China, reported the earliest mention of spectacles was in Venetian guild regulations circa 1300, he suggested that the occasional claim that spectacles were invented in China may have come from a paper by Laufer. Per Needham, the paper by Laufer had many inconsistencies, that the references in the document used by Laufer were not in the original copies but added during the Ming dynasty. Early Chinese sources mention. Alternatively, research by David A. Goss in the United States shows they may have originated in the late 13th century in Italy as stated in a manuscript from 1305 where a monk from Pisa named Rivalto stated "It is not yet 20 years since there was discovered the art of making eyeglasses".
Spectacles were manufactured in Italy and the Netherlands by 1300. Needham stated spectacles were first made shortly after 1286. In 1907, Professor Berthold Laufer, a German American anthropologist, stated in his history of spectacles'the opinion that spectacles originated in India is of the greatest probability and that spectacles must have been known in India earlier than in Europe'. However, as mentioned, Joseph Needham showed that the references Laufer cited were not in the older and best versions of the document Laufer used, leaving his claims unsupported. In Sri Lanka it is well documentedthat during the reign of King Bhuvanekabahu the IV of the Gampola period the ancient tradition of optical lens making with natural stone called Diyatarippu was given royal patronage. A few of the craftsman still live and practice in the original hamlet given to the exponents of the craft by royal decree, but the date of King Bhuvanekabahu is decades after the mention of spectacles in the Venetian guild regulations and after the 1306 sermon by Dominican friar Giordano da Pisa, where da Pisa said the invention of spectacles was both recent and that he had met the inventor The German word brille is derived from Sanskrit vaidurya.
Etymologically, brille is derived from beryl, Latin beryllus, from Greek beryllos, from Prakrit verulia, from Sanskrit vaidurya, of Dravidian origin from the city of Velur. Medieval Latin berillus was applied to eyeglasses, hence German brille, from Middle High German berille, French besicles spectacles, altered fro
David Kinch is an American chef who owns and operates Manresa, a restaurant in Los Gatos, awarded three Michelin stars in 2016. Manresa has been named one of the World's 50 Best Restaurants by Restaurant Magazine, was in America's Top 50 Restaurants by Gourmet, has received four stars from The San Francisco Chronicle, he is dean at the International Culinary Center, founded as the French Culinary Institute in 1984. Kinch is a winner of the Best Chef in America award for the Pacific region from the James Beard Foundation as well as GQ's Chef of the Year for 2011. Kinch's California cuisine has strong French and Japanese influences. Kinch opened a second restaurant in Los Gatos, California called The Bywater, on January 12, 2016. Kinch graduated from Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island in 1981, he began his career in New York City at the Hotel Parker Meridian, held an executive Chef position at La Petite Ferme. In 1984, he left to work under Marc Chevillot at the Hotel de la Poste in France.
In 1985 he accepted a kitchen position at the acclaimed "The Quilted Giraffe" in New York City and worked his way up to a management chef position. After leaving the Quilted Giraffe, Kinch spent five months at Mount Eden Vineyards in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California helping Jeffrey Patterson produce the 1988 Chardonnay vintage. Kinch made his way to the Hotel Clio Court restaurant in Fukuoka, returning to Northern California to work in the kitchens of San Francisco's Silks and Ernie's restaurants. Kinch spent two more years in Europe with Dieter Müller at the two star restaurant Schweizer Stuben in Germany, with Marc Meneau, at the three-star restaurant L'Esperance in St. Pere-sous-Vézeley, at Pedro Subijana's Akelarre in Spain. Kinch opened his first restaurant, the bistro-style Sent Sovi, with Aimee Hébert in Saratoga, California in 1995. Kinch and Hébert operated the restaurant for seven years. Kinch founded Manresa in Los Gatos in 2002, a rough time for a high-priced restaurant because of Silicon Valley's dotcom implosion.
It received little notice at the time, though the local press called it “a culinary dream venue... for those who take food seriously.” He purchased the former Village House restaurant location, writing that he was encouraged by chef Thomas Keller to buy a building while retrieving a forgotten wine bag at the French Laundry restaurant in Napa Valley, where Kinch had dined the night before. A two-alarm fire at Manresa caused substantial damage to the restaurant on July 7, 2014. After extensive work and a complete kitchen rebuild, it re-opened on New Year's Eve, 2014. In October 2013, Kinch published a 328-page cookbook, "Manresa: An Edible Reflection," with Christine Muhlke; the book featured photographs by Eric Wolfinger and an introduction by owner-chef Eric Ripert of Manhattan seafood restaurant Le Bernardin. Kinch appeared as a guest judge along with award-winning sommelier Andre Mack on episode 4 of Season 1 of the ABC reality show The Taste, which aired on February 12, 2013, he appeared on the finale of season eleven of Top Chef.
