Opus Dei, formally known as the Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, is an institution of the Catholic Church which teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity. The majority of its membership are lay people. Opus Dei is Latin for "Work of God". Opus Dei was founded in Spain in 1928 by Catholic saint and priest Josemaría Escrivá and was given final Catholic Church approval in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. John Paul II made it a personal prelature in 1982 by the apostolic constitution Ut sit; as of 2018, there were 95,318 members of the Prelature: 2,115 priests. These figures do not include the diocesan priest members of Opus Dei's Priestly Society of the Holy Cross, estimated to number 2,000 in the year 2005. Members are in more than 90 countries. About 70% of Opus Dei members live in their private homes, leading traditional Catholic family lives with secular careers, while the other 30% are celibate, of whom the majority live in Opus Dei centers. Aside from their personal charity and social work, Opus Dei members organize training in Catholic spirituality applied to daily life.
Opus Dei has been described as the most controversial force within the Catholic Church as a result of their close ties with the fascist Franco regime in Spain during his rule from 1936 to 1975. Defenders of the organization argue that many of the negative claims about Opus Dei are unproven or fabrications. Opus Dei was founded by a Catholic priest, Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer, on 2 October 1928 in Madrid, Spain. According to Escrivá, on that day he experienced a vision in which he "saw Opus Dei", he gave the organization the name "Opus Dei", which in Latin means "Work of God", in order to underscore the belief that the organization was not his work, but was rather God's work. Throughout his life, Escrivá held. Escrivá summarized Opus Dei's mission as a way of helping ordinary Christians "to understand that their life... is a way of holiness and evangelization... And to those who grasp this ideal of holiness, the Work offers the spiritual assistance and training they need to put it into practice."Initially, Opus Dei was open only to men, but in 1930, Escrivá started to admit women, based on what he believed to be a communication from God.
In 1936, the organization suffered a temporary setback with the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, as many Catholic priests and religious figures, including Escrivá, were forced into hiding. The atrocities committed during the civil war included the murder and rape of religious figures by anti-Franco Anarchists. After the civil war was won by General Francisco Franco, Escrivá was able to return to Madrid. Escrivá himself recounted that it was in Spain where Opus Dei found "the greatest difficulties" because of traditionalists who he felt misunderstood Opus Dei's ideas. Despite this, Opus Dei flourished during the years of the Franquismo, spreading first throughout Spain, after 1945, expanding internationally. In 1939, Escrivá published The Way, a collection of 999 maxims concerning spirituality for people involved in secular affairs. In the 1940s, Opus Dei found an early critic in the Jesuit Superior General Wlodimir Ledóchowski, who told the Vatican that he considered Opus Dei "very dangerous for the Church in Spain," citing its "secretive character" and calling it "a form of Christian Masonry."In 1947, a year after Escrivá moved the organization's headquarters to Rome, Opus Dei received a decree of praise and approval from Pope Pius XII, making it an institute of "pontifical right", i.e. under the direct governance of the Pope.
In 1950, Pius XII granted definitive approval to Opus Dei, thereby allowing married people to join the organization, secular clergy to be admitted to the Priestly Society of the Holy Cross. In 1975, Escriva was succeeded by Álvaro del Portillo. In 1982, Opus Dei was made into a personal prelature; this means that Opus Dei is part of the universal Church, the apostolate of the members falls under the direct jurisdiction of the Prelate of Opus Dei wherever they are. As to "what the law lays down for all the ordinary faithful", the lay members of Opus Dei, being no different from other Catholics, "continue to be... under the jurisdiction of the diocesan bishop", in the words of John Paul II's Ut Sit. In 2017, Fernando Ocáriz Braña became Prelate upon the death of Javier Echevarría. One-third of the world's bishops sent letters petitioning for the canonization of Escrivá. Escriva was beatified in 1992 in the midst of controversy prompted by questions about Escriva's suitability for sainthood. In 2002 300,000 people gathered in St. Peter's Square on the day Pope John Paul II canonized Josemaría Escrivá.
According to one author, "Escrivá is... venerated by millions". There are other members whose process of beatification has been opened: Ernesto Cofiño, a father of five children and a pioneer in pediatric research in Guatemala.
The UEFA European Under-18 Championship 1982 Final Tournament was held in Finland. It served as the European qualification for the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship; the competition was won by Scotland, their first tournament win at any international level. The following teams qualified for the tournament: Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Finland West Germany Hungary Netherlands Poland Portugal Republic of Ireland Scotland Soviet Union Spain Turkey The six best performing teams qualified for the 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship: four semifinalists and the best group runners-up. Austria Czechoslovakia Netherlands Poland Scotland Soviet Union Results by RSSSF
Introduced in April 1954, the RCA CT-100 was an early all-electronic consumer color television. The color picture tube measured 15 inches diagonally; the viewable picture was just 11½ inches wide. The sets were made at RCA's plant in Indiana; the sets cost half the price of a new low-end automobile. By the end of 1954, RCA released an improved color TV with a 21-inch picture tube; the CT-100, which had 36 vacuum tubes in its CTC-2 chassis was the most complicated electronic device sold to the general public at the time of its release. After initial sales to early adopters, the rest sold poorly after a price cut. Many were donated by RCA for training purposes to trade schools and technical colleges, the source of most of today's survivors. Early NBC Living Color programs included An Evening with Fred Astaire; the CT-100 was created in 1954. RCA CT-100 sets are sought-after by electronics collectors and restorers, with restorers spending thousands of dollars to obtain or repair a set, it is believed.
