The Orange Free State was an independent Boer sovereign republic in Southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which ceased to exist after it was defeated and surrendered to the British Empire at the end of the Second Boer War in 1902. It is the historical precursor to the present-day Free State province. Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a British Resident based in Bloemfontein. Bloemfontein and the southern parts of the Sovereignty had been settled by Griqua and by Trekboere from the Cape Colony; the Voortrekker Republic of Natalia, founded in 1837, administered the northern part of the territory through a landdrost based at Winburg. This northern area was in federation with the Republic of Potchefstroom which formed part of the South African Republic. Following the granting of sovereignty to the Transvaal Republic, the British recognised the independence of the Orange River Sovereignty and the country became independent as the Orange Free State on 23 February 1854, with the signing of the Orange River Convention.
The new republic incorporated the Orange River Sovereignty and continued the traditions of the Winburg-Potchefstroom Republic. The Orange Free State developed into a politically and economically successful republic and for the most part enjoyed good relationships with its neighbours, it was annexed as the Orange River Colony in 1900. It ceased to exist as an independent Boer republic on 31 May 1902 with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging at the conclusion of the Second Boer War. Following a period of direct rule by the British, it attained self-government in 1907 and joined the Union of South Africa in 1910 as the Orange Free State Province, along with the Cape Province and the Transvaal. In 1961, the Union of South Africa became the Republic of South Africa; the republic's name derives from the Orange River, which in turn was named in honour of the Dutch ruling family, the House of Orange, by the Dutch explorer Robert Jacob Gordon. The official language in the Orange Free State was Dutch.
Europeans first visited the country north of the Orange River towards the close of the 18th century. One of the most notable visitors was the Dutch explorer Robert Jacob Gordon, who mapped the region and gave the Orange River its name. At that time, the population was sparse; the majority of the inhabitants appear to have been members of the Sotho people, but in the valleys of the Orange and Vaal were Korana and other Khoikhoi, in the Drakensberg and on the western border lived numbers of Bushmen. Early in the 19th century Griqua established themselves north of the Orange. In 1824 farmers of Dutch, French Huguenot and German descent known as Voortrekkers emerged from the Cape Colony, seeking pasture for their flocks and to escape British governmental oversight, settling in the country. Up to this time the few Europeans who had crossed the Orange had come as hunters or as missionaries; these early migrants were followed in 1836 by the first parties of the Great Trek. These emigrants left the Cape Colony for various reasons, but all shared the desire for independence from British authority.
The leader of the first large party, A H Potgieter, concluded an agreement with Makwana, the chief of the Bataung tribe of Batswana, ceding to the farmers the country between the Vet and Vaal rivers. When Boer families first reached the area they discovered that the country had been devastated, in the northern parts by the chief Mzilikazi and his Matabele in what was known as the Mfecane, by the Difaqane, in which three tribes roamed across the land attacking settled groups, absorbing them and their resources until they collapsed because of their sheer size. Large areas were depopulated; the Boers soon came into collision with Mzilikazi’s raiding parties, which attacked Boer hunters who crossed the Vaal River. Reprisals followed, in November 1837 the Boers decisively defeated Mzilikazi, who thereupon fled northward and established himself on the site of the future Bulawayo in Zimbabwe. In the meantime another party of Cape Dutch emigrants had settled at Thaba Nchu, where the Wesleyans had a mission station for the Barolong.
These Barolong had trekked from their original home under their chief, Moroka II, first south-westwards to the Langberg, eastwards to Thaba Nchu. The emigrants were treated with great kindness by Moroka, with the Barolong the Boers maintained uniformly friendly relations after they defeated Mzilikazi. In December 1836 the emigrants beyond the Orange drew up in general assembly an elementary republican form of government. After the defeat of Mzilikazi the town of Winburg was founded, a Volksraad elected, Piet Retief, one of the ablest of the Voortrekkers, chosen “governor and commandant-general”; the emigrants numbered some 500 men, besides women and children and many servants. Dissensions speedily arose among the emigrants, whose numbers were added to, Retief and other leaders crossed the Drakensberg and entered Natal; those that remained were divided into several parties. Meanwhile, a new power had arisen in the valley of the Caledon. Moshoeshoe, a minor Basotho chief, had welded together a number of scattered and broken clans which had sought refuge in that mountainous region after fleeing from Mzilikazi, had formed the Basotho nation which acknowledged him as king.
