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Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Orbit refers to a repeating trajectory, although it may refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. For most situations, orbital motion is adequately approximated by Newtonian mechanics, which explains gravity as a force obeying an inverse-square law. However, Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime, with orbits following geodesics, provides a more accurate calculation and understanding of the exact mechanics of orbital motion; the apparent motions of the planets were described by European and Arabic philosophers using the idea of celestial spheres. This model posited the existence of perfect moving spheres or rings to which the stars and planets were attached.

It assumed the heavens were fixed apart from the motion of the spheres, was developed without any understanding of gravity. After the planets' motions were more measured, theoretical mechanisms such as deferent and epicycles were added. Although the model was capable of reasonably predicting the planets' positions in the sky and more epicycles were required as the measurements became more accurate, hence the model became unwieldy. Geocentric, it was modified by Copernicus to place the Sun at the centre to help simplify the model; the model was further challenged during the 16th century, as comets were observed traversing the spheres. The basis for the modern understanding of orbits was first formulated by Johannes Kepler whose results are summarised in his three laws of planetary motion. First, he found that the orbits of the planets in our Solar System are elliptical, not circular, as had been believed, that the Sun is not located at the center of the orbits, but rather at one focus. Second, he found that the orbital speed of each planet is not constant, as had been thought, but rather that the speed depends on the planet's distance from the Sun.

Third, Kepler found a universal relationship between the orbital properties of all the planets orbiting the Sun. For the planets, the cubes of their distances from the Sun are proportional to the squares of their orbital periods. Jupiter and Venus, for example, are about 5.2 and 0.723 AU distant from the Sun, their orbital periods about 11.86 and 0.615 years. The proportionality is seen by the fact that the ratio for Jupiter, 5.23/11.862, is equal to that for Venus, 0.7233/0.6152, in accord with the relationship. Idealised orbits meeting these rules are known as Kepler orbits. Isaac Newton demonstrated that Kepler's laws were derivable from his theory of gravitation and that, in general, the orbits of bodies subject to gravity were conic sections. Newton showed that, for a pair of bodies, the orbits' sizes are in inverse proportion to their masses, that those bodies orbit their common center of mass. Where one body is much more massive than the other, it is a convenient approximation to take the center of mass as coinciding with the center of the more massive body.

Advances in Newtonian mechanics were used to explore variations from the simple assumptions behind Kepler orbits, such as the perturbations due to other bodies, or the impact of spheroidal rather than spherical bodies. Lagrange developed a new approach to Newtonian mechanics emphasizing energy more than force, made progress on the three body problem, discovering the Lagrangian points. In a dramatic vindication of classical mechanics, in 1846 Urbain Le Verrier was able to predict the position of Neptune based on unexplained perturbations in the orbit of Uranus. Albert Einstein in his 1916 paper The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity explained that gravity was due to curvature of space-time and removed Newton's assumption that changes propagate instantaneously; this led astronomers to recognize that Newtonian mechanics did not provide the highest accuracy in understanding orbits. In relativity theory, orbits follow geodesic trajectories which are approximated well by the Newtonian predictions but the differences are measurable.

All the experimental evidence that can distinguish between the theories agrees with relativity theory to within experimental measurement accuracy. The original vindication of general relativity is that it was able to account for the remaining unexplained amount in precession of Mercury's perihelion first noted by Le Verrier. However, Newton's solution is still used for most short term purposes since it is easier to use and sufficiently accurate. Within a planetary system, dwarf planets and other minor planets and space debris orbit the system's barycenter in elliptical orbits. A comet in a parabolic or hyperbolic orbit about a barycenter is not gravitationally bound to the star and therefore is not considered part of the star's planetary system. Bodies which are gravitationally bound to one of the planets in a planetary system, either natural or artificial satellites, follow orbits about a barycenter near or within that planet. Owing to mutual gravitational perturbations, the eccentricities of the planetary orbits vary over time.

