Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
USS Aulick (DD-569)
USS Aulick was an American Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Commodore John H. Aulick. Aulick was laid down on 14 May 1941 at Texas, by the Consolidated Steel Corporation. Following her commissioning, the destroyer conducted shakedown training between the Gulf of Mexico and Casco Bay Maine. On December 14, 1942 at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay outside of Hampton Roads, VA, near the Thimble Shoals Lighthouse, she hit and sank the sloop Narada on loan to the US Coast Guard for antisubmarine duty. There was no loss of life, her owner L. Corrin Strong was notified and compensated $6,249.80. She departed Philadelphia on 23 January 1943, bound for the South Pacific, she transited the Panama Canal and paused at Bora Bora, Society Islands, before making Nouméa, New Caledonia, on 12 February. After a week of antisubmarine patrol off New Caledonia, Aulick joined Task Force 64 in the Coral Sea and stood by to support an American force landing on the Russell Islands.
When TF 64 returned to Nouméa on 25 February, Aulick was detached. She stood out for Espiritu Santo on 1 March as an escort for the aircraft transport Athene. From there, the destroyer steamed to Efate Island, New Hebrides, but on 9 March, she was ordered back to Nouméa. At 0411 on the 10th, Aulick struck a coral reef off the southern tip of New Caledonia while making 20 knots and suffered extensive damage to her hull and engines. After being drydocked at Nouméa, the ship was taken in tow bound for Hawaii, where she arrived on 10 April after stops at Suva, Fiji Islands, at Pago Pago, American Samoa; the warship underwent repairs at Pearl Harbor until 8 November when she got underway for Bremerton, Washington Reaching there on 14 November, Aulick entered the Puget Sound Navy Yard for replacement of damaged machinery. She set sail on 23 December to return to Pearl Harbor. Upon reaching that port, the ship received three more weeks of availability; the destroyer left Hawaii on 22 January 1944, bound for the west coast, reported to the Fleet Operational Training Command in San Francisco on 3 February.
Her duties included serving as a training ship in engineering and deck duties. The highlight of her service during this assignment was her rescue on 11 April of 16 crewmen from a downed United States Navy PBM Mariner flying boat; the warship was relieved on 18 May and reported to the Bethlehem Steel Shipyard, San Francisco, for repairs. At the end of this work, she arrived there on 27 June. After a series of training exercises, Aulick got underway on 9 July in the screen of 12 transports bound for the invasion of Guam, they arrived off that island on 22 July, the destroyer remained in the area and screening units of the 5th Fleet, until 6 August. After a resupply stop at Eniwetok, Aulick rendezvoused with Task Group 32.4 on 21 August and continued on to Guadalcanal where she spent the next three weeks preparing for upcoming operations against the Palaus. The destroyer sailed for that group of islands with TG 32.7 on 8 September, reached her destination on 15 September, supported the forces landing on Peleliu and on Anguar.
On 30 September, the ship headed for Admiralty Islands, to join the 7th Fleet. She arrived off Leyte on 18 October; the next day, Aulick was assigned to the northern fire support group for shore bombardment, night harassing fire, close fire support. She entered San Pedro Bay at 0655 and opened fire at 1115. At 1212, Japanese shells scored direct hits on the destroyer, killing one crewman by flying shrapnel. At 1328, she retired for the night. Aulick again rendered fire support on 21 October. From 22 to 24 October, she did not fire her guns. Meanwhile, the Japanese high command had activated its plan to defend the Philippines with the Combined Fleet. Japan's warships were organized into four groups; the northern force was built around the Combined Fleet's remaining aircraft carriers, now bereft of their warplanes, was to wait as a decoy north of Luzon. Japan hoped to lure the American Fast Carrier Task Force to a point far enough from Leyte Gulf for it to be out of action while the Emperor's other three forces, composed of surface warships, annihilated the American shipping supporting Major General Douglas MacArthur's beachhead on Leyte.
