Non-native species can have various effects on the local ecosystem. Introduced species that become established and spread beyond the place of introduction are called invasive species, some have a negative effect on a local ecosystem. Some introduced species may have no effect or only minor impact. Some species have been introduced intentionally to combat pests and they are called biocontrols and may be regarded as beneficial as an alternative to pesticides in agriculture for example. In some instances the potential for being beneficial or detrimental in the long run remains unknown, a list of some introduced species is given in a separate article. The effects of introduced species on natural environments have gained much scrutiny from scientists, the terminology associated with introduced species is now in flux for various reasons. The term invasive refers only to those species that become established, for practical purposes, this term is applied only to invasive species that cause damage. With respect to plants, these latter are in this case defined as either ornamental or cultivated plants, called an exotic or non-native species.
Such species might be termed naturalized, wild non-native species, if they further spread beyond the place of introduction they are called invasive. The transition from introduction, to establishment and to invasion has been described in the context of plants, introduced species are essentially non-native species. Invasive species are introduced species that spreadwidely or quickly and cause harm, be that to the environment, human health. There have been calls from scientists to consider a species only in terms of their spread. According to a definition, an invasive species is one that has been introduced and become a pest in its new location. The term is used to both a sense of urgency and actual or potential harm. Executive Order 13112 defines invasive species as a species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. The biological definition of species, on the other hand, makes no reference to the harm they may cause. From a regulatory perspective, it is neither desirable nor practical to list as undesirable or outright ban all non-native species, regulations require a definitional distinction between non-natives that are deemed especially onerous and all others.
Introduced pest species that are listed as invasive, best fit the definition of an invasive species
In architecture a corbel is a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket. A corbel is a piece of material in the wall. A piece of projecting in the same way was called a tassel or a bragger in the UK. The technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels deeply keyed inside a support a projecting wall or parapet, has been used since Neolithic, or New Stone Age. A console is more specifically an S-shaped scroll bracket in the classical tradition, keystones are often in the form of consoles. Whereas corbel is rarely used outside architecture, console is used for furniture, as in console table. The word corbel comes from Old French and derives from the Latin corbellus, a diminutive of corvus, the French refer to a bracket-corbel, usually a load-bearing internal feature, as a corbeau. Norman corbels often have an appearance, although they may be elaborately carved with stylised heads of humans, animals or imaginary beasts. Similarly, in the Early English period, corbels were sometimes carved, as at Lincoln Cathedral.
Corbels sometimes end with a point apparently growing into the wall, or forming a knot, in the periods the carved foliage and other ornaments used on corbels resemble those used in the capitals of columns. Throughout England, in work, wooden corbels abound, carrying window-sills or oriel windows in wood. The corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great size and richly carved, taking a cue from 16th-century practice, the Paris-trained designers of 19th-century Beaux-Arts architecture were encouraged to show imagination in varying corbels. A corbel table is a moulded string course supported by a range of corbels. Sometimes these corbels carry a small arcade under the string course, as a rule the corbel table carries the gutter, but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In Italy sometimes over the corbels will form a moulding, in modern chimney construction, a corbel table is constructed on the inside of a flue in the form of a concrete ring beam supported by a range of corbels.
The corbels can be either in-situ or pre-cast concrete, the corbel tables described here are built at approximately ten metre intervals to ensure stability of the barrel of refractory bricks constructed thereon. In medieval architecture the technique was used to support upper storeys or a parapet projecting forward from the wall plane and this became a decorative feature, without the openings. Corbelling supporting upper stories and particularly supporting projecting corner turrets subsequently became a characteristic of the Scottish baronial style, medieval timber-framed buildings often employ jettying, where upper stories are cantilevered out on projecting wooden beams in a similar manner to corbelling
History of gardening
Forest gardening, a plant-based food pro-system, is the worlds oldest form of gardening. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved while undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually alien species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. The enclosure of outdoor space began in 10,000 BC, though no one knows the specific details of the first garden, historians imagine the first enclosure was a type of barrier for excluding animals and marauders. Garden construction and design was a precursor to landscape architecture. The modern words of garden and yard are descendants of the Old English geard, vitruvius, a Roman author and engineer, wrote the oldest extant design manual in 27 BC. De architectura libri decem addressed design theory, landscape architecture, water supply, vitruvius asserted that firmitas and venustas were the primary objectives of design.
