Orange juice is a liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing or reaming oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange and tangerine; as well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesicles, known as "pulp" in American English, " bits" in British English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species and season. In American English, the beverage name is abbreviated as "OJ". Commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is made by pasteurizing the juice and removing the oxygen from it; this removes much of the taste, necessitating the addition of a flavor pack made from orange products. Additionally, some juice is further processed by drying and rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and adding water to the concentrate; the health value of orange juice is debatable: it has a high concentration of vitamin C, but a high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks.
As a result, some government nutritional advice has been adjusted to encourage substitution of orange juice with raw fruit, digested more and limit daily consumption. During World War II, American soldiers rejected vitamin C-packed lemon crystals because of their unappetizing taste, thus the government searched for a food that would fulfill the nutritional needs of the soldiers, have a desirable taste, prevent diseases such as scurvy in a transportable vitamin C product. The federal government, the Florida Department of Citrus, along with a group of scientists desired to develop a superior product to canned orange juice and developed frozen concentrated orange juice. Frozen concentrated orange juice was developed three years after the war had ended. By 1949, orange juice processing plants in Florida were producing over 10 million gallons of concentrated orange juice. Consumers were captivated with the idea of concentrated canned orange juice as it was affordable, convenient, a vitamin C-rich product.
The preparation was simple: empty the container of frozen concentrate into a measured volume of water and stir. However, by the 1980s, food scientists developed a more fresh-tasting juice known as reconstituted ready-to-serve juice. In the 1990s, "not from concentrate" orange juice was developed. Orange juice is a common breakfast beverage in the United States. Due to the importance of oranges to the economy of Florida, "the juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis and hybrids thereof" was adopted as the official beverage of Florida in 1967. A cup serving of raw, fresh orange juice, amounting to 248 grams or 8 ounces, has 124 mg of vitamin C, it has 20.8 g of sugars, 112 Calories and 26 grams of carbohydrates. It supplies potassium and folate. Citrus juices contain flavonoids. Orange juice is a source of the antioxidant hesperidin; because of its citric acid content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH of around 3.5. Commercial squeezed orange juice is pasteurized and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat.
After removal of most of the water, this concentrate, about 65% sugar by weight, is stored at about 10 °F. Essences, Vitamin C, oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor and nutrition; when water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted. The product was developed in 1948 at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education Center. Since, it has emerged as a soft commodity, futures contracts have traded in New York since 1966. Options on FCOJ were introduced in 1985. From the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, the product had the greatest orange juice market share, but not-from-concentrate juices surpassed FCOJ in the 1980s. Orange juice, pasteurized and sold to consumers without having been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate". Just as "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing reduces the natural flavor from the juice; the largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage, with the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year.
Removing the oxygen strips out flavor-providing compounds, so manufacturers add a flavor pack in the final step, which Cooks Illustrated magazine describes as containing "highly engineered additives." Flavor pack formulas vary by region, because consumers in different parts of the world have different preferences related to sweetness and acidity. According to the citrus industry, the Food and Drug Administration does not require the contents of flavor packs to be detailed on a product's packaging. One common component of flavor packs is ethyl butyrate, a natural aroma that people associate with freshness, and, removed from juice during pasteurization and storage. Cooks Illustrated sent juice samples to independent laboratories, found that while fresh-squeezed juice contained about 1.19 milligrams of ethyl butyrate per liter, juice, commercially processed had levels as high as 8.53 milligrams per liter. A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned. Canned orange juice retains vitamin C much better than bottled juice.
The canned product loses flavor, when stored at room temperature for more than 12 weeks. In the early years of canned orange juice, the acidity of the juice caused the juice
Erynnis icelus, the dreamy duskywing or aspen dusky wing, is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. It is found in boreal North America, from the Northwest Territories east across southern Canada to Nova Scotia, south in the western mountains to southern Arizona and southern New Mexico, south in the east to Arkansas, north-eastern Alabama and northern Georgia; the wingspan is 29–38 mm. There is one generation with adults on wing from April to early July. There might be a rare second generation in the southern Appalachian Mountains; the larvae are pale green with multiple white dots. Its heart is visible as a middorsal stripe; the larvae feed on Salix and sometimes Betula species. Adults feed on nectar from flowers of blueberry, wild strawberry, Labrador tea, New Jersey tea, winter cress, purple vetch and lupine. Nearctica BugGuide Dreamy Duskywing, Butterflies of Canada
Lourdes Academy High School is a Roman Catholic high school in Oshkosh, United States. It operates within the Diocese of Green Bay and was established in 1959; the planning and construction, in the late 1950s, of a central Catholic high school represented the combined efforts of six Catholic parishes in Oshkosh, Wisconsin: St. Mary, St. Peter, St. Vincent, Sacred Heart, St. Josaphat, St. John. Construction of the school began in September 1958, with the first classes beginning in September 1959; the first year there were 307 freshmen and sophomores enrolled. Boys and girls attended separate classes with the upper floors for lower floors for boys; some facilities were used by both, including science and chemistry labs, the gymnasium, chapel and library. The school was known as Lourdes High School and staffed with De La Salle Christian Brothers until 2001. On August 1, 2012, the Unified Catholic Schools of Oshkosh merged to become the grades 4K-12 Lourdes Academy. Upon consolidation, Lourdes Academy included the high school, middle school and two elementary school campuses.
