The killer whale or orca is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations specialize in particular types of prey; some feed on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and other species of dolphin. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators. A cosmopolitan species, they can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas, absent only from the Baltic and Black seas, some areas of the Arctic Ocean. Killer whales are social, their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of animal culture. The International Union for Conservation of Nature assesses the orca's conservation status as data deficient because of the likelihood that two or more killer whale types are separate species.
Some local populations are considered threatened or endangered due to prey depletion, habitat loss, capture for marine mammal parks, conflicts with human fisheries. In late 2005, the southern resident killer whales, which swim in British Columbia and Washington state waters, were placed on the U. S. Endangered Species list. Wild killer whales are not considered a threat to humans, but there have been cases of captive orcas killing or injuring their handlers at marine theme parks. Killer whales feature in the mythologies of indigenous cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers. Orcinus orca is the only recognized extant species in the genus Orcinus, one of many animal species described by Linnaeus in 1758 in Systema Naturae. Konrad Gessner wrote the first scientific description of a killer whale in his Piscium & aquatilium animantium natura of 1558, part of the larger Historia animalium, based on examination of a dead stranded animal in the Bay of Greifswald that had attracted a great deal of local interest.
The killer whale is one of 35 species in the oceanic dolphin family, which first appeared about 11 million years ago. The killer whale lineage branched off shortly thereafter. Although it has morphological similarities with the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale and the pilot whales, a study of cytochrome b gene sequences by Richard LeDuc indicated that its closest extant relatives are the snubfin dolphins of the genus Orcaella. Although the term "orca" is used, English-speaking scientists most use the traditional name "killer whale". Indeed, the genus name Orcinus means "of the kingdom of the dead", or "belonging to Orcus". Ancient Romans used orca for these animals borrowing Greek ὄρυξ, which referred to a whale species. Since the 1960s, "orca" has grown in popularity; the term "orca" is euphemistically preferred by some to avoid the negative connotations of "killer", because, being part of the family Delphinidae, the species is more related to other dolphins than to whales. They are sometimes referred to as "blackfish", a name used for other whale species.
"Grampus" is a former name for the species, but is now used. This meaning of "grampus" should not be confused with the genus Grampus, whose only member is Risso's dolphin; the three to five types of killer whales may be distinct enough to be considered different races, subspecies, or even species. The IUCN reported in 2008, "The taxonomy of this genus is in need of review, it is that O. orca will be split into a number of different species or at least subspecies over the next few years." Although large variation in the ecological distinctiveness of different killer whale groups complicate simple differentiation into types, research off the west coast of Canada and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s identified the following three types: Resident: These are the most sighted of the three populations in the coastal waters of the northeast Pacific. Residents' diets consist of fish and sometimes squid, they live in complex and cohesive family groups called pods. Female residents characteristically have rounded dorsal fin tips.
They visit the same areas consistently. British Columbia and Washington resident populations are amongst the most intensively studied marine mammals anywhere in the world. Researchers have named over 300 killer whales over the past 30 years. Transient: The diets of these whales consist exclusively of marine mammals. Transients travel in small groups of two to six animals, have less persistent family bonds than residents. Transients vocalize in less complex dialects. Female transients are characterized by more triangular and pointed dorsal fins than those of residents; the gray or white area around the dorsal fin, known as the "saddle patch" contains some black colouring in residents. However, the saddle patches of transients are uniformly gray. Transients roam along the coast. Transients are referred to as Bigg's killer whale in honor of cetologist Michael Bigg; the term has become common and may replace the transient label. Offshore: A third population of killer whales in the northeast Pacific was discovered in 1988, when a humpback whale researcher ob
Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries is a government agency that operates automobile and passenger ferry service in the U. S. state of Washington as part of the Washington State Department of Transportation. It runs ten routes serving 20 terminals located around Puget Sound and in the San Juan Islands, designated as part of the state highway system; the agency maintains the largest fleet of ferries in the United States at 23 vessels, carrying 24.2 million passengers in 2016. As of 2016, it was the largest ferry operator in the United States, the fourth-largest ferry system in the world; the ferry system has its origins in the "mosquito fleet", a collection of small steamer lines serving the Puget Sound area during the part of the nineteenth century and early part of the 20th century. By the beginning of the 1930s, two lines remained: the Puget Sound Navigation Company and the Kitsap County Transportation Company. A strike in 1935 forced the KCTC to close. Toward the end of the 1940s the Black Ball Line wanted to increase its fares, to compensate for increased wage demands from the ferry workers' unions, but the state refused to allow this, so the Black Ball Line shut down.
