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Orange County, Virginia

Orange County is a county located in the Central Piedmont region of the Commonwealth of Virginia. At the 2010 census, the population was 33,481, its county seat is Orange. Orange County includes Montpelier, the 2,700-acre estate of James Madison, the 4th President of the United States and known as the "Father of the Constitution"; the county celebrated its 275th anniversary in 2009. The area was inhabited for thousands of years by various cultures of indigenous peoples. At the time of European encounter, the Ontponea, a sub-group of the Siouan-speaking Manahoac tribe, lived in this Piedmont area; the first European settlement in what was to become Orange County was Germanna, formed when Governor Alexander Spotswood settled 12 immigrant families from Westphalia, there in 1714. Orange County, as a legal entity, was created in August 1734 when the Virginia House of Burgesses adopted An Act for Dividing Spotsylvania County. Unlike other counties whose boundaries had ended at the Blue Ridge Mountains, Orange was bounded on the west "by the utmost limits of Virginia" which, at that time, stretched to the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.

The colony of Virginia claimed the land, but little of it had yet been occupied by any English. For this reason, some contend that Orange County was at one time the largest county that existed; this situation lasted only four years. The expansiveness of the county boundaries was to encourage settlement further westward as well as to contend against the French claim to the Ohio Valley region. No battles of the American Revolution were fought in Orange County. However, two companies of 50 men each were recruited from Orange County to the Culpeper Minutemen. One was led by Col. Lawrence Taliaferro. In December 1775, this company fought in the Battle of Great Bridge Orange County's Committee of Safety was active in providing money, horses, guns and other supplies to Continental forces. Orange County prospered with the development of several railroad routes through Orange and Gordonsville in the 1840s and 1850s, they succeeded the plank road between Fredericksburg and Orange, which connected with two important roads: the Richmond Road between the state capital and the Shenandoah Valley and a stage coach route to Charlottesville and points south.

The Orange and Alexandria Railroad and Virginia Central Railroad helped foster a diversified agricultural economy in Orange County, bringing produce and timber to markets in Richmond, Washington D. C. and Norfolk as well as more industrial products. The final adjustment of the county's boundaries occurred in 1838, when Greene County was created from the western portion of Orange; the Town of Orange was established in 1834 and had served as the county seat for nearly a century. During the Civil War, the towns of Orange and Gordonsville continued as important railroad hubs and hospital centers for the Confederacy. Confederate military companies recruited from the county included three companies of the 13th Virginia Infantry, the Gordonsville Grays, two artillery companies, one cavalry company, many soldiers in the 7th Virginia Infantry, Wise Artillery and 6th Virginia Cavalry. General Robert E. Lee rode through the county and wintered the Army of Northern Virginia in Orange County during 1863-64, the Rapidan River becoming a defensive line.

Cavalry raids against the railroad supply lines occurred, including several at Rapidan on the border with Culpeper County. Troops crossed the Rapidan River at Germanna Ford near Locust Grove. After Fredericksburg fell to Union forces, Mosby's Rangers were formed and conducted some operations in Orange County; the 1863 Battle of Mine Run and the 1864 Battle of the Wilderness both occurred in eastern Orange County, as Union troops drove toward the Confederacy's capitaol. The latter became a significant turning point in the war. Following Virginia's readmission to the Union in 1870, the railroads were rebuilt; the county was divided into Barbour, Madison and Gordon townships, named after important pre-war citizens. The agricultural economy resumed despite the loss of slave labor, with more livestock and dairy farming both because such required less physical labor and because the railroads could deliver those agricultural products to larger markets quickly and cheaply. Virginia Governor James L. Kemper moved from Madison County to near Orange.

Agriculture and manufacturing continued to expand into the twentieth century, with a peak of 1279 farms and 20 manufacturing companies located within the county as of 1929. A manufacturing survey taken during the Great Depression noted that Orange County's economy remained healthy due to its accessibility; the county's population fluctuated following the Civil War up through the 1930s. From that point forward, the population continued to grow representing an 300% increase through the 2010 Census. In 1991, the Virginia Landmarks Register designated 31,200 acres in the county's western portion as the Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District; the largest such district in the Commonwealth includes James Madison's Montpelier, James Barbour's Thomas Jefferson-designed Barboursville mansion, several plantations, portions of the Montice

Thomas Wilkinson (bishop of Zululand)