Around 150 survive. The Early Television Museum in Hilliard, Ohio has a restored and working set on display, as does the SPARK Museum of Electrical Invention in Bellingham, Washington. One reason for the rarity of surviving sets is that the RCA-developed tri-color cathode ray tube, used in the CT-100 was notorious for its glass-to-metal seals breaking down, causing the tube to lose its vacuum, it is rare to find tubes that still work. The 15G was a glass tube, but its high voltage connection is a metal ring between the face of the tube and the glass bell; this is where the leakage occurs. Ed Reitan's CT-100 Page Early Television Museum
James Henry Cyriax was a British doctor known as the "father of orthopedic medicine." His work is influential in the areas of physical therapy. The son of two doctors, he qualified for membership and licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1929 and was appointed house surgeon of orthopedic surgery at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, where he worked for 40 years, he went on to develop a system of clinical exams to diagnose and treat soft tissue lesions, indicated by assessing body movements. In 1943, he earned the Heberden prize for his essay on the treatment of elbow sprains, he founded the Association of Manipulative Medicine and the Cyriax Foundation, which has since shut down, to promote orthopedic medical education. He was appointed a Member of the Royal College of Physicians in 1954. In his career, he was a visiting professor at the University of Rochester in the United States, he was considered a controversial figure during his lifetime both for his personality and his views on medicine.
Cyriax developed a series of simple objective clinical exams that would diagnose soft tissue musculoskeletal lesions. His collected results, after many years of trial and error, coalesced into a set of systematic simple clinical exams for each joint and a treatment system for the soft tissue lesions around each joint. Cyriax's Rule states that pain with both active range of motion and passive range of motion in the same direction points to inert tissue dysfunction. Pain with active range of motion in one direction and pain with passive range of motion in the opposite direction signal contractile tissue dysfunction. Cyriax's papers are held at the Wellcome Library
Sir Richard Radford Best, was a senior British diplomat. He served as Ambassador to Iceland from 1989 to 1991. Best was born in Worthing, West Sussex, on 28 July 1933, he studied history at University College London. On 31 December 1970, Best was appointed an officer of the Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service. In the 1977 Queen's Birthday Honours, Best was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire for his services as First Secretary, H. M. Embassy Stockholm, and a CBE in the 1989 New Year Honours for his service as Deputy High Commissioner in Nigeria. On 26 June 1990, he was appointed Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order, therefore granted the title of Sir. Interview with Sir Richard Radford Best & transcript, British Diplomatic Oral History Programme, Churchill College, Cambridge, 1996
Rani Roopmati was a poet and the consort of the Sultan of Malwa, Baz Bahadur. Roopmati features prominently in the folklores of Malwa, which talk about the love between the Sultan and Roopmati. Adham Khan was prompted to conquer Mandu due to Roopmati's beauty; when Adham Khan marched on the fort Baz Bahadur met him with his small force and was defeated, Roopmati poisoned herself. Thus ending the magical love story, steeped in music, romance and death; this romance is considered a legend by some whilst others consider it to be true. Baz Bahadur so fond of music, was the last independent ruler of Mandu. Once out hunting, Baz Bahadur chanced upon a shepherdess singing with her friends. Smitten by both her enchanting beauty and her melodius voice, he begged Roopmati to accompany him to his capital. Roopmati agreed to go to Mandu on the condition that she would live in a palace within sight of her beloved and venerated river, Narmada, thus was built the Rewa Kund at Mandu. The romance of this Muslim prince and Hindu shepherdess was doomed to failure.
The great Mughal Akbar decided to capture Roopmati and Baz Bahadur. Akbar sent Adham Khan to capture Baz bahadur went to challenge him with his small army. No match for the great Mughal army, Mandu fell easily. Baz Bahadur fled to Chittorgarh to seek help; as Adham Khan came to Mandu, he was surprised by the beauty of Roopmati. Rani Roopmati stoically poisoned herself to avoid capture. In 1599, Ahmad-ul-Umri Turkoman, in the service of Sharaf-ud-Din Mirza wrote the story of Rani Roopmati in Persian, he included them in his work. The original manuscript passed to his grandson Fulad Khan and his friend Mir Jafar Ali made a copy of the manuscript in 1653. Mir Jafar Ali's copy passed to Mehbub Ali of Delhi and after his death in 1831 passed to a lady of Delhi. Jemadar Inayat Ali of Bhopal brought this manuscript from her to Agra; this manuscript reached C. E. Luard and translated into English by L. M. Crump under the title, The Lady of the Lotus: Rupmati, Queen of Mandu: A Strange Tale of Faithfulness in 1926.
This manuscript has a collection of ten kavitas and three sawaiyas of Rupmati. The Rewa Kund is a reservoir built by Baz Bahadur at Mandu, equipped with an aqueduct to supply Roopmati's palace with water. Today, the site is revered as a holy spot. Baz Bahadur's Palace was constructed in the early 16th century, is notable for its spacious courtyard fringed with halls, high terraces which give a terrific view of the lovely surroundings. Rani Roopmati's Pavilion was built as an army observation post, it served a more romantic purpose as Roopmati's retreat. From this picturesque pavilion perched on a hilltop, the queen could gaze at her paramour's palace, at the Narmada flowing by, below. Rani Roopmati's double pavilion perched on the southern embattlements afforded a beautiful view of the Narmada valley