Thus, they hoped to strand the American invaders on Leyte as MacArthur's soldiers had been caught on Bataan some three years before. The more powerful of these surface forces was to cross the Sibuyan Sea, transit San Bernardino Strait, descend upon Leyte Gulf from the north; the other two were to emerge from Surigao Strait and attack the invaders in Leyte Gulf from the south. On 25 October, Aulick was part of the screen, protecting American battleships and cruisers guarding the waters approaching Surigao Strait; the guns of these warships defeated the first of the Japanese southern forces so decisively that the second force turned back before getting into action. As the Japanese retreated, the American ships, including Aulick, joined in sinking a Japanese destroyer of the Akitsuki class. Before the Americans could finish off any more ships, they were ordered to return to Leyte Gulf. Reports were received. Aulick and five other destroyers took station near the south coast of Homonhon Island awaitin
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the family Rutaceae. It is called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange; the sweet orange reproduces asexually. The orange is a hybrid between mandarin; the chloroplast genome, therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Sweet orange originated in ancient China and the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC; as of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit; the fruit of the orange tree can be processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for 70% of citrus production. In 2014, 70.9 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 24% of the world total followed by China and India. All citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain entirely interfertile.
This includes grapefruits, limes and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids and cultivars, bud mutations have been selected, citrus taxonomy is controversial, confusing or inconsistent; the fruit of any citrus tree is considered a kind of modified berry. Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange applies to the sweet orange – Citrus sinensis Osbeck; the orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m, although some old specimens can reach 15 m. Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, have crenulate margins. Sweet oranges grow in a range of different sizes, shapes varying from spherical to oblong. Inside and attached to the rind is a porous white tissue, the white, bitter mesocarp or albedo; the orange contains a number of distinct carpels inside about ten, each delimited by a membrane, containing many juice-filled vesicles and a few seeds. When unripe, the fruit is green.
The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric; the Citrus sinensis group is subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, acidless oranges. Other citrus groups known as oranges are: Mandarin orange is an original species of citrus, is a progenitor of the common orange. Bitter orange known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange and marmalade orange. Like the sweet orange, it is a pomelo x mandarin hybrid, but arose from a distinct hybridization event. Bergamot orange, grown in Italy for its peel, producing a primary essence for perfumes used to flavor Earl Grey tea, it is a hybrid of bitter orange x lemon. Trifoliate orange, sometimes included in the genus, it serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees and other Citrus cultivars.
An enormous number of cultivars have, like a mix of pomelo and mandarin ancestry. Some cultivars are mandarin-pomelo hybrids, bred from the same parents as the sweet orange. Other cultivars are sweet orange x mandarin hybrids. Mandarin traits include being smaller and oblate, easier to peel, less acidic. Pomelo traits include a thick white albedo, more attached to the segments. Orange trees are grafted; the bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood and scion. The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree", which in turn derives from a Dravidian root word; the Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian نارنگ and its Arabic derivative نارنج. The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French orenge; the French word, in turn, comes from Old Provençal auranja, based on Arabic nāranj. In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mistaken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound—in French, for example, une norenge may have been heard as une orenge.
This linguistic change is called juncture loss. The color was named after the fruit, the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512; as Portuguese merchants were the first to introduce the sweet orange to some regions of Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian портокал, Greek πορτοκάλι, Macedonian portokal, Persian پرتقال, Turkish portakal and Romanian portocală. Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال, Georgian ფორთოხალი and Amharic birtukan. In
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Texas's 36th congressional district
Texas's 36th Congressional District is a new district, created as a result of the 2010 Census. The first candidates ran in the 2012 House elections for a seat in the 113th United States Congress. Steve Stockman won the general election, represented the new district. On December 9, 2013, Stockman announced that he would not seek reelection in 2014, would instead challenge incumbent John Cornyn in the Republican senatorial primary, was succeeded in the U. S. House by Brian Babin. Texas's 36th Congressional District is located in southeast Texas and includes all of Newton, Tyler, Orange, Hardin and Chambers counties, plus portions of southeastern Harris County; the Johnson Space Center is within the district. The 36th district is one of only two districts in Texas that has never been represented by a member of the Democratic Party; the new 36th District includes portions of four current congressional districts that were represented by: Kevin Brady: Newton, Tyler, Orange, Hardin Counties and a portion of Liberty County Ted Poe: the other portion of Liberty County and a portion of northeast Harris County Ron Paul: Chambers County Gene Green: a portion of east Harris County Pete Olson: a portion of southeast Harris CountyThere were twelve candidates for the Republican nomination, one candidate for the Democratic nomination, one Libertarian candidate and one independent candidate.