Thomas Edward Wilkinson was an Anglican bishop in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was born in 1837, educated at Bury St Edmunds, King's College London and Jesus College, Cambridge. Ordained in 1861, after a curacy at St Mary, Cavendish. In 1870 he became the inaugural Bishop of Zululand, a post he held until 1880. On his return to England he was vicar of St Michael Caerhays coadjutor bishop of London for North and Central Europe, he died on 22 October 1914. Venn, John. Alumni Cantabrigienses: A Biographical List of All Known Students and Holders of Office at the University of Cambridge, from the Earliest Times to 1900. 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-03616-0

Australian contribution to the Allied Intervention in Russia 1918–1919

The Russian Civil War began after the provisional government collapsed and the Bolshevik party assumed power in October 1917. The principal fighting occurred between the Bolshevik Red Army and the forces of the White Army, a group of loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. During the war several foreign armies took part fighting against the Red Army—including the Western allies—and many foreign volunteers fought for both sides. Other nationalist and regional political groups participated in the war, including the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army, the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army and Black Guards, warlords such as Ungern von Sternberg. Despite some pressure from Britain, the Australian Prime Minister, William Hughes, had refused to commit forces to Russia following the end of World War I in 1918. Although no Australian units were engaged in operations, many individuals did become involved through service with the British Army during the North Russia Campaign, they served in many roles, including as advisors to White Russian units as part of the North Russian Expeditionary Force.

About 150 men of the Australian Imperial Force who were still in England awaiting repatriation following the end of World War I enlisted as infantry in the North Russia Relief Force, where they were involved in several sharp battles. The Royal Australian Navy was involved, the destroyer HMAS Swan being engaged in an intelligence-gathering mission in the Black Sea in late 1918 on behalf of the British military mission advising the White Russian general, Anton Denikin. Several Australians acted as advisers to this mission as well, others served as advisers with Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia. Another small group of Australian volunteers served on operations in Mesopotamia as part of Dunsterforce and the Malleson Mission, although these missions were aimed at preventing Turkish access to the Middle East and India, the men did little fighting. In 1917, Russia had been in political turmoil with support for the Tsar dwindling. Under intense pressure Tsar Nicholas II abdicated in March and a provisional government formed under Alexander Kerensky, pledging to continue fighting the Germans on the Eastern Front.

The Western allies had been shipping supplies to Russia since the beginning of the war, through the ports of Archangel and Vladivostok. Following the entry of the United States into World War I in 1917, the Americans began providing support. Political and social unrest increased, the revolutionary Bolsheviks gained widespread support. During the July Offensive, the Russian Army was soundly defeated by the German and Austro-Hungarians, leading to the collapse of the Eastern Front; the Russian Army was on the verge of mutiny and most soldiers had deserted the front lines. Kerensky's government was overthrown in October 1917, the Bolsheviks assumed power; the Russian Civil War began in the wake of the collapse of the provisional government. The principal fighting occurred between the Bolshevik Red Army and the forces of the White Army, being a group of loosely allied anti-Bolshevik forces. Foreign armies took part fighting against the Red Army, many foreign volunteers fought for both sides. Other nationalist and regional political groups participated in the war, including the Ukrainian nationalist Green Army, the Ukrainian anarchist Black Army and Black Guards, warlords such as Ungern von Sternberg.

Meanwhile, on 2 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers at Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began. The newly formed Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Germans on 3 March 1918, formally ending the war on the Eastern Front and permitting the redeployment of German forces to the Western Front, altering the balance of power; the treaty permitted the occupation of large areas of European Russia, within these territories were large stocks of military equipment supplied by the allies. In particular, there were large stocks of such supplies in the northern ports of Murmansk and Archangel; the Allied intervention involved fourteen nations and was conducted over a vast expanse of territory. The initial goals of the Western powers had been to rescue the Czechoslovak Legion, fighting the Central Powers on the Eastern Front and had fought the Bolsheviks, as well as to secure the supplies of munitions and armaments in Russian ports to prevent their capture by German forces, also to re-establish the Eastern Front.

With the end of World War I and fearful of Bolshevism, the Allies if only half-heartedly, intervened in the Russian Civil War, giving support to the pro-tsarist anti-Bolshevik White forces as part of the North Russia Campaign. Opposition for the ongoing campaign became widespread due to a combination of a lack of public support and war-weariness; these factors, together with the evacuation of the Czechoslovak Legion and the deteriorating military situation, compelled the Allies to withdraw by 1920. With the end of allied support, the Red Army soon defeated the remaining White government forces, leading to their eventual collapse. Following the collapse of the Russian war effort in the wake of the Revolution in 1917, the British raised and dispatched a force to Northern Russia, known as the North Russian Expeditionary Force, under the command of Major General Edmund Ironside, its purpose was to train a White Russian force in preparation for the creation of a new Eastern Front against the Central Powers, as well as to ensure that large quantities of military supplies shipped there to equip the Russian Army under Tsar Nicholas did not fal