Some still consider these elements essential to quality design of landscape, after the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy persons began to create gardens for purely aesthetic purposes. Another ancient tradition is of Persia, Darius the Great was said to have had a paradise garden, Persian gardens were designed along a central axis of symmetry. Persian influences extended to Helenic Greece after Alexander the Great, C.350 BC there were gardens at the Academy of Athens, and Theophrastus, who wrote on botany, supposedly inherited a garden from Aristotle. Epicurus had a garden where he walked and taught, and he bequeathed it to Hermarchus of Mytilene, alciphron referenced private gardens in his writing. The most influential ancient gardens in the world were those of Ptolemy in Alexandria, Egypt. Wall paintings in Pompeii, Italy attest to elaborate development, the wealthiest Romans built extensive villa gardens with water features, including fountains and rivulets, topiary and shaded arcades.
Archeological evidence survives at sites such as Hadrians Villa and Moorish Spain continued horticultural traditions after the 4th century AD and the decline of Rome. In Europe, gardening revived in Languedoc and the Île-de-France in the 13th century, the rediscovery of descriptions of antique Roman villas and gardens led to the creation of a new form of garden, the Italian Renaissance garden in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The Spanish Crown built the first public parks of this era in the 16th century, in the 19th century a welter of historical revivals and Romantic cottage-inspired gardening emerged. In England, William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll were influential proponents of the wild garden, andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted adapted European forms for North America, especially influencing the design of public parks and suburban landscapes. Olmsteds influence extended well into the 20th century, the 20th century saw the influence of modernism in the garden, from the articulate clarity of Thomas Church to the bold colors and forms of the Brazilian Roberto Burle Marx
A conservatory is a building or room having glass or tarpaulin roofing and walls used as a greenhouse or a sunroom. If in a residence, it would typically be attached to the house on one side. Municipal conservatories became popular in the early 19th century, many cities, especially those in cold climates and with large European populations, have built municipal conservatories to display tropical plants and hold flower displays. This type of conservatory was popular in the nineteenth century. Conservatory architecture varies from typical Victorian glasshouses to modern styles, such as geodesic domes, many were large and impressive structures and are included in the list below. These beautiful structures have been designed and built around the world, in gardens, parks. Smaller garden conservatories have become popular, which may be dual-function, equally devoted to horticulture and recreation, or favor the latter, as a solarium or sunroom. Preservation of citrus and other tender plants started out as crudely as building a pergola over potted plants or beds or simply moving potted plants indoors for the cold season.
Known in Italy as limonaia, these early structures employed wood panels in storerooms or open galleries to protect from the cold, further north in Europe, the preservation of orange trees became the trend with special purpose buildings built to protect the tasty, but delicate fruit. Orangeries, as came to be called were typically enclosed structures built with wood. Use of these rooms expanded socially and practically, being used to entertain, the term greenhouse came to describe the rooms and conservatories for tender plants. In the 18th century a Dutch scientist pioneered the use of sloping glass to bring in light for the plants than the tall glass side walls of orangeries. The 19th century was the age of conservatory building, primarily in England. English conservatories were the product of English love of gardening and new technology in glass, many of the magnificent public conservatories, built of iron and glass, are the result of this era. Kew Gardens in London is an example of a greenhouse used for growing tender and rare plants, or, less often, for birds and rare animals – sometimes with the plants.