Mercury, the smallest planet in the Solar System, has the most eccentric orbit

2013 Chicago Red Stars season

The 2013 Chicago Red Stars season is the fifth season of the soccer club and its first season in National Women's Soccer League. In November 2012, it was announced that there would be eight teams in a new women's professional soccer league, the National Women's Soccer League will be subsidized by the USSF, the Canadian Soccer Association and the Mexican Football Federation; the three federations would pay the salaries of their national team players to aid the teams in creating world-class rosters while staying under the salary cap. The players would be distributed evenly among the eight teams in an allocation process. USSF would set the schedule. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Squad correct as of July 2, 2013 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Per NWSL and club policies terms of the deals do not get disclosed.

Players not selected in either the 2013 NWSL Supplemental Draft or signed as a free agent, but were on the 2012 Red Star squad: defender Elise Weber, defender Lauren Alkek, midfielder Jennifer Buczkowski, forward Amanda Cinalli, goalkeeper Kelsey Devonshire, midfielder Vanessa DiBernardo, forward Allison Doyle, goalkeeper Kristin Eggert, midfielder Ashleigh Ellenwood, defender Ashlee Elliott, goalkeeper Jamie Forbes, defender Alexandra Heller, defender Brittany Hengesh, midfielder Kelsey Hough, forward Michele Weissenhofer, defender Kara Kabellis, midfielder Vanessa Laxgang, midfielder Nicole Lipp, defender Mary Therese McDonnell, defender Kecia Morway, midfielder Shayla Mutz, forward Lindsey Schwartz, defender Sammy Scofield. Invitees to the preseason camp who departed or were released in the preseason: midfielder Natalia Daniels, goalkeeper Erin Kane, midfielder Maureen Smunt, midfielder Alissa VonderHaar. Front Office Coaching StaffManager Rory Dames First Assistant Coach Stephanie Foster Second Assistant Coach Christian Lavers Goalkeeper Coach Trae Manny Last updated: 18 August 2013Source: NWSLsoccer.com standingsPld = Matches played.

Weligama

Weligama is a town on the south coast of Sri Lanka, located in Matara District, Southern Province, Sri Lanka, governed by an Urban Council. The name Weligama means "sandy village" which refers to the area's sandy sweep bay, it is 144 kilometres south of Colombo and is situated at an elevation of 9 metres above the sea level. The main industries are fishing. Weligama is a popular tourist destination and hosts several boutique hotels including an off shore islet known as Taprobane, which houses a villa constructed by the French Count de Mauny, is owned by Geoffrey Dobbs, it was the birthplace of the scholar monk Weligama Sri Sumangala. Weligama was affected by the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, with 15% of the area destroyed, with over 2,200 houses damaged or washed away, 469 reported deaths. There are a number of sites of historical importance within Weligama and its vicinity, including a 3 metres high bas-relief statue of Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, carved into the surrounding rock, between the 6th-9th century AD.

It is known locally as Kusta Raja Gala or Rock of the Leper King and is thought to represent a king smitten with a skin disease, prompted in a vision to take coconut pulp and water for three months as a cure. When he fulfilled the vision his health was restored, he commissioned his figure to be carved on the rock commemorating this miraculous cure; this sculpture is believed to be all, left of the old Agrabodhi Vihara, located there. Weligama is recognised for its beeralu lace-making. First introduced by the Portuguese in the 16th century lace-making has remained a traditional handicraft along the coastal area of Weligama, with a number of households producing crochet and tatting lace; the area is famous for its distinct stilt fishermen, who erect a single pole in the chest-deep water on the beach, just few meters off-shore, where they perch on a cross bar and using bamboo fishing rods cast their lines out beyond the surf break to catch small fish. Weligama is located on the Coastal or Southern Rail Line, the A2 highway, connecting Colombo to Weligama.