Kinch, along with Gabrielle Hamilton, is featured in season four of The Mind of a Chef. Together and Hamilton share the 2016 Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Culinary Host for their role on the program. A 2005 write-up in the London Observer, in which food critic Jay Rayner called his 26-course meal at Manresa his most memorable of 2004, started the international acclaim that transformed Kinch into one of the most celebrated chefs of his generation. Anthony Bourdain attended a Kinch meal and stated it was a "wildly creative but well-thought-out meal. Beautifully presented - minimalist very tasty.... This guy is indeed something special." David Kinch on IMDb Manresa restaurant
Corfe Hills School is a secondary school in the urban fringe between Poole and Wimborne, located in Broadstone, Dorset, England. The school became an academy in 2011; the school has over 100 teaching staff. It serves Corfe Mullen, Wimborne and Sturminster Marshall, it has a sixth form centre. The school was established in 1976; the current Headteacher is Phil Keen, following Gary Clark, Headteacher between 2012 and 2016. Alan Hinchliffe had led the school from 2003 to 2012. Mr Hinchliffe succeeded Andrew Williams who left in 2003. Mr Williams had succeeded Dr Brian Harper, the first headteacher when Corfe Hills was built. For over 30 years the school has produced a musical for a week at the Poole Lighthouse theatre, a regional arts centre. Further music and drama productions take place in the spring and summer terms - a Christmas carol service is held at Wimborne Minster; the school enters a team into the annual Rock Challenge Dance competition, being placed in several years allowing entry to the regional premier competition.
Productions include Guys and Dolls, Hot Mikado, In to the Woods, Calamity Jane, "Anything Goes", Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Fiddler on the Roof, Oliver Twist, Sweet Charity more. The school has international links, of which its rugby and Netball tours are the best known. In recent years the teams have travelled to South Africa, New Zealand and Fiji; the school sporting facilities include an indoor sports hall and outside area, including football and rugby pitches, a cricket strip, a 400m running track and four tennis courts. The school is located on the county top for Poole unitary authority, called Corfe Hills, hence the name; the actual summit of the hill is on the Higher Blandford Road near the mobile phone tower by the school entrance. At 78 metres, Corfe Hills is the highest point in Poole. School website Ofsted Report
The Iran men's national football team has participated in 14 editions of the AFC Asian Cup, first appearing in the 1968 Asian Cup after automatically qualifying as hosts. Overall, Iran is one of the most successful teams in Asia, having won three titles from 1968 to 1976. However, after the 1976 Asian Cup, Iran's best performance is just third place, it was Iran's first Asian Cup debut, as they were awarded as host. Iran lifted the trophy for the first time. Template:Iran squad 1968 AFC Asian Cup Template:Iran squad 1972 AFC Asian Cup It would have been the last time Iran has won the title, as for 2019. However, Iran holds record as the most consecutive champion, having won three strait titles comparing to Japan, Saudi Arabia and South Korea, bot have two strait titles. Template:Iran squad 1980 AFC Asian Cup Template:Iran squad 1988 AFC Asian Cup The 1992 tournament was considered as the most disappointing tournament for Iran, after ended up in group stage and got eliminated for the first time in the history.
It remains. With the third strait defeats in the quarter-finals, Iran had failed to pass through the quarter-finals for three consecutive Asian Cup. Adding with the last time Iran crowned as champion in 1976, Iran had not won the Asian Cup for 43 years. Ali Daei, former Iran's international, has stated Iran would have more confident to win the Asian Cup and ended their 47 years in drought of the title, citing their 2018 World Cup participation as useful to help Iran
Kékes is Hungary's highest mountain, at 1,015 metres above sea level. It lies 12 kilometres northeast in the Mátra range of Heves county, it is Hungary's third most popular tourist attraction, after Lake Balaton and the Danube, has a number of hotels and skiing pistes. The Kékestető TV Tower stands at the summit; the name Kékes is derived from the mountain's bluish colour. In Hungarian, the word kék means'blue', while kékes means implicitly'bluish'. For road bicycle racing enthusiasts, the mountain can be climbed by two main routes. South from Gyöngyös: 839 m over 17.8 km. This is the most difficult ascent. North from Parád: 775 m over 16.9 km. About equal in difficulty as the Bédoin ascent, but better sheltered against the climb. List of highest paved roads in Europe List of highest paved roads in Europe by country Media related to Kékes at Wikimedia Commons
Peter Hermann Hrdlitschka is a former Canadian competition swimmer. At 2 years of age, Hrdlitschka immigrated, along with his parents Doris and Frank, to Ocean Falls, British Columbia, Canada where, at age 5, his competitive swimming career began with a 3rd-place finish for freestyle; the Hrdlitschka family moved to Vernon, British Columbia in 1965. In 1970, Hrdlitschka set the Canadian record for boys 13-14 100-metre breaststroke. In 1972, he finished 4th at the Canadian Olympic trials and moved to Vancouver to train with the Canadian Dolphin Swim Club and the National Development Team Program. In 1973, he won bronze for Canada — along with teammates Ian MacKenzie, Bruce Robertson and Brian Phillips — at the World Aquatics Championships in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in the men’s 4 x 100 metre medley relay; as a senior swimmer with the Master Ducks Swim Club, Hrdlitschka continues to set National records for his age group in the breaststroke. Hrdlitschka has 3 daughters — Danielle and Kyla — and a step-daughter, Megan.
On March 31, 2012, Hrdlitschka married Sharon Wyse Boileau. The couple live in North Vancouver where Hrdlitschka is President of Canada. Hrdlitschka and Wyse Boileau — now Wyse Hrdlitschka — are involved in volunteer and philanthropical efforts on behalf of children