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Oranienburg

Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Oberhavel. Oranienburg is a town located on the banks of the Havel river, 35 km north of the centre of Berlin. Oranienburg consists of 9 districts Friedrichsthal Germendorf Lehnitz Malz Oranienburg Sachsenhausen Schmachtenhagen Wensickendorf Zehlendorf Originally named Bötzow, the town of Oranienburg dates from the 12th century and was first mentioned in 1216. Margrave Albert the Bear ordered the construction of a castle on the banks of the Havel. Around the castle stood a settlement of traders and craftsmen. In 1646 Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg married Louise Henriette of Orange-Nassau, she was so attracted by the town of Bötzow. The princess ordered the construction of a new castle in the Dutch style and called it Oranienburg or Schloss Oranienburg. In 1653 the town of Bötzow was renamed Oranienburg. Silvio Gesell, the founder of Freiwirtschaft, lived in Oranienburg between 1911 and 1915, publishing his magazine, Der Physiocrat.

He returned to the town in 1927 and lived there until his death in 1930. The town remained a center of the "free economy" movement until the Nazi régime outlawed it in 1933, many of Gesell's followers ended up as prisoners in the town's concentration camp; the Oranienburg concentration camp was one of the first Nazi concentration camps. In 1936 the Sachsenhausen concentration camp on the outskirts of Oranienburg replaced it; the Nazis murdered about 22,000 people there before the liberation of the camp by the Soviet Red Army in 1945. Thereafter the site reopened in August 1945 as "Soviet Special Camp 7". A further 12,000 people died under the Soviets before the Special Camp closed in 1950, their remains were not discovered until the 1990s. Oranienburg became the center of Nazi Germany's nuclear-energy project. According to military historian Antony Beevor, Stalin's desire to acquire the nuclear facility motivated him to launch the Battle for Berlin of April-May 1945, it has been claimed that the pre-emptive destruction of these facilities by the USAAF Eighth Air Force on 15 March 1945 aimed to prevent them from falling into Soviet hands.

On 23 April 1945, during the Battle of Berlin, troops of the 1st Belorussian Front of the Red Army captured Oranienburg. Due to its heavy bombing, Oranienburg is the "most dangerous town in Germany". By 2017 about 200 had been disposed of, 350 to 400 were estimated to remain, it is estimated that the disposal will continue throughout the rest of the century. In one case 12,000 residents had to be evacuated; the federal government does not finance the removal of foreign UXO. Oranienburg is twinned with: Bagnolet, since 1964 Hamm, since 1990 Mělník, Czech Republic, since 1974 Vught, since 2000 The Zehlendorf transmission facility, a large facility for broadcasting in longwave, medium wave and FM-range, is located near Oranienburg, at Zehlendorf; the city provide a direct connection to Rostock. Oranienburg railway station Stellwerk Fichtengrund Friedrich Ludwig Dulon and composer Walther Bothe and Nobel laureate Carl Gustav Hempel, Philosopher W. Michael Blumenthal, US Treasury, Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin Bernd Eichwurzel, Olympic champion 1988 Alexander Walke, footballer Marcus Mlynikowski, footballer Media related to Oranienburg at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Eleanor Jones

Eleanor Green Dawley Jones is an American mathematician. She was one of the first African-American women to achieve a Ph. D. in mathematics. Jones works as a consultant for the development of college mathematics curriculums, as a speaker at events to encourage women and minorities to pursue careers in science and mathematics. Jones was born to George Herbert Green and Lillian Vaughn Green on August 10 of 1929 in Norfolk, Virginia, she was the second of six children, all of whom went on to earn, at a bachelor's degree. Jones attended a segregated public school. Jones began her academic career early, after graduating as valedictorian of her high school in 1945 at the age of 15, she attended Howard University with two scholarships, one from the university and one from the Pepsi-Cola Corporation. Jones was fortunate to be mentored by Elbert Frank Cox, the first African-American person to receive a Ph. D. in mathematics, as well as David Blackwell, another notable African-American mathematician. In addition to Jones majoring in mathematics, she minored in education.

She graduated cum laude from Howard University in 1949 and completed her master's degree the following year. After completing her master's degree, Jones went back to Booker T. Washington High School, this time to teach. In addition to her role as an educator, she developed a new curriculum for the high school's mathematics program. Jones took time off from teaching in 1953 to start a family, she returned to teaching in 1955, this time as a mathematics instructor at Hampton Institute, near Norfolk. In 1957, when all-white public schools were integrated, the segregated public schools in Norfolk were closed; this left many African-American youth with no place to attend school, leading Jones to begin tutoring these students at Norfolk's First Baptist Church. Jones became active in the civil rights movement, achieving the rank of vice chair in Virginia's branch of CORE from 1958 to 1960. Following a divorce, Jones decided to pursue a doctorate, as Hampton Institute would only give tenure to instructors with doctorates.