Candidates in the 2014 primary include Republicans Phil Fitzgerald, John Amdur, Doug Centilli, Dave Norman, Chuck Meyer and Kim I. Morrell, Democrat Michael K. Cole
Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana
Calcasieu Parish is a parish located on the southwestern border of the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 192,768; the parish seat is Lake Charles. Calcasieu Parish is part of the Lake Charles, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area with a population of 194,138, it is located near the Beaumont–Port Arthur and Alexandria metropolitan areas. Calcasieu Parish was created March 24, 1840, from the parish of Saint Landry, one of the original nineteen civil parishes established by the Louisiana Legislature in 1807 after the United States acquired the territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the original parish seat was Comasaque Bluff, a settlement east of the river and called Marsh Bayou Bluff. On December 8, 1840, it was renamed as Louisiana. In 1852 Jacob Ryan, a local planter and businessman, donated land and offered to move the courthouse in order to have the parish seat moved to Lake Charles; as the population in this area grew over the years, the original Calcasieu Parish has since been divided into five smaller parishes.
The original area of Calcasieu Parish is called Imperial Calcasieu. The name Calcasieu comes from the Atakapa word, spelled quelqueshue in a French transliteration, meaning "crying eagle." This was the name of an Atakapa chief, which French colonists applied to the local river, the Calcasieu River. When the Spanish controlled this area, they referred to this river as the Rio Hondo River; the Americans adopted an English transliteration of the French name for the parish. The early history of the parish dates to the period of the Spanish occupation of Louisiana, after France had ceded this territory following its defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. In 1797, Jose M. Mora was granted a large tract of land between the Rio Hondo and the Sabine River, known for years as the "Neutral Strip" between Louisiana and Texas; the area became a refuge for outlaws and filibusters from Carolina and Mississippi of the United States, which had gained independence from Great Britain. The territory was disputed for years between Spain and the United States after France had ceded Louisiana to the American government as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
It was definitively acquired by the United States from Spain with the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. The treaty was formally ratified on February 22, 1821. By an act of Congress, approved on March 3, 1823, this strip of land was attached to the district of the Louisiana Territory south of the Red River. Early settlers to the area included the Ryan, Perkin, LeBleu and Henderson families. Acadian settlers, from the eastern parishes of Louisiana migrated to this area. Of French descent and exiled by the British from Acadia, many of these refugees had settled in Louisiana; the parish had a diverse ethnic mix of French and Spanish Creoles, Anglo-Americans, enslaved African Americans, Indians. When "Imperial Calcasieu Parish" was created in 1840 from the Parish of Saint Landry, it comprised a large area. With the growth of population in the area, this was subsequently divided into five parishes. On August 24, 1840, six men met to organize as representatives for six wards that became five parishes; the meeting was held in the house of Arsene LeBleu near present-day Chloe.
The first police jury men were David Simmons, Alexander Hébert, Michel Pithon, Henry Moss, Rees Perkins, Thomas M. Williams, their first order of business was to elect officers, appoint a parish clerk, settle on simple parliamentary rules that would enable the president to keep the meetings orderly and progressive. The jury adopted all of the laws in force in Saint Landry Parish, they appointed a parish constable, a parish treasurer, two parish assessors, an operator of the ferry at Buchanan's crossing. The assessors were given two months to assess all of the property in the parish and a salary of $90. On September 14, 1840, a survey was authorized of land known as Marsh Bayou Bluff in order to establish a seat of justice and construct a courthouse and jail. On December 8, 1840 the jury chose to rename this community as Marion. In 1843, the Legislature authorized a vote to move the parish seat. In 1852, Jacob Ryan was successful in having the parish seat relocated from Marion to the east bank of Lake Charles.
This parish seat was incorporated in 1857 as the town of Charleston. It is located about six miles from Marion, now known as Old Town; the name Lake Charles commemorates one of the first European settlers, Charles Sallier, a Frenchman who acquired land in this area at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1870 Cameron Parish was taken from the south portion of Imperial Calcasieu, it was one of several parishes organized during the Reconstruction era by the Republican-dominated legislature, in an effort to build Republican strength. Because areas had been developed as cotton plantations, Calcasieu Parish had numerous African-American slaves. After emancipation, most of the freedmen joined the Republican Party, but the area set aside for Cameron Parish had a majority-white population. In the late 1870s, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature through fraud and intimidation. At the turn of the century, they disenfranchised most blacks in the state by creating barriers to voter registration passed racial segregation and other Jim Crow laws.
