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An orangery or orangerie was a room or a dedicated building on the grounds of fashionable residences from the 17th to the 19th centuries where orange and other fruit trees were protected during the winter, as a large form of greenhouse or conservatory. The orangery provided a luxurious extension of the normal range and season of woody plants, extending the protection which had long been afforded by the warmth offered from a masonry fruit wall. A century after the use for orange and lime trees had been established, other varieties of tender plants and exotic plants came to be housed in the orangery, which gained a stove for the upkeep of these delicate plants in the cold winters of northern Europe; as imported citrus fruit and other tender fruit became available and much cheaper, orangeries were used more for tender ornamental plants. The orangery originated from the Renaissance gardens of Italy, when glass-making technology enabled sufficient expanses of clear glass to be produced. In the north, the Dutch led the way in developing expanses of window glass in orangeries, although the engravings illustrating Dutch manuals showed solid roofs, whether beamed or vaulted, in providing stove heat rather than open fires.

This soon created a situation. The glazed roof, which afforded sunlight to plants that were not dormant, was a development of the early 19th century; the orangery at Dyrham Park, provided with a slate roof as built about 1702, was given a glazed one about a hundred years after Humphrey Repton remarked that it was dark. The 1617 Orangerie at the Palace of the Louvre inspired imitations that culminated in Europe's largest orangery, the Versailles Orangerie. Designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart for Louis XIV's 3,000 orange trees at Versailles, its dimensions of 508 by 42 feet were not eclipsed until the development of the modern greenhouse in the 1840s, were overshadowed by the glass architecture of Joseph Paxton. Notable for his 1851 design of the Crystal Palace, his "great conservatory" at Chatsworth House was an orangery and glass house of monumental proportions; the orangery, was not just a greenhouse but a symbol of prestige and wealth and a garden feature, in the same way as a summerhouse, folly, or "Grecian temple".

Owners would conduct their guests there on tours of the garden to admire not only the fruits within but the architecture outside. The orangery would contain fountains, an area in which to entertain in inclement weather; as early as 1545, an orangery was built in Italy. The first orangeries were practical and not as ornamental as they became. Most had no heating other than open fires. In England, John Parkinson introduced the orangery to the readers of his Paradisus in Sole, under the heading "Oranges"; the trees might be planted against a brick wall and enclosed in winter with a plank shed covered with "cerecloth", a waxed precursor of tarpaulin, which must have been thought handsomer than the alternative: For that purpose, some keepe them in great square boxes, lift them to and fro by iron hooks on the sides, or cause them to be rowled by trundels, or small wheeles under them, to place them in a house or close gallery. The building of orangeries became most fashionable after the end of the Eighty Years' War in 1648.

The countries that started this trend were France and the Netherlands, these countries being the ones that saw merchants begin importing large numbers of orange trees, banana plants, pomegranates to cultivate for their beauty and scent. Orangeries were built facing south to take advantage of the maximum possible light, were constructed using brick or stone bases, brick or stone pillars, a corbel gutter, they featured large, tall windows to maximise available sunlight in the afternoons, with the north facing walls built without windows in a heavy solid brick, or with much smaller windows to be able to keep the rooms warm. Insulation at these times was one of the biggest concerns for the building of these orangeries, straw became the main material used, many had wooden shutters fitted to keep in the warmth. An early example of the type of construction can be seen at Kensington Palace, which featured underfloor heating. Contemporary domestic orangeries are typically built using stone and hardwood, but developments in glass, other materials, insulation technologies have produced viable alternatives to traditional construction.

The main difference with a conservatory is in the construction of its roof – a conservatory will have more than 75 per cent of its roof glazed, while an orangery will have less than 75 per cent glazed. Domestic orangeries typically feature a roof lantern. Improved design and insulation has lead to an increasing number of orangeries that are not built facing south, instead using light maximising techniques to make the most of available natural sunlight; the first examples could be removed during summer. Notably not only noblemen but wealthy merchants, e.g. those of Nuremberg, used to cultivate citrus plants in orangeries. Some orangeries were built using the garden wall as the main wall of the new orangery, but as orangeries became more and more popular they started to become more and more influenced by garden designers and architects, which led to the connection between the house and architectural orangery design; this became further influenced by the increased demand for beautiful exotic plants in the garden, which could be grown an