Weligama railway station Weligama post office Taprobane Island Stilt Fisherman Kusta Raja Gala Lace-making Sri Lanka 00 94 Area code 041 Postal code 81700 List of towns in Southern Province, Sri Lanka List of beaches in Sri Lanka

Ron Caldwell

Ronald R. "Ron" Caldwell is a businessman from Wynne in Cross County in eastern Arkansas, since 2013 a Republican member of the Arkansas State Senate. His District 23 encompasses Jackson County and portions of Cross, Monroe, St. Francis and Woodruff counties. Caldwell graduated in 1969 from Wynne High School and thereafter from Arkansas State University in Jonesboro, from which he received a Bachelor of Science in Marketing, he and his wife, married c. 1977 and have two children, Corey Crain Caldwell and Mary Ann Caldwell Weatherford, wife of the Reverend John Carl Weatherford, three grandchildren. The Caldwells are active in the Wynne Baptist Church, he is a member of the National Rifle Association. Caldwell and his brother founded and managed for thirty years the former Caldwell Lumber Company in Wynne, he is a real estate investor and a former member of the Cross County Economic Development Commission. He cites small business as one of his major concerns as a state senator. In the summer of 2012, Caldwell was supporting Thomas Lee "Tommy" Caubble of Wynne for the state Senate.

When Caubble died at the start of the general election campaign, Caldwell stepped forward to replace him as the unopposed Republican nominee for the seat. The incumbent Democratic Senator Jerry Taylor did not seek reelection. Caldwell instead defeated another incumbent Democrat, Jerry Brown, moved to District 23. In the election held on November 6, 2012, Caldwell polled 13,798 votes to Brown's 12,214. Caldwell is a member of the Arkansas Legislative Council and these Senate committees: Agriculture and Economic Development, City and Local Affairs, Legislative Facilities, Public Health and Labor, Rules and Memorials. A pro-life legislator, Caldwell voted to ban abortions after twenty weeks of gestation or whenever fetal heartbeat is determined. Caldwell voted to allow university and college staff to carry concealed weapons on campus to enhance security, he voted to require picture identification for voting, which required the override of a veto by Democratic Governor Mike Beebe. He voted to allow the sale in Arkansas of unpasteurized whole milk.

Senator Caldwell in 2013 voted for a Republican bill to amend state income taxes. He voted to test recipients of unemployment compensation for use of narcotics and to reduce weekly benefits to the unemployed. Caldwell did not vote on legislation to make the office of prosecuting attorney in Arkansas nonpartisan or on a failed proposal to require a racial-impact statement regarding crime bills. Caldwell endorsed former U. S. Representative Asa Hutchinson's successful bid for governor in 2014

Good Luck (Basement Jaxx song)

"Good Luck" is a song by British electronic music duo Basement Jaxx, featuring vocals from Lisa Kekaula of American band The Bellrays. It was released in January 2004 as the second single from their third studio album, Kish Kash, reached number 12 on the UK Singles Chart, number two on the US Hot Dance Club Play, number 22 on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart; the song was nominated in the Best Dance Recording category at 47th Grammy Awards. "We had to kick it off with something. Whatever we chose people would say,'That isn't house music.' Who cares?" It's a brave track more so for including a 16-piece orchestra. But it didn't come easily. "Initially, Lisa sounded like a diva and we didn't want that. With two hours before she had to go back to America, Simon strummed an AC/DC riff and I scribbled down some words and we had something that didn't sound like a Basement Jaxx record - a rock'n' roll song which didn't sound modern."Buxton said the song was the most difficult track to work on of the album.

"That took us ages and we went through loads of processes. It took a long time to get it to its finish point," stated Buxton. While predicting winners from all of the 47th Annual Grammy Awards' categories, Sal Cinquemani and Eric Henderson from Slant Magazine predicted the song's win, with Henderson called the song "a fantastic, chugging single that shoves Britney's sex-pixie ditty and the Scissor Sisters's queer-as-milquetoast shtick face down in the dirt." A music video was produced to promote the single, filmed in Argentina. "Good Luck" featured as the opening theme song to the 2004 CGI anime movie Appleseed and was featured in the Victoria's Secret fashion show for 2003 and 2005. A version without lyrics was used during the opening sequence of the BBC's UEFA Euro 2004 television coverage; this spawned a re-release of the original single, it entered at number 14 on the UK Singles Chart on 4 July 2003. The same instrumental version was used by BBC Radio Sheffield as the opening theme for their live local football coverage, where it is still in use as of December 2017.