In 1912 Calcasieu Parish still comprised an area of more than 3,600 square miles, was the largest parish in the state by geography. For this reason it is sometimes called "Imperial Calcasieu". In 1912, the three parishes of Allen and Jefferson Davis, wit
The Piney Woods is a temperate coniferous forest terrestrial ecoregion in the Southern United States covering 54,400 square miles of East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, southeastern Oklahoma. These coniferous forests are dominated by several species of pine as well as hardwoods including hickory and oak; the most dense part of this forest region was the Big Thicket though the lumber industry reduced the forest concentration in this area and throughout the Piney Woods during the 19th and 20th centuries. The World Wide Fund for Nature considers the Piney Woods to be one of the critically endangered ecoregions of the United States; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines most of this ecoregion as the South Central Plains. The Piney Woods cover a 54,400-square-mile area of eastern Texas, northwestern Louisiana, southwestern Arkansas and the southeastern corner of Oklahoma, they are bounded on the east by the Mississippi lowland forests, on the south by the Western Gulf coastal grasslands, on the west by the East Central Texas forests and the Texas blackland prairies, on the northwest by the Central forest-grasslands transition, on the north by the Ozark Mountain forests.
It receives 40-52 inches of precipitation annually. The region has heavy to moderate rainfall, with some places receiving over 60 in of rain per year. Longleaf and loblolly pines, along with bluejack and post oaks, dominate sandhills. A well-developed understory grows beneath the sparse canopy, includes yaupon holly and flowering dogwood. Pine savannas consist of scattered longleaf and loblolly pines alongside black tupelos, in acid soils along creeks sweetbay magnolias. Other common trees in this ecoregion include eastern redbud, red maple, southern sugar maple, American elm. American wisteria, a vine, may cover groves of trees Two varieties of wetlands are common in the Piney Woods: bayous are found near rivers and sloughs are found near creeks. In bayous bald cypress, Spanish moss, water lilies are common plants. Sloughs are shallow pools of standing water. Other species, such as the purple bladderwort, a small carnivorous plant, have found niches in sloughs. Hardy species of prickly pear cactus and yucca can be found both in the wetlands.
The indigenous Texas trailing phlox, an endangered species, grows in the sandy soils of longleaf pine forests. Mammals such as eastern cottontail rabbits, eastern gray squirrels, Virginia opossums, nine-banded armadillos, white-tailed deer, North American cougars, gray foxes, ring-tailed cats, Rafinesque's big-eared bats, Seminole bat. Birds include sandhill cranes and turkey vultures, northern mockingbirds, the vulnerable red-cockaded woodpecker. American alligators are not as common as they once were, but their population has rebounded since the 1960s. Louisiana black bears are rare today. There has been significant talk of reintroducing the black bear into many parts of East Texas; the most common fish is catfish, which are a native species but stocked in local reservoirs. Crayfish are common along creek banks; the Piney Woods Region of the four state area is a noted area for Bigfoot sightings. One such noted legend is the story of the Fouke Monster of Southern Arkansas; the area according to references lists this area to be the third highest in North America for these such sightings.
Melanistic cougars, another probable cryptid, have been noted by residents. The majority of the commercial timber growing and wood processing in the state of Texas takes place in the Piney Woods region, which contains about 50,000 square kilometres of commercial forestland. One National Preserve, the Big Thicket National Preserve, in the southern part of the Texas portion of the Piney Woods region consists of fourteen named, non-contiguous units scattered across a wide area bounded by Pine Island Bayou in Hardin County, Texas to the south, the Neches River bottom to the east, the Trinity River to the west and Steinhagen Reservoir to the north; the preserve contains ten distinct ecosystems according to the National Park Service. Big Thicket National Preserve is one of two UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in Texas; the preserve has been listed as a Globally Important Bird Area by the American Bird Conservancy. The preserve was established in 1974 under 16 U. S. Code § 698 - Big Thicket National Preserve "...to assure the preservation and protection of the natural and recreational values of a significant portion of the Big Thicket area in the State of Texas..."
Since the preserve's inception, the Conservation Fund has helped to increase the amount of protected acreage by 33,000 acres. Four National Forests are found in the Piney Woods of East Texas, covering some 634,912 acres in 12 counties. Angelina National Forest Sabine National Forest Davy Crockett National Forest Sam Houston National Forest The Arkansas portion of the Piney Woods has twelve state parks and one state forest: Arkansas Museum of Natural Resources Cane Creek State Park Conway Cemetery State Park Crater of Diamonds State Park Historic Washington State Park Jenkins' Ferry State Park Logoly State Park Marks' Mills State Park Millwood State Park Moro Bay S