Drop Dead, Gorgeous

Drop Dead, Gorgeous was an American post-hardcore band from Denver, Colorado. It consisted of frontman Danny Stillman, Kyle Browning, Jake Hansen, Dan Gustavson, Jonathan Leary and Danny Cooper, they released three full-length albums, as well as an EP. Their 2009 album, The Hot N' Heavy, was charted by Billboard at No. 6 on the Top Heatseekers chart, No. 23 on the Independent Albums chart, No. 192 on The Billboard 200. In June 2007, Drop Dead, Gorgeous played along with fellow Rise Records label mates The Devil Wears Prada, Dance Gavin Dance, At the Throne of Judgment on the Rise Records tour. From July 18 to July 22, they played a series of shows in Mexico, before joining the Vans Warped Tour 2007, playing dates from July 25 to August 25. In 2007, Borland appeared on select tracks on Worse Than a Fairy Tale, by Colorado band Drop Dead, Gorgeous. Both artists are on Ross Robinson's I AM:WOLFPACK label. In September and October 2007, they toured in support of Aiden with Still Remains, 1997 on their first full headlining US tour.

They joined Alesana, Idiot Pilot, The Number Twelve Looks Like You at the end of November. They filled in for Escape the Fate at the Australian Taste of Chaos shows. In March 2009 they toured with Alesana, I Set My Friends on Fire, Fear Before, they headlined "The Hot N' Heavy Tour" with support from He Is Legend, Before Their Eyes, And Then There Were None. On the second half of the tour Eyes Set to Kill, Watchout! There's Ghosts, Defending The Pilot joined in, they went on tour again on October 2009 in support of Blessthefall and Finch on the Atticus tour. In Summer of 2010 they headlined a tour with band such a Scarlett O'Hara as well as Attila, Woe, Is Me, Abandon All Ships. On August 19, 2011, Stillman had confirmed that Drop Dead Gorgeous is on hiatus because each member was busy with other projects such as ManCub, The Bunny the Bear, Curses and It's Teeth. Although there have been pictures that show some members are getting together writing music for the next album, the release of new music as Drop Dead, Gorgeous seems unlikely.

In January 2012, Danny Stillman and Danny Cooper confirmed that they are in an alternative rock project called Bleach Blonde signed under Rise Records. They released a three track self-titled EP on January 22, 2013; as of early 2013 their Facebook account had been deleted and their Twitter account now only promotes Stillman's electronica project, giving indication that members of Drop Dead, Gorgeous have no plans of continuing involvement of the band. AlbumsIn Vogue Worse Than a Fairy Tale The Hot N' Heavy EPsBe Mine, Valentine Drop Dead, Gorgeous at AllMusic Drop Dead, Gorgeous at Facebook

Campbell Case

The Campbell Case of 1924 involved charges against a British Communist newspaper editor for alleged "incitement to mutiny" caused by his publication of a provocative open letter to members of the military. The decision of the government of Ramsay MacDonald to suspend prosecution of the case ostensibly due to pressure from backbenchers in his Labour Party proved instrumental in bringing down the short-lived first Labour government. On 25 July 1924 there appeared a new issue of Workers Weekly, a newspaper of the Communist Party of Great Britain under the acting editorship of young activist J. R. Campbell; the paper contained a provocative article for the "Anti-War Week Campaign" being conducted by the CPGB, entitled "An Open Letter to the Fighting Forces." This article read in part: Comrades: You never joined the Army or Navy because you were in love with warfare, or because you were attracted to the glamour of the uniform. In nine cases out of ten you were compelled to join the services after a long fight against poverty and misery caused by prolonged unemployment… Repressive regulations and irksome restrictions are intentionally imposed upon you.

And when war is declared you are supposed to be filled with a longing to "beat the enemy." The enemy consists of working men like yourselves, living under the same slave conditions… Soldiers, airmen, flesh of our flesh and bone of our bone, the Communist Party calls upon you to begin the task of not only organising passive resistance when war is declared, or when an industrial dispute involves you, but to and categorically let it be known that, neither in the class war nor a military war, will you turn your guns on your fellow workers, but instead will line up with your fellow workers in an attack upon the exploiters and capitalists, will use your arms on the side of your own class… Refuse to shoot down your fellow workers! Refuse to fight for profits! Turn your weapons on your oppressors!" On 6 August it was announced in the House of Commons that the Attorney General for England and Wales Sir Patrick Hastings had advised the prosecution of Campbell under the Incitement to Mutiny Act 1797.