The song appeared on American reality television series Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Insight

Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a specific context. The term insight can have several related meanings: a piece of information the act or result of understanding the inner nature of things or of seeing intuitively an introspection the power of acute observation and deduction and perception, called intellection or noesis an understanding of cause and effect based on identification of relationships and behaviors within a model, context, or scenario An insight that manifests itself such as understanding how to solve a difficult problem, is sometimes called by the German word Aha-Erlebnis; the term was coined by theoretical linguist Karl Bühler. It is known as an epiphany, eureka moment or the penny dropping moment. Sudden sickening realisations identifying a problem rather than solving it, so Uh-oh rather than Aha moments are further seen in negative insight. A further example of negative insight is chagrin, annoyance at the obviousness of a solution missed up until the point of insight, an example of this being the Homer Simpson's D'oh!

In psychology, insight occurs when a solution to a problem presents itself and without warning. It is the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based on trial and error. Solutions via Insight have been proven to be more accurate than non-insight solutions. Insight was first studied by Gestalt Psychology, in the early part of the 20th century, during the search for an alternative to associationism and the associationistic view of learning; some proposed potential mechanisms for insight include: seeing the problem in a new way, connecting the problem to another relevant problem/solution pair, releasing past experiences that are blocking the solution, or seeing problem in a larger, coherent context. Methodological approaches to the study of insight in the laboratory involve presenting participants with problems and puzzles that cannot be solved in a conventional or logical manner. Problems of insight fall into three types; the first type of problem forces participants to use objects in a way they are not accustomed to, like the "Duncker candle problem".

In the "Duncker candle problem", individuals are given matches and a box of tacks and asked to find a way to attach a candle to the wall to light the room. The solution requires the participants to empty the box of tacks, set the candle inside the box, tack the box to the wall, light the candle with the matches; the second type of insight problem requires spatial ability to solve, like the "Nine-dot Problem". The famous "Nine-dot problem" requires participants to draw four lines, through nine dots, without picking their pencil up; the third and final type of problem requires verbal ability to solve, like the Remote Associates Test. In the RAT, individuals must think of a word that connects three unrelated, words. RAT are used in experiments, because they can be solved both with and without insight. Two clusters of problems, those solvable by insight and those not requiring insight to solve, have been observed. An individual’s cognitive flexibility and vocabulary ability are predictive of performance on insight problems, but not on non-insight problems.

In contrast, fluid intelligence is mildly predictive of performance on non-insight problems, but not on insight problems. More recent research suggests that rather than insight versus search, that the subjective feeling of insight varies, with some solutions experienced with a stronger feeling of Aha than others. People in a better mood are more to solve problems using insight. Research demonstrated that self-reported positive affect of participants uniquely increased insight before and during the solving of a problem, as indicated by differing brain activity patterns. People experiencing anxiety showed the opposite effect, solved fewer problems by insight. Emotion can be considered in terms of the insight experience and whether this is a positive Aha or negative Uh-oh moment. Using a geometric and spatial insight problem, it was found that providing participants with breaks improved their performance as compared to participants who did not receive a break. However, the length of incubation between problems did not matter.

Thus, participants' performance on insight problems improved just as much with a short break as it did with a long break.h Research has shown sleep to help produce insight. Individuals were trained on insight problems. Following training, one group was tested on the insight problems after sleeping for eight hours at night, one group was tested after staying awake all night, one group was tested after staying awake all day; those that slept performed twice as well on the insight problems than those. Differences in brain activation in the left and right hemisphere seem to be indicative of insight versus non-insight solutions. Using RAT’s that were either presented to the left or right visual field, it was shown that participants having solved the problem with insight were more to have been shown the RAT on the left visual field, indicating right hemisphere processing; this provides evidence that the right hemisphere plays a unique role in insight.fMRI and EEG scans of participants completing RAT's demonstrated unique brain activity corresponding to problems solved by insight.

For one, there is high EEG activity in the alpha- and gamma-band about 300 milliseconds before participants indicated a solution to insight problems, but not to non-insight problems. Additionally, problems solved by insight corresponded to increased activity