At the time, Virginia did not permit black students to pursue doctorates in the state, so Jones relocated with her two sons to Syracuse University in New York in 1962. She received a National Science Foundation fellowship in 1963 and began to work as a teaching assistant at Syracuse University. Jones received her doctorate in 1966; as an associate professor, Jones returned to the Hampton Institute for the 1966-67 academic year, until she joined the Norfolk State University mathematics department in 1967. Jones continued to teach at NSU for more than 30 years, where she continued her education through summer postgraduate courses at New York State University in 1957, at the University of Southern California in 1959–60, at the University of Oregon in 1971. In 1945, Jones attended Howard University with two scholarships, one from the university and one from the Pepsi-Cola Corporation. Jones was fortunate to be mentored by Elbert Frank Cox, the first African American to receive a Ph. D. in mathematics, as well as David Blackwell, another notable African-American mathematician.

In addition to Jones majoring in mathematics, she minored in education. She graduated cum laude from Howard University in 1949 and completed her master's degree the following year. Following a divorce from Edward Armistead Dawley Jr. Jones decided to pursue a doctorate, as Hampton Institute would only give tenure to instructors with doctorates. At the time, Virginia did not permit black students to pursue doctorates in the state, so Jones relocated with her two sons to Syracuse University in New York in 1962, she received a National Science Foundation fellowship in 1963 and began to work as a teaching assistant at Syracuse University to support her family. Jones received her doctorate in 1966. In 1966, under the supervision of James D. Reid, PhD. Jones wrote her thesis entitled "Abelian Groups and Their Endomorphism Rings and the Quasi-Endomorphisms of Torsion Free Abelian Groups." In 1965, she was elected to the Sigma Xi science honour society in Syracuse University, became a full member in 1985.

In 1975, Dr. Jones was elected Vice President of NAM. In 1994, Jones received the National Association of Mathematicians Distinguished Service Award. 1983-86: Sat on the board of governors of the Mathematical Association of America. 1989-94: Board member of the Association for Women in Mathematics. Since 1990, she has served on the committee for opportunities in mathematics for underrepresented minorities for the American Mathematical Society. Kenschaft, P. C. & Keith, S.. Winning Women into Mathematics. Washington: D. C. Newell, V. K.. Black Mathematicians and their Works. Ardmore, PA: Dorrance

Richard E. Snyder

Richard Elliot “Dick” Snyder in Brooklyn, New York is an American publishing executive best known for his tenures at Simon & Schuster and Western Publishing. He graduated from Tufts University in 1955 and served in the United States Army, receiving an honorable discharge in 1956, he began as a trainee at Doubleday & Co. rising to assistant marketing director in 1958. Snyder began working at Simon & Schuster in 1960, serving as President from 1975 to 1986, CEO from 1978 to 1994, Chairman from 1986 to 1994. From 1975 to 1994, Simon & Schuster went from US$40 million to US$2 billion in annual revenue and became the largest book publisher in the world, home to notable authors including Bob Woodward, Graham Greene, Larry McMurtry, Mary Higgins Clark, Philip Roth, Joan Didion, Joseph Heller, Ian McEwen, Mario Puzo, Stephen Ambrose, Thomas Keneally, Walter Isaacson, David McCullough; the trade division won nine Pulitzer Prizes in a row during his tenure. After being abruptly dismissed by Viacom president Frank Biondi Jr. in 1994, Snyder formed an investment group to acquire control of Western Publishing, publishers of the Golden Books series of children's books.

That deal was completed in 1996, the company was renamed Golden Books Family Entertainment. By 1998, shares of Golden Books lost 98 percent of their value; the company filed for bankruptcy protection in early 1999, emerged in January 2000 and entered bankruptcy once again in 2001. The company was purchased by Classic Media following the 2001 bankruptcy; the Richard E. Snyder President's Lecture Series at Tufts was endowed by him in 2004. Snyder is a Trustee of the New York-Presbyterian Hospital. In 2007, Snyder sued Edgar Bronfman Jr. over an alleged oral joint venture between the two involving the acquisition of Warner Music Group. Judge Bernard J. Fried of the New York State Supreme Court dismissed 4 of the 6 charges in 2008, allowing the rest to go forward. At the request of Norman Mailer, Snyder was a major component in the resurrection of International PEN, an international literary organization, he cofounded and chaired the National Book Awards and ran them for over 10 years. Snyder was a member of the National Book Foundation and the Association of American Publishers.

The Richard E. Snyder President's Lecture Series at Tufts University was endowed by him in 2004 to invigorate the intellectual environment on campus by providing a forum for the presentation of provocative points of view on matters of global importance. Notable speakers have included Niall Ferguson. Snyder is a Trustee of New York-Presbyterian Hospital and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Snyder has been married four times and is married to Terresa Liu Snyder, he has four children. His high-profile divorce from second wife Joni Evans made headlines in 1990. Korda, Michael. Another Life: A Memoir. Random House. Pp. 158–171. ISBN 0679456597