Along with allegations of pro-Soviet activity, this allowed the Liberals and the Conservatives to brand Labour as under the control of radical left wing groups. Although the actual motion of censure moved by Sir Robert Horne MP in the terms "That the conduct of His Majesty's Government in relation to the institution and subsequent withdrawal of criminal proceedings against the editor of the'Workers' Weekly' is deserving of the censure of this House" was expressly rejected by 198 votes to 359, an alternative motion proposed by Sir John Simon MP "That a Select Committee be appointed to investigate and report upon the circumstances leading up to the withdrawal of the proceedings instituted by the Director of Public Prosecutions against Mr. Campbell" was passed by 364 to 198; the government however, had made clear that they regarded both motions as votes of confidence and thus MacDonald requested and obtained a dissolution on the following day. It would be the heaviest government defeat in the House of Commons until the Brexit vote of 16 January 2019.

Following this, the 1924 General Election was called, which Labour lost to a majority Conservative government. In a pamphlet published after the fall of the MacDonald government, the CPGB published a pamphlet by Campbell defending his decision to publish the aggressively anti-militarist articles that he did in the party press:...he Communist Party of Great Britain had to call attention to the fact that the Labour Government, while talking of its attachment to the cause of peace, was continuing the policy of previous imperialist governments. We had to expose to the Labour movement the true nature of this policy and to ask the Labour movement, if it was sincerely opposed to war, to fight war by all the means in its power. On the question of armaments, we advocated the policy of no credits for capitalist armaments. On the question of empire, we advocated that the Labour movement should force the government to abandon the brutal and cowardly repression of the struggling colonial peoples. We asserted that the Labour Government could prove its attachment to peace in a practical fashion, by publishing the secret treaties and the secret war plans in the archives of the Foreign and War Offices.

A year in October 1925, after a number of posters had appeared advocating formation of soldiers' and sailors' committees and denouncing the use of troops against workers and further articles in issues of the Workers' Weekly dated 7 and 14 August 1925, the calls of the party for members of the military to resist orders caused the new Attorney General, Douglas Hogg, with the overt encouragement of the Home Secretary, William Joynson Hicks, to authorise a fresh prosecution under the Incitement to Mutiny Act. The new round of prosecutions embroiled not only J. R. Campbell but eleven other members of the Communist Party of Great Britain, including Willie Gallacher, Wal Hannington, Albert Inkpin, Harry Pollitt, William Rust, R. Page Arnot, Tom Bell, Ernest Cant, Arthur MacManus, J. T. Murphy, Tom Wintringham; these defendants were charged with "conspiring between 1st January 1924 and 21st October 1925 to utter and publish seditious libels. After an eight-day trial at the Old Bailey they were all convicted, with Gallacher, Inkpin and Rust

2014 World Men's Curling Championship

The 2014 World Men's Curling Championship was held from March 29 to April 6 at the Capital Indoor Stadium in Beijing, China. Norway's Thomas Ulsrud defeated Sweden's Oskar Eriksson in the final with a score of 8–3, securing his first world title and the fourth world title overall for Norway; the following nations qualified to participate in the 2014 World Men's Curling Championship: China Two teams from the Americas zone Canada United States Eight teams from the 2013 European Curling Championships Norway Switzerland Denmark Scotland Sweden Russia Czech Republic Germany One team from the 2013 Pacific-Asia Curling Championships Japan Final Round Robin Standings Saturday, March 29, 14:00 Saturday, March 29, 19:00 Sunday, March 30, 9:00 Sunday, March 30, 14:00 Sunday, March 30, 19:00 Monday, March 31, 9:00 Monday, March 31, 14:00 Monday, March 31, 19:00 Tuesday, April 1, 9:00 Tuesday, April 1, 14:00 Tuesday, April 1, 19:00 Wednesday, April 2, 9:00 Wednesday, April 2, 14:00 Wednesday, April 2, 19:00 Thursday, April 3, 9:00 Thursday, April 3, 14:00 Thursday, April 3, 19:00 Friday, April 4, 9:00 Saturday, April 5, 11:00 Friday, April 4, 19:00 Saturday, April 5, 16:00 Sunday, April 6, 10:00 Sunday, April 6, 15:00 Round robin only General"2014 World Men's Curling Championship".