The widespread construction of UK conservatories came to a halt with the onset of World War II, in contemporary construction, a conservatory differs from an orangery in having more than 75% of its roof surface made from glass. A conservatory by definition must have more than 50% of its wall surface glazed, W. Seymour Botanical Conservatory Roof lantern Tessellated roof Cluedo Antram, Morrice, Richard. Orangeries Palaces of Glass-Their History and Development
A summer house or summerhouse has traditionally referred to a building or shelter used for relaxation in warm weather. It can refer to a residence, usually located in the country. Especially in Scandinavia, sommerhus/sommarhus is applied to residences, which rather than simple shelters can be larger dwellings such as cottages. Most of them are timber constructions, often suitable for year-round use, increasingly they have additions such as saunas, heating ovens, fireplaces or attractive gardens. Increasingly, English speakers call them summerhouses, a Swedish sommarstuga is traditionally painted with a special red colour called falu rödfärg and has white trimmed corners and doors. Many of the Danish resorts depend on the rental of summerhouses to accommodate national and foreign tourists who can rent them, usually on a weekly basis, at prices well below those of hotels. But Scandinavians often spend an amount of time in their summerhouses which are often the venue for family reunions or simply weekends away from the office.
In recent years, the popularity and thus the cost of summerhouses has increased appreciably, particularly in Denmarks coastal resorts, while under Danish law, owners are not normally permitted to use these houses as permanent homes, an exception is made for pensioners. In some attractive areas of Norway there is residence duty, meaning that an owner of a house must use it as their main home, other areas of Norway are defined as summer house areas, where it is forbidden to live permanently. This is because there are quality requirements for permanent homes that do not apply to cottages, sweden has no ban against using summer houses all of the year, or against using a normal house in summer only. This has made Swedish summer houses popular for Danes and Germans, but in some very attractive coastal areas prices are so high that residents cant afford a house, making some traditional coastal villages very silent in winter
Nuremberg is a city on the river Pegnitz and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about 170 kilometres north of Munich. It is the second-largest city in Bavaria, and the largest in Franconia, the population as of February 2015, is 517,498, which makes it Germanys fourteenth-largest city. The urban area includes Fürth and Schwabach with a population of 763,854. The European Metropolitan Area Nuremberg has ca.3.5 million inhabitants, Nuremberg was, according to the first documentary mention of the city in 1050, the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes, Nuremberg is often referred to as having been the unofficial capital of the Holy Roman Empire, particularly because Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the structure of the empire.
The increasing demand of the court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade. Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298, the Jews of the town were accused of having desecrated the host, behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz. The Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years, in 1349, Nurembergs Jews were subjected to a pogrom. They were burned at the stake or expelled, and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter, the plague returned to the city in 1405,1435,1437,1482,1494,1520 and 1534. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. Charles IV conferred upon the city the right to conclude alliances independently, frequent fights took place with the burgraves without, inflicting lasting damage upon the city.
Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory, the Hussite Wars, recurrence of the Black Death in 1437, and the First Margrave War led to a severe fall in population in the mid-15th century. During the Middle Ages, Nurembergs literary culture was rich, the cultural flowering of Nuremberg, in the 15th and 16th centuries, made it the centre of the German Renaissance. In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532, during the 1552 revolution against Charles V, Nuremberg tried to purchase its neutrality, but the city was attacked without a declaration of war and was forced into a disadvantageous peace. The state of affairs in the early 16th century, increased trade routes elsewhere, frequent quartering of Imperial and League soldiers, the financial costs of the war and the cessation of trade caused irreparable damage to the city and a near-halving of the population. In 1632, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein, the city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre
Wertheim am Main
Wertheim is a town in southwestern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of around 23,400. It is located on the confluence of the rivers Tauber and Main, Wertheim is best known for its landmark castle and medieval town centre. Wertheim is the most northerly town in the state of Baden-Württemberg and it is situated at the confluence of the rivers Tauber and Main, on the Mains left bank. It borders on the Odenwald hills and the Spessart range to the north across the river Main, Wertheim is located in the Main-Tauber district. Wertheim was founded between the 7th and 8th century, however the first settlement was a town called Kreuzwertheim on the bank of the river Main. From the early 12th century onwards, a branch of the family of the Reginbodons called themselves after the town. After the family of the Counts of Wertheim had built a castle on the bank of the river Main. It was mentioned for the first time in 779, in 1192, it was referred to as Suburbium castri Wertheim and in 1200 the town was called oppidium and in 1244 civitas.