In 1833 he had welcomed as workers among his people a band
Resurrector is an electronic music producer best known as founder of Colorado/San Francisco Dub Hop band Heavyweight Dub Champion and the ethnically diverse Liberation Movement. He is the co-producer of both Heavyweight Dub Champion studio albums and is main creator of the band's philosophical ideology defined by the Last Champion Manifesto, a booklet included with the 2002 album, Survival Guide For The End of Time. Chambers now lives in San Francisco, CA and performs and produces for Heavyweight Dub Champion and Liberation Movement, among others. Chambers grew up near Baltimore, MD, but lived in multiple countries where his father, a college professor, had visiting fellowships; as a teen, he promoted punk concerts and frequented the D. C. punk scene. His father, Dr. Robert H. Chambers III was president of McDaniel College from 1984–2000. In 1988, as a high school junior, he promoted a punk concert in the basement of the McDaniel College President's house; the event space was known as The Dungeon and the inaugural event was featured on the front page of the Carroll County Times.
He went on to promote concerts with DC hardcore punk groups Government Issue and M. F. D. among others. Chambers attended University at McDaniel College in Maryland, Harlaxton College in Grantham and received a degree in Religious Studies from University of Colorado at Boulder. In 1995, while living in Boulder, Colorado, he founded hip hop reggae group Roots Revolt. Many of the key players in Roots Revolt would show up on Heavyweight Dub Champion recordings, including HDC co-founder Patch Rubin. Heavyweight Dub Champion was founded in Gold Hill, CO in 1997 and played its first show on October 31, 1997. In 2005, the band relocated to San Francisco. With Heavyweight Dub Champion, Chambers has produced two albums as Resurrector, 2002's Survival Guide For The End of Time and 2009's Rise of the Champion Nation, featuring multiple tracks with KRS-One. HDC has performed throughout Canada and Europe; as described by Marquee Magazine, "The live performance is referred to as the ‘Liberation Process’ because it's intended that the music can put the audience in something like a vibratory trance and can remove layers of deception through the music."
According to a review in the La Weekly, "Their genius is the great virtue of ’70s dub: never overdoing it." Another review says HDC, "sounds something like hip-hop colliding with dub inside the eye of an electronica hurricane." In 2002, HDC released their debut album, Survival Guide For The End of Time- "an ill-bent mix of industrial apocalyptic hip-hop dubtronica" that "aims to topple the foundations of modern-day Babylon" as well as offering "prescriptions for survival and victory in a tension-filled time." The album was recorded and mixed in Colorado and Los Angeles and "can safely be called a concept album". As described by Resurrector, Survival Guide "relates to the coming of the Last Champion, an interdimensional spiritual warrior, bringing people together throughout the world to try to elevate consciousness in a way that will focus people on the healing of themselves and the healing of the world, help put people in a more offensive position."Survival Guide has an ambitious package including the band's credo, Last Champion Manifesto, a 70-page booklet "detailing their mission of'Unconditional Liberation of the Human Race,'” a poster by Jher 451 and sticker of their "protector" logo.
As described by Denver's Westword Magazine, "Structurally, the record moves from the announcement of the battle to the rallying calls of the Last Champion's chosen army – followers who unite to liberate individuals and the Earth – to the eventual announcement of the Last Champion as a victor in the championship against predators who have put a stranglehold on humanity's innate desire to creatively seek truth, beauty and power." Our intention is to use music and vibration as catalysts for creation of a new culture, which in the quantum universe, can be the focal point for the creation of a new reality "Penned just hours after the arrival of the new millennium", the Last Champion Manifesto and included in Survival Guide is a 70-page document "steeped in allegory and at times reading like ancient scripture", according to The Source Weekly. The LA Weekly calls it a "bible/babble manifesto" and the Denver Westword refers to it as a "scripturally spirited rant." The Westword reports that, at an early age, Chambers received visions from the "Last Champion" during periods of "severe headaches and lengthy vomiting sessions."