World Curling Federation. Specific Official website


CIMOSA, standing for "Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open System Architecture", is an enterprise modeling framework, which aims to support the enterprise integration of machines and people. The framework is based on the system life cycle concept, offers a modelling language and supporting technology to support these goals, it was developed in the 1990s in an EU project. A non-profit organization CIMOSA Association was established to keep ownership of the CIMOSA specification, to promote it and to support its further evolution; the original aim of CIMOSA was "to elaborate an open system architecture for CIM and to define a set of concepts and rules to facilitate the building of future CIM systems". One of the main ideas of CIMOSA is the categorization of manufacturing operations in: Generic functions: generic parts of every enterprise, independent of organisation structure or business area. Specific functions: specific for individual enterprises; the development of CIMOSA has resulted in two key items: Modeling Framework: This framework supports "all phases of the CIM system life-cycle from requirements definition, through design specification, implementation description and execution of the daily enterprise operation".

Integrating Infrastructure: This infrastructure provides "specific information technology services for the execution of the Particular Implementation Model", which has proven to be vendor independent and portable. The framework furthermore offers an "event-driven, process-based modeling approach with the goal to cover essential enterprise aspects in one integrated model; the main aspects are the functional, resource and organizational aspect". CIMOSA can be applied in process analysis. Standardized CIMOSA models "can be used on line in the manufacturing enterprise for scheduling, dispatching and providing process information". One of the standards based on CIMOSA is the Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology; the main focus of CIMOSA has been to construct: a framework for enterprise modelling, a reference architecture an enterprise modelling language an integrating infrastructure for model enactment supported by a common terminologyA close liaison with European and international standardization organisations was established to stimulate the standardization process for enterprise integration.

CIMOSA aims at integrating enterprise operations by means of efficient information exchange within the enterprise. CIMOSA models enterprises using four perspectives: the function view describes the functional structure required to satisfy the objectives of an enterprise and related control structures. AMICE Consortium was a European organization of major companies concerned with computer-integrated manufacturing, it was initiated in 1985 and dissolved in 1995, included users, consulting companies, academia. Among the participating companies were IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Siemens and Daimler-Benz; the AMICE Consortium was initiated as European Strategic Program on Research in Information Technology project to bring together stakeholders in the development of CIM for the development of new standards for CIM systems. This led to the development of the CIMOSA, which defined "a comprehensive set of constructs sufficient to describe all aspects of manufacturing systems."

It established the CIMOSA Association. The AMICE Consortium has published several papers. A selection: 1989. Open System Architecture for CIM, Research Report of ESPRIT Project 688, Vol. 1, Springer-Verlag. 1991. Open System Architecture, CIMOSA, AD 1.0, Architecture Description, ESPRIT Consortium AMICE, Belgium. 1992. ESPRIT Project 5288, Milestone M-2, AD2.0, 2, Architecture description,document RO443/1. Consortium AMICE, Belgium. 1993. CIMOSA: open system architecture for CIM, Springer, 1993. At the start of the 1990s the CIMOSA Association was founded as a non-profit organisation by the AMICE Consortium, aiming to promote enterprise engineering and integration based on CIMOSA, it has extended its goals in the new millennium towards "upcoming new enterprise paradigms of extended and agile enterprises, which cause new requirements on organisational concepts and supporting technologies. Enhanced decision support and operation monitoring and control are some of the needs of today and tomorrow. Capturing knowledge and using it across organisational boundaries will be a major challenge in the new types of businesses.