Count Eberhard of Wertheim reigned from the year 1355 to 1373, in 1363 Emperor Karl IV granted him by degree the right to mint coins. The last Count of Wertheim was Michael III and he married Katharina, the oldest daughter of Ludwig of Stolberg. Michael died without producing an heir and consequently the county passed to Ludwig of Stolberg. In 1574, after the death of Ludwig, the county passed on to his son-in-law Count Ludwig of Löwenstein, the town Wertheim developed into the center of the County of Wertheim. The county was governed by the House of Löwenstein-Wertheim, the area left of the Main river was given to the Grand Duchy of Baden, while the territories right of the Main were given to the Kingdom of Bavaria. Established in 1406, the cemetery of the former Jewish community is one of the oldest in Germany, in use up until the 20th century, it is the oldest existing Jewish cemetery in Baden-Württemberg. For many years Wertheim was home to Peden Barracks, a US Army installation, the US Army left Peden Barracks in the early 1990s as part of the post Cold War reorganization of US armed forces in Germany.
In 1938, Wertheim was merged with Tauberbischofsheim into the newly created district Landkreis Tauberbischofsheim, from 1972 onwards,15 communities were incorporated with Wertheim. These 15 communities are, Dertingen, Dietenhan, Dörlesberg, Grünenwört, Höhefeld, Lindelbach, Nassig, Sachsenhausen, Urphar, as of 1 January 1973 the Landkreis Tauberbischofsheim was merged into the new Main-Tauber-Kreis. Due to the incorporation of surrounding communities, Wertheim reached the 20,000 population mark in 1975, Wertheim became a Große Kreisstadt on 1 January 1976
In some places such as Australia, and in military slang, a tarp may be known as a hootch. Tarpaulins often have reinforced grommets at the corners and along the sides to form attachment points for rope, inexpensive modern tarpaulins are made from woven polyethylene, this material is so associated with tarpaulins that it has become colloquially known in some quarters as polytarp. The word tarpaulin originated as a compound of the words tar, sailors often tarred their own overclothes in the same manner as the sheets or palls. By association, sailors became known as Jack Tars, thus constructed, they were placed upon a duck paulin, which was drawn up tightly around the beds and secured. Tarpaulins have multiple uses, including as shelter from the elements, i. e. wind, rain, or sunlight, tarpaulins are often used during the build process to protect brickwork and masonry from weather damage. Such was the demand for tarpaulins by the New South Wales Government Railways, up until 1990 and it is used on outdoor market stalls to provide some protection from the elements of nature.
Tarpaulins are used for advertisement printing, most notably for billboards, perforated tarpaulins are typically used for large-medium advertising, or for protection on scaffoldings, the aim of the perforations is to reduce wind vulnerability. Polyethylene tarpaulins have proven to be a source when an inexpensive. Many amateur builders of plywood sailboats turn to polyethylene tarpaulins for making their sails, as it is inexpensive, with the proper type of adhesive tape, it is possible to make a serviceable sail for a small boat with no sewing. Tarps can be classified by size—a common determining factor for consumers in acquiring tarps—and measured in width by length, actual tarp sizes are generally about three to five percent smaller than the advertised size. Some other factors that may influence a purchase decision include color, grommet type, the weave count, a measure of tarp strength, often runs between and the greater the count, the greater its resistance against ripping in high wind conditions.