Following the 2017-2018 school year, Lourdes Academy closed the St. France Cabrini campus and consolidated the two elementary schools to the Seton campus; this campus is now called Lourdes Academy Elementary. The Bill Behring Commons, completed in 2005, is a large open space facing Witzel Avenue, it serves as cafeteria, all-school worship site, performing arts center. The commons has a large gathering hallway and space with adjoining rest rooms, trophy cases, concession facilities, the athletic directors' office, staff lounge; the lobby connects gym facilities, band room and the student commons, serves as a reception and gathering area. A new gymnasium and a new band classroom were constructed
Nach dir, verlanget mich, BWV 150, is an early church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach composed for an unknown occasion. It is unique among Bach's cantatas in its sparse orchestration and in the independence and prominence of the chorus, featured in four out of seven movements; the text alternates poetry by an unknown librettist. Bach scored the work for four vocal parts and a small Baroque instrumental ensemble of two violins and basso continuo. Many scholars think that it may be the earliest extant cantata by Bach composed in Arnstadt in 1707. Bach's original score is lost; the music survives in a copy made by C F Penzel, one of Bach's last pupils, after the composer's death. The date of composition is not known, sources differ as to when and where Bach composed the work. However, the balance of opinion has moved towards a date at the beginning of Bach's career, it is not in dispute that it is one of Bach's earliest surviving cantatas. Suggestions for the place of composition have been: Weimar, where Bach worked from 1708.
The conductor and academic Jonathan Green dates the work c. 1708–1710. 1712. Mühlhausen, where Bach worked in 1707/1708; the Zwang catalogue dated it as the sixth of the surviving cantatas by Bach, placed Aus der Tiefen rufe ich, Herr, zu dir, BWV 131, as the earliest. Aus der Tiefen rufe ich, Herr, zu dir is known to have been composed in Mühlhausen in 1707/1708. Arnstadt, where Bach worked until his move to Mühlhausen in the summer of 1707. Recent scholarship suggests Nach dir, verlanget mich could have been composed at Arnstadt; the Bach scholar Andreas Glöckner argued in 1988 that the cantata may have been composed in Arnstadt. The scholar Hans-Joachim Schulze identified in 2010 a remarkable acrostic in the concluding four movements. Adjusting for transposition errors by the copyist, the initial letters should spell DOKTOR CONRAD MECKBACH and plausibly therefore the work was composed to mark this Mühlhausen councillor's 70th birthday in April 1707. On this basis the cantata may date from Bach's time in Arnstadt.
The cantata was heard a few weeks after the end of Lent, thus it may have formed a test-piece for the Mühlhausen appointment, composed in Arnstadt with Bach's supporter Meckbach in mind. The cantata is, as John Eliot Gardiner notes, "generally accepted to be Bach's first church cantata." Gardiner conducted in 2000 the Bach Cantata Pilgrimage and performed the cantata in the church for which it was probably composed, at Bach's time called Neue Kirche, now the Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Kirche. The libretto alternates between biblical verses and free contemporary poetry, common in Bach's cantatas, but rare among his early cantatas; the text of movements 2, 4, 6 are selected psalm verses, Psalms 25:1–2, 5, 15. The author of the poetry is unknown. On the basis of the text, it has been suggested; the cantata was first published in 1884 in the Bach-Gesellschaft-Ausgabe, the first edition of Bach's complete works. The composer Johannes Brahms, who served on the editorial board of the Bach-Gesellschaft-Ausgabe, took an interest in the cantata as it was being published.
He used an adapted version of the bass line of the closing chaconne for a work he completed in 1885, his Symphony No. 4. Bach structured the cantata in seven movements, an opening instrumental sinfonia and four choral movements interspersed by only two arias, he scored it for four soloists, a four-part choir, a small Baroque instrumental ensemble of two violins and basso continuo. The duration of the cantata is about 17 minutes. In the following table of the movements, the scoring follows the Neue Bach-Ausgabe; the keys and time signatures are taken from Alfred Dürr. The continuo, playing throughout, is not shown; the work begins with a sinfonia and alternates choral movements and arias. There are no recitatives, no da capo repeats, there is no chorale tune, unusually for Bach's cantatas. Bach makes extensive use of choral fugues and imitative polyphony shifting the tempo and character of the music within movements quickly to accommodate a new musical idea with each successive phrase of text; the sinfonia and the opening choral movement are both based on the motive of an octave leap followed by five descending half steps.