Symphony No. 4 (Sibelius)

The Symphony No. 4 in A minor, Op. 63, is one of seven completed symphonies composed by Jean Sibelius. Written between 1910 and 1911, it was premiered in Helsinki on 3 April 1911 by the Philharmonia Society, with Sibelius conducting, it is scored for an orchestra including 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, glockenspiel or/and tubular bells, strings. The work comprises four movements: For this work Sibelius reversed the traditional classical positions of the second and third movements, placing the slow movement as the third, he begins the piece with a slow movement instead of the traditional fast opening movement. A typical performance lasts between 35–40 minutes; the interval of the tritone dominates the melodic and harmonic material of the piece, but in a different way from how it dominates the Third Symphony. It is stated in a dark phrase for cellos, double basses and bassoons, rising C-D-F♯-E over a hard unison C. Most of the themes of the symphony involve the tritone.

The bitonal clash between A and E♭ in the finale's recapitulation leads to tonal chaos in the coda, in which the rival notes C, A, E♭ and F♯ each strive for ascendancy in a series of grinding dissonances with many clashes between major and minor thirds. The glockenspiel tries in vain to hail the momentary establishment of A major. Many commentators have heard in the symphony evidence of despair. Harold Truscott writes, "This work... is full of a foreboding, the unconscious result of... the sensing of an atmosphere, to explode in 1914 into a world war." Sibelius had endured terrors in his personal life: in 1908, in Berlin, he had a cancerous tumour removed from his throat. Timothy Day writes that "the operation was successful, but he lived for many years in constant fear of the tumour recurring, from 1908 to 1913 the shadow of death lay over his life." Other critics have heard bleakness in the work: one early Finnish critic, Elmer Diktonius, dubbed the work the Barkbröd symphony, referring to the famine in the previous century during which starving Scandinavians had had to eat bark bread to survive.

According to Sibelius biographer Erik W. Tawaststjerna, the Symphony reflects the psychoanalytical and introspective era when Sigmund Freud and Henri Bergson stressed the meaning of the unconscious, he calls the Fourth Symphony "one of the most remarkable documents of the psychoanalytical era." Sibelius himself called his composition "a psychological symphony". His brother, the psychiatrist Christian Sibelius, was one of the first scholars to discuss psychoanalysis in Finland. In the year before beginning the symphony, Sibelius had met many of his contemporaries in central Europe, including Arnold Schoenberg, Igor Stravinsky, others, he said in a letter to his friend Rosa Newmarch about the symphony: "It stands as a protest against present-day music. It has nothing of the circus about it." When asked about the symphony, he quoted August Strindberg: "Det är synd om människorna". The symphony had a nickname, "Lucus a non lucendo". Hepokoski, James & Dahlström, Fabian: "Jean Sibelius", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, Harold: "Jean Sibelius", in The Symphony, ed. Robert Simpson.

Penguin Books Ltd. Middlesex, England, 1967. ISBN 0-14-020773-2 Day, Timothy: program notes to Sibelius, The Symphonies Parmet, Simon: Sävelestä sanaan: Esseitä. Helsinki: WSOY, 1962. Pike, Lionel: Beethoven, Sibelius and'the Profound Logic'. London: The Athlone Press, 1978. ISBN 0-485-11178-0. Tawaststjerna, Erik: Jean Sibelius 3. Helsinki: Otava, 1989. ISBN 951-1-10416-0 Symphony No.4, Op.63: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Description of the symphony at a Finnish site on Sibelius: in English

Blue runner

The blue runner known as the bluestripe jack, Egyptian scad, hardtail jack or hardnose, is a common species of moderately large marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae. The blue runner is distributed across the Atlantic Ocean, ranging from Brazil to Canada in the western Atlantic and from Angola to Great Britain including the Mediterranean in the east Atlantic; the blue runner is distinguished from similar species by several morphological features, including the extent of the upper jaw, gill raker count and lateral line scale counts. The blue runner is known to reach a maximum length of 70 cm and 5.05 kg in weight, but is much more common below 35 cm. The species inhabits both inshore and offshore environments, predominantly over reefs, however it is known to congregate around large man made offshore structures such as oil platforms. Juveniles tend to inhabit shallower reef and lagoon waters, before moving to deeper waters as adults; the blue runner is a schooling, predatory fish, predominantly taking fish in inshore environments, as well as various crustaceans and other invertebrates.