Tarps may be washable or non-washable and waterproof or non-waterproof, Tarp flexibility refers to its ability to remain pliable during cold winter months, some tarps offer more flexibility than others in cold weather. Some manufacturers advertise their tarps as rot-proof, but this may be more an subjective than an objective measurement, a polyethylene tarp is not a traditional fabric, but rather, a laminate of woven and sheet material. The center is loosely woven from strips of plastic, with sheets of the same material bonded to the surface. This creates a material that resists stretching well in all directions and is waterproof. Sheets can be either of Low density polyethelene or High density polyethelene, canvas tarps are not 100% waterproof, though they are water resistant. Vinyl tarps are industrial-grade and intended for heavy-duty use and they are constructed of 10 oz. per sq. yd. -weight coated yellow vinyl. This makes the tarp waterproof and have high resistance and tear strength
Not to be confused with Dyrham Park Country Club, Hertfordshire. Dyrham Park is a country house in an ancient deer park near the village of Dyrham in South Gloucestershire. The house, attached orangery, stable block and accompanying parish church are Grade I listed buildings, while the park is Grade II* listed on the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The current house was built for William Blathwayt in stages during the 17th and early 18th centuries on the site of a manor house. It contains art works and furniture from around the world, particularly Holland, the house is linked to the 13th-century church of St Peter, where many of the Blathwayt family are buried. The house is surrounded by 274 acres of gardens. The grounds, which were laid out by George London and developed by Charles Harcourt Masters, include water features. The house and estate are now owned by the National Trust and they are open to the public on some days and host events and attractions, including open-air concerts.
They have used as a location for film and television productions. The Manor of Dyrham has been recorded since the Domesday Book of 1086, the first lord of the manor to be resident may have been William Denys, who was an Esquire of the Body to Henry VIII and High Sheriff of Gloucestershire. He was granted the licence to empark 500 acres of Dyrham in 1511, the estate was sold to the Wynter family in 1571 and Sir George Wynter was allowed to empark further land in 1620. In 1689 the estate was acquired through marriage by William Blathwayt and he retained the existing Tudor building and expanded it in stages. The west front of 1692 was commissioned from the Huguenot architect, Samuel Hauduroy, in 1698 a stable block with space for 26 horses, and servants quarters above, around a courtyard was added. The east front of 1704 was designed by William Talman, architect of Chatsworth, the construction of the east wing included demolition of the remains of the original Tudor house and the addition of a statue of an eagle on the roof.
Owing to Blathwayt’s royal connections, and his uncle, Thomas Povey. The collection includes delftware and furniture, eighteenth-century additions include furniture by Gillow and Linnell. The interiors have remained little altered since decorated by Blathwayt, the gardens were designed by George London in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The National Trust acquired it in 1961, in 2015 major renovation work, costing £3.8 million, included replacing the roof
Chatsworth House is a stately home in Derbyshire, England. It is in the Derbyshire Dales, about 3.5 miles north-east of Bakewell and 9 miles west of Chesterfield and it is the seat of the Duke of Devonshire and has been home to the Cavendish family since 1549. Standing on the east bank of the River Derwent, Chatsworth looks across to the low hills that divide the Derwent, Chatsworth has been selected as the United Kingdoms favourite country house several times. The name Chatsworth is a corruption of Chetels-worth, meaning the Court of Chetel, Chetel was deposed after the Norman Conquest and in the Domesday Book the Manor of Chetesuorde is listed as the property of the Crown in the custody of William de Peverel. Chatsworth ceased to be an estate, until the 15th century when it was acquired by the Leche family who owned property nearby. They enclosed the first park at Chatsworth and built a house on the ground in what is now the south-eastern part of the garden. Bess began to build the new house in 1553 and she selected a site near the river, which was drained by digging a series of reservoirs, which doubled as fish ponds.