This chromatic figure, sometimes dubbed the "lamento bass" or passus duriusculus, has been utilized by composers as early as Monteverdi as a musical representation of anguish and longing. The sinfonia introduces thematic material developed in the work, uses asymmetric phrasing, "a seamless flow of unstoppable melody"; the first chorus on the beginning of Psalm 25, "Nach dir, verlanget mich. Mein Gott, ich hoffe auf dich.", is "waywardly constructed despite its relative brevity". It is episodic; the musicologist Tadashi Isoyama notes "the graphically chromatic phrases of the opening sinfonia and the following chorus. The following soprano aria, "Doch bin und bleibe ich vergnügt", is brief but includes significant word painting; the fourth movement, "Leite mich in deiner Wahrheit und lehre mich", is another short and episodic chorus, divided into four sections. Movement five, "Zedern müssen von den Winden oft viel
Como is a town in Panola County, which borders the Mississippi Delta and is in the northern part of the state, known as hill country. The population was 1,279 as of the 2010 census, it is in a isolated rural area, which has struggled with the legacy of slavery and agricultural decline. In a 2007 article about the area, Wayne Drash, a CNN.com senior producer, described Como as "a hard-hit rural community." According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.9 square miles, of which 1.9 square miles is land and 0.53% is water. It is 45 miles south of Tennessee; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,310 people, 461 households, 352 families residing in the town. The population density was 692.1 people per square mile. There were 506 housing units at an average density of 267.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 71.83% African American, 26.79% White, 0.08% Native American, 0.61% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.15% of the population.
There were 461 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 31.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.6% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.30. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,344, the median income for a family was $25,000. Males had a median income of $28,333 versus $18,977 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,278. About 31.3% of families and 37.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 57.2% of those under age 18 and 29.6% of those age 65 or over.
The Town of Como is served by the North Panola School District. Como Elementary School in Como, North Panola Junior High School in Como, North Panola High School in Sardis serve the community; the United States Postal Service operates the Como Post Office. Joe Henderson, R&B and gospel singer who had a 1962 hit with "Snap Your Fingers" was born in Como. Mississippi Fred McDowell, Jessie Mae Hemphill, Napoleon Strickland, Othar Turner, R. L. Boyce are noted Hill Country blues musicians who lived near Como. Tommy Joe Martins, racecar driver, was born in Como. Jimbo Mathus, has lived in Como since 2007, where he runs the Delta Recording Studio, which records artists from around the world. Sharon McConnell-Dickerson, sculptor and works in Como. L. H. Musgrove was moved to the American West. An outlaw, he was sprung from jail in Denver, Colorado, in the fall of 1868 and lynched by a vigilante mob. Luther Perkins, guitarist who played for singer Johnny Cash, spent most of his childhood in Como. Stark Young grew up in Como.
He became. A member of the Southern Agrarians, he had taught in academia for several years before moving to New York City, where he wrote several plays and worked as theatre critic for The New Republic and The New York Times
Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most ones involving earthwork operations or other large construction tasks. Heavy equipment comprises five equipment systems: implementation, structure, power train and information. Heavy equipment has been used since at least the 1st century BCE when the ancient Roman engineer Vitruvius described a crane in De architectura when it was powered via human or animal labor. Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied, making tasks which could take hundreds of people and weeks of labor without heavy equipment far less intensive in nature; some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion. The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the pile driver was invented around 1500. The first tunnelling shield was patented by Marc Isambard Brunel in 1818; until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power.
With the advent of portable steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the combine harvester. The design of a core tractor evolved around the new steam power source into a new machine core traction engine, that can be configured as the steam tractor and the steamroller. During the 20th century, internal-combustion engines became the major power source of heavy equipment. Kerosene and ethanol engines were used. Mechanical transmission was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery; the early 20th century saw new electric-powered machines such as the forklift. Caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the Holt Manufacturing Company. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the Fordson tractor in 1917; the first commercial continuous track vehicle was the 1901 Lombard Steam Log Hauler. The use of tracks became popular for tanks during World War I, for civilian machinery like the bulldozer; the largest engineering vehicles and mobile land machines are bucket-wheel excavators, built since the 1920s.
"Until the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel - moved with animal and human powered, sleds and wagons. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance a wheelbarrow, or a cart or wagon drawn by a draft animal. In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the inclined plane and pulleys to place solid building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising and placing loose materials; the two elements required for mechanized earthmoving as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of that time."Container cranes were used from the 1950s and onwards, made containerization possible. Nowadays such is the importance of this machinery, some transport companies have developed specific equipment to transport heavy construction equipment to and from sites.
These subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization. Military engineering vehicles Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required. An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earthmoving machines, load and carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage.
"The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the performance and health of the equipment." A heavy equipment operator drives and operates heavy equipment used in engineering and construction projects. Only skilled workers may operate heavy equipment, there is specialized training for learning to use heavy equipment. Much publication about heavy equipment operators focuses on improving safety for such workers; the field of occupational medicine researches and makes recommendations about safety for these and other workers in safety-sensitive positions. Due to the small profit margins on construction projects it is important to maintain accurate records concerning equipment utilization and maintenance; the two main categories of equipment costs are operating cost. To classify as an ownership cost an expense must have been incurred regardless of if the equipment is used or not.
These costs are as follows: Depreciation can be calculated several ways, the simplest is the straight-line method. The annual depreciation is constant, reducing the equipment value annually; the fol