Fish living offshore feed nearly on zooplankton. The species reaches sexual maturity at between 225 and 280 mm across its range, with spawning occurring offshore year round, although this peaks during the warmer months. Larvae and juveniles live pelagically under sargassum mats or jellyfish until they move inshore; the blue runner is of high importance to fisheries, with an annual catch of between 6000 and 7000 tonnes taken from the Americas in the last five years. The species is a light tackle gamefish, taking baits lures and flies, but is used as bait itself, being a mediocre table fish. There has been some suggestion that the eastern Pacific species Caranx caballus, the green jack, may be conspecific with C. crysos, although this remains unresolved. The blue runner is classified within the genus Caranx, one of a number of groups known as the jacks or trevallies. Caranx itself is part of the larger jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae, part of the order Carangiformes; the species was first scientifically described by the American ichthyologist Samuel L. Mitchill in 1815, based on a specimen taken from the waters of New York Bay, USA, designated to be the holotype.

He named the species Scomber crysos and suggested a common name of'yellow mackerel', with the specific epithet reflecting this, meaning "gold" in Greek. The taxon has been variably placed in either Caranx, Carangoides or Paratractus, but is now considered valid as Caranx crysos; the species has been independently redescribed three times, first as Caranx fusus, still incorrectly used by some authors, as Caranx pisquetus and Trachurus squamosus. These names are considered invalid junior synonyms under ICZN rules; the species has many common names, with the most common being'blue runner'. Other less used names include'bluestripe jack','Egyptian scad','hardtail jack','hardnose','white back cavalli','yellow tail cavalli', as well as a variety of broad names such as'mackerel','runner' and'crevalle'. There have been suggestions that the blue runner may be conspecific with the eastern Pacific species Caranx caballus, although no specific studies have been undertaken to examine this relationship. Both species were included in a recent genetic analysis of the entire family Carangidae, with results showing both species are closely related, although the authors did not comment on genetic distance between the two.

The blue runner is moderately large in size, growing to a maximum confirmed length of 70 cm and 5.05 kg in mass, but is more common at lengths less than 35 cm. The blue runner is morphologically similar to a number of other carangids, having an elongated, moderately compressed body with dorsal and ventral profiles of equal convexity and a pointed snout; the posterior section of the eye is covered by a moderately well developed adipose eyelid, the posterior extremity of the jaw is vertically under the center of the eye. The dorsal fin is in two parts, the first consisting of 8 spines and the second of 1 spine followed by 22 to 25 soft rays; the anal fin consists of 2 anteriorly detached spines followed by 19 to 21 soft rays. The pectoral fins become more falcate with age, having 21 to 23 rays, are longer than the head; the lateral line has a pronounced but short anterior arch, with the curved section intersecting the straight section below the spine of the second dorsal fin. The straight section contains 0 to 7 scales followed by 46 to 56 strong scutes, with bilateral keels present on the caudal peduncle.

There are scutes over the entire lateral line. The chest is scaled; the upper jaw contains an irregular series of outer canines with an inner band of small spaced teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single band of small teeth. The species has 35 to 42 gill rakers in total. There are 25 vertebrae present; the blue runner's colour varies from bluish green to olive green dorsally, becoming silvery grey to brassy below. Juveniles have 7 dark vertical bands on their body. Fin colour varies, with all fins ranging from to dusky or hyaline to olive green; the species has a dusky spot which may not be distinct on the upper operculum. The blue runner is extensively distributed throughout the tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean, ranging along both the eastern American coastline and the western African and European coastlines. In the western Atlantic, the species southernmost record comes from Maceio, B

Ali Haider (singer)

Ali Haider is a Pakistani singer. He had a number of popular songs in the 1990s, the most notable being "Poorani Jeans", which appears on his 1993 album Sandesa, he had a hit in the 1990s with "Chand Sa Mukhra". He has acted in numerous serials on PTV, including Chand Sa Mukhra, he is a disc jockey at Radio Dabang / Dabang FM 99.5 in Houston, Texas. He hosts. Haider started his career, he acted in the Lollywood film Chalo Ishq Larain, released in 2002. He worked in the PTV long play Pyar Agar Kabhi Phir Hua, he sang the theme music for the serial Chandni Raatein. In 2012, he returned to music after a three-year break following the death of his son. In 2013, he returned to TV with the sitcom Ek aur Ek Dhai. Ali Haider born in a Urdu-speaking family of Karachi located in Pakistan, he has 3 sisters. Haider married in 2006; the Best of Ali Haider List of Pakistani musicians List of Pakistani actors Ali Haider on IMDb Ali Haider official website