Sir William died in 1557, but Bess finished the house in the 1560s and lived there with her husband, George Talbot. In 1568 Shrewsbury was entrusted with the custody of Mary, Queen of Scots and she lodged in the apartment now known as the Queen of Scots rooms, on the top floor above the great hall, which faces onto the inner courtyard. An accomplished needlewoman, Bess joined Mary at Chatsworth for extended periods in 1569,1570, Bess died in 1608 and Chatsworth was passed to her eldest son, Henry. The estate was purchased from Henry by his brother William Cavendish, 1st Earl of Devonshire, few changes were made at Chatsworth until the mid 17th century. William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire was a staunch Royalist and was expelled from the House of Lords in 1642 and he left England for the safety of the continent and his estates were sequestrated. Chatsworth was occupied by both sides during the Civil War, and the 3rd Earl did not return to the house until the restoration of the monarchy and he reconstructed the principal rooms in an attempt to make them more comfortable, but the Elizabethan house was out-dated and unsafe.
This called for a rebuilding of the house, which began in 1687 and he enjoyed building and reconstructed the East Front, that included the Painted Hall and Long Gallery, followed by the rebuilding of the West Front from 1699 to 1702. The North Front was completed in 1707 just before the Duke died, the 1st Duke had large parterre gardens designed by George London and Henry Wise, who was appointed by Queen Anne to the post of Royal Gardner at Kensington Palace. Connoisseur of the arts the collection include paintings, Old Master drawings and prints, ancient coins and carved Greek, Palladian furniture designed by William Kent was commissioned by the 3rd Duke when he had Devonshire House in London rebuilt following a fire in 1733. Upon the sale and demolition of Devonshire House in 1924 the furniture was transferred to Chatsworth, the 4th Duke made great changes to the house and gardens. He decided the approach to the house should be from the west and had the old stables and offices as well as parts of Edensor village pulled down so they were not visible from the house
Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Paxton was born in 1803, the seventh son of a farming family, in Milton Bryan, Bedfordshire. Some references, list his year as 1801. This is, as he admitted in life, a result of misinformation he provided in his teens and he became a garden boy at the age of fifteen for Sir Gregory Osborne Page-Turner at Battlesden Park, near Woburn. After several moves, he obtained a position in 1823 at the Horticultural Societys Chiswick Gardens, the Horticultural Societys gardens were close to the gardens of William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire at Chiswick House. The duke met the young gardener as he strolled in his gardens and became impressed with his skill and he offered the 20-year-old Paxton the position of head gardener at Chatsworth, which was considered one of the finest landscaped gardens of the time. Although the duke was in Russia, Paxton set off for Chatsworth on the Chesterfield coach arriving at Chatsworth at half past four in the morning and he married Bown in 1827, and she proved capable of managing his affairs, leaving him free to pursue his ideas.
He enjoyed a relationship with his employer who recognised his diverse talents. One of Paxtons first projects was to redesign the garden around the new wing of the house. He became skilled at moving mature trees, the largest, weighing about eight tons, was moved from Kedleston Road in Derby. Among several other projects at Chatsworth were the rock garden. At the time the use of houses was in its infancy. The next great building at Chatsworth was built for the first seeds of the Victoria regia lily which had sent to Kew from the Amazon in 1836. Although they had germinated and grown they had not flowered and in 1849 a seedling was given to Paxton to try out at Chatsworth. He entrusted it to Eduard Ortgies, a gardener and within two months the leaves were 4.5 ft in diameter, and a month it flowered. It continued growing and it became necessary to build a larger house. Inspired by the waterlilys huge leaves – a natural feat of engineering – he found the structure for his conservatory which he tested by floating his daughter Annie on a leaf, the secret was in the rigidity provided by the radiating ribs connecting with flexible cross-ribs.
Constant experimentation over a number of years led him to devise the design that inspired the Crystal Palace. With a cheap and light frame, the conservatory design had a ridge-and-furrow roof to let in more light