This real-time knowledge needed to support the establishment and discontinuation of the inter and intra organisational relations". From the start CIMOSA has been an active supporter for national and international standardization of Enterprise Integration. In 2010 the CIMOSA Association closed due "loss of membership according to people retirements." Architecture of Integrated Information Systems Computer Integrated Manufacturing Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology ISO 19439 Framework for enterprise modelling AMICE CIMOSA: OPen System Architecture for CIM, 2nd edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Kosanke, Kurt. "CIMOSA—overview and status." Computers in industry 27.2: 101-109. Kosanke, Kurt, F. Vernadat, Martin Zelm. "CIMOSA: enterprise engineering and integration." Computers in industry 40.2: 83-97. Kosanke and Mart

Gomery Commission

The Gomery Commission, formally the Commission of Inquiry into the Sponsorship Program and Advertising Activities, was a federal Canadian Royal Commission headed by Justice John Gomery for the purpose of investigating the sponsorship scandal, which involved allegations of corruption within the Canadian government. The Commission was called by Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin in February 2004 soon after a report by the Auditor General of Canada found unexplainable irregularities in the Sponsorship Program. Justice Gomery released his Phase I Report on the scandal on November 1, 2005 and Phase II Report on February 1, 2006. In 2008, Federal Court of Canada Judge Max M. Teitelbaum set aside Gomery's conclusion that Jean Chrétien and Jean Pelletier shared blame for the mismanagement of the program to boost the federal government's profile in Quebec. Justice Teitelbaum's decision was appealed to the Federal Court of Appeal; the Commission had a broader mandate, more power and greater resources than the Auditor General, most could look beyond government to the advertising agencies that had received the Sponsorship dollars.

The terms of reference allowed the commissioner to question witnesses, hire experts and adopt any procedures or methods that he considers expedient for the proper conduct of the inquiry. The purpose given was to "investigate and report on questions raised, directly or indirectly" by the Auditor General's report. However, as is the case in commissions of inquiry, he was directed not to make any conclusions or recommendations on criminal charges or civil liability. Commissioner Gomery was given a two part mandate with power issued to him under the Inquiries Act; the first part of the mandate was investigate and report on questions and concerns addressed in the 2003 Report of the Auditor General of Canada relating to the sponsorship program and advertising activities of the Government of Canada. These concerns included the program’s creation, the selection of agencies, the program’s management and activities, the receiving and use of funds and disbursement of commissions, anything else that Gomery feels relevant.

The second part of the mandate was for Gomery to make any recommendations that he considers advisable, based on his findings. Requested of Gomery were the following: to prevent mismanagement of sponsorship or advertising programs in the future, taking into account legislation to protect "whistleblowers"; the Commission began in Ottawa. The hearing opened in September 2004; the first to testify was Auditor General Sheila Fraser who reported the findings of her earlier investigations. The first part of its investigation was of the political direction of the project. Most of the top officials involved were called to testify. In an unprecedented event, the inquiry saw the testimony of two Prime Ministers in February 2005: Paul Martin and Jean Chrétien; the testimony of Chrétien was much anticipated. In December 2004, Chrétien's lawyers had moved to expel Justice Gomery due to comments he had made to a National Post reporter that the lawyers argued showed that Gomery was biased against Chrétien; these included Gomery commenting that golf balls marked with Chrétien's name, paid for by the sponsorship program, were "small town cheap."

Gomery rejected the calls to recuse himself setting up a confrontation between Chrétien. At the end of his day of testimony Chrétien closed his statement by pulling out a series of golf balls bearing the name of American presidents and the law firm Ogilvie Renault asking whether each of them was "small town cheap"; the stunt was the focus of all the media reports. After the prime ministers testified, the hearings moved to Montreal to investigate where the money had gone; the hearings in Ottawa had uncovered little more than. The AG did not have the authority to investigate outside of the government, the look into the advertising companies in Montreal uncovered a great deal of new and explosive allegations; the most important of these were by Groupaction executive Jean Brault who recounted a series of crimes committed to direct government money to Liberal party supporters. These caused a sharp fall in the support for the governing Liberals, put their government in jeopardy. On November 1, 2005, Gomery released the Phase.

Gomery criticized Chrétien and his chief of staff Jean Pelletier but cleared them of direct involvement in kickback schemes. While people such as Alfonso Gagliano, Chuck Guité and Jacques Corriveau took advantage of the programme, Gomery argued that abuses would not have occurred had Chrétien set the programme with safeguards in place. Gomery said that Pelletier "failed to take the most elementary precautions against mismanagement – and Mr. Chrétien was responsible for him." Gomery exonerated Prime Minister Paul Martin, the minister of finance during most of the sponsorship programme. Gomery said that Martin "is entitled, like other ministers from the Quebec caucus, to be exonerated from any blame for carelessness or misconduct", as the Department of Finance's role was not oversight, but setting the "fiscal framework". On February 1, 2006