The Last Champion Manifesto serves as the ideological foundation of both the album Survival Guide for the End of Time and the band Heavyweight Dub Champion as a whole- "We're a concept band. Everything we do is related to the manifesto; every album will be that way," says Chambers. There are seven chapters broken into mini-chapters named after the songs on Survival Guide and 2008's Rise of the Champion Nation; each album serves as a sort of soundtrack to elements presented in the booklet. Songs relate to actions such as the Arrival, remixed by San Francisco's award-winning favorite Bassnectar, "Liberation Process", "Exorcism" and so on. Most of the themes relate to becoming a Warrior and the development of the "Last Champion's Chosen Army" known as "Champion Nation", the name of the record label founded by Chambers. Heavyweight Dub Champion's follow up album includes guest appearances and endorsements from KRS-One, who states in the title track, "Heavyweight Dub Champion restores all hope", Killah Priest and Brooklyn Dub pioneer Dr. Israel, in addition to the familiar cast of A.
Mike Adamson is a former Scotland 7s international rugby union player and now professional referee. His primary playing position was at fly-half. Adamson played professionally for Glasgow Warriors and London Scottish and at amateur level for Glasgow Hawks. Adamson is now a SRU referee for the Pro14, European Professional Club Rugby and World Rugby Adamson was born in Stirling, Scotland, he played for Glasgow Hawks. He played with the Hawks for 11 years, he helped Glasgow Hawks to National Cup victory in 2007. Adamson went on to play for Glasgow Warriors, first securing a part-time contract in 2006. At the start of 2006-07 season he played in two pre-season friendlies against Moseley and Newcastle Falcons, he played for Glasgow Warriors in a friendly at the end of the 2006-07 season against Scotland U20s, scoring a try and four conversions in the match. He secured a full-time contract with the Glasgow side in May 2007, he was involved in all 3 pre-season matches for the Warriors in 2007-08 season.
He made his only competitive appearance for the Warriors in the Celtic League on 4 January 2008 against Newport Gwent Dragons. Although he stayed with the Warriors until 2010 he was unable to gain more competitive appearances, finding himself behind Dan Parks and Ruaridh Jackson for the fly-half berth, he moved on to play for London Scottish but he was to play only 1 competitive match for the exile side, against London Welsh in the 2011-12 season. Adamson played for Scotland through the age grades:- Scotland U16, U17, U18, U19, U21 and Club XV, he received senior caps for the Scotland 7s side. He went on to play in 30 World Rugby 7s events, he was a Plate Winner in the 2009 Dubai tournament and represented Scotland at the Commonwealth Games in Delhi. When Adamson finished playing professional rugby he turned to refereeing, he stated: "Former players go down the coaching route after retirement but I feel I will be able to achieve more through refereeing. I have gained a lot from rugby and would like to give back to the sport."He has worked his way up the refereeing ladder, officiating in the Anglo-Welsh Cup in England, the Currie Cup in South Africa as well as PRO D2 in France.
His refereeing progress and development has been deemed a rapid rise. He has now refereed in Japan's Top League. Adamson has been refereeing World 7s matches since 2014, he was appointed to the Refereeing Panel for the Olympic Games Rugby Sevens for Rio 2016. He refereed his first Pro12 match on 26 November 2016, he became the first ex-player to referee in the Celtic League / Pro 12 league. He refereed the 2nd Leg of the 1872 Cup between Glasgow Warriors and Edinburgh Rugby at the end of the 2016-17 season, he was named as one of the 9 referees that will take charge of the World Rugby U20 Championships in Georgia 2017. Scotland 7's star Mike Adamson exchanges his boots for a whistle