In 1951, the state bought nearly all of Black Ball's ferry assets for $5 million. The state intended to run ferry service only until cross-sound bridges could be built, but these were never approved, the Washington State Department of Transportation runs the system to this day. In 2017, the Senate Labor and Sports Committee held a fact finding hearing in Olympia in response to a report from KING 5 Investigation which analyzed the past five years of WSF financial data obtained through a request for public records. Transportation officials issued a statement saying, "the cash-strapped ferry system was cutting out excessive forms of compensation for many of its workers and saving millions of tax dollars in the process," while KING 5 Investigators showed WSF has been spending more on labor costs every year since 2012. Sen. Michael Baumgartner, R-Spokane, chair of the committee, said, "the most troubling portion of the report centered on how types of compensation that were eliminated by the legislature and WSF management were added back on, which led to the soaring labor costs."
Baumgartner stated plans to introduce legislation that would make negotiating contracts an open process in the future. He cited a conflict of interest in the current protocol as labor unions are perennial supporters of the governor; as of 2018, there are 23 ferries on Puget Sound operated by the state. The largest vessels in this fleet carry up to 202 vehicles, they are painted in a distinctive white and green trim paint scheme, feature double-ended open vehicle decks and bridges at each end so that they do not need to turn around. The ferry fleet consists of the following vessels: Since the beginning of state-run ferry service in 1951, WSF has retired many vessels as they have become older, too expensive to operate or maintain, or have become too small to provide adequate ferry service. WSF owned passenger-only vessels between 1985 and 2009, but after discontinuing its two passenger-only routes in the 2000s, WSF has sold its passenger-only ferries to other operators. Below is a list of ferries that WSF has retired since 1951.
Unless otherwise noted, all vessels introduced in 1951 were acquired from the Black Ball Line when the state took over the company's routes and ferryboats in Puget Sound. There are several other publicly operated and passenger-only ferries in Washington state. Official website Evergreenfleet.com-- A History of Washington State Ferries Past and Present Vehicle Reservation Predesign Study
Arbutus menziesii, the Pacific madrone or madrona, is a species of tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the western coastal areas of North America, from British Columbia to California. It is known as the madroa, madroño, madroña, or bearberry; the name "strawberry tree" may be found in relation to A. menziesii. According to the Sunset Western Garden Book, in the United States, the name "madrone" is more common south of the Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon and Northern California and the name "madrona" is more common north of the Siskiyous; the Concow tribe calls the tree dis-tā' - kou-wät ′ - chu. In British Columbia it is referred to as arbutus, its species name was given it in honour of the Scottish naturalist Archibald Menzies, who noted it during George Vancouver's voyage of exploration. Arbutus menziesii is an evergreen tree with rich orange-red bark that when mature peels away in thin sheets, leaving a greenish, silvery appearance that has a satin sheen and smoothness. In spring, it bears sprays of small bell-like flowers, in autumn, red berries.
The berries have hooked barbs that latch onto larger animals for migration. It is common to see madronas of about 10 to 25 metres in height, but with the right conditions trees may reach up to 30 metres. In ideal conditions madronas can reach a thickness of 5 to 8 feet at the trunk, much like an oak tree. Leaves are thick with a waxy texture, oval, 7 to 15 centimetres long and 4 to 8 centimetres broad, arranged spirally; the leaves are evergreen, lasting a few years before detaching, but in the north of its range, wet winters promote a brown to black leaf discoloration due to fungal infections. The stain lasts until the leaves detach at the end of their lifespan. Madrones are native to the western coast of North America, from British Columbia to California, they are found in Puget Sound, the Oregon Coast Range, California Coast Ranges. They are rare south of Santa Barbara County, with isolated stands south to Palomar Mountain in California. One author lists their southern range as extending as far as Baja California in Mexico, but others point out that there are no recorded specimens collected that far south, the trees are absent from modern surveys of native trees there.
However other Arbutus species are endemic to the area. The trees are difficult to transplant and a seedling should be set in its permanent spot while still small. Transplant mortality becomes significant; the site should be sunny, well drained, lime-free. In its native range, a tree needs no food once it has become established. Water and nitrogen fertilizer will boost its growth, but at the cost of making it more susceptible to disease; this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Native Americans ate the berries, but because the berries have a high tannin content and are thus astringent, they more chewed them or made them into a cider, they used the berries to make necklaces and other decorations, as bait for fishing. Bark and leaves were used to treat stomach aches, skin ailments, sore throats; the bark was made into a tea to be drunk for these medicinal purposes. Many mammal and bird species feed off the berries, including American robins, cedar waxwings, band-tailed pigeons, varied thrushes, mule deer, ring-tailed cats, bears.
Mule deer will eat the young shoots when the trees are regenerating after fire. It is important as a nest site for many birds, in mixed woodland it seems to be chosen for nestbuilding disproportionately to its numbers; the wood is durable and has a warm color after finishing, so it has become more popular as a flooring material in the Pacific Northwest. An attractive veneer can be made from the wood. However, because large pieces of madrona lumber warp and unpredictably during the drying process, they are not used much. Madrone is burned for firewood, since it is a hard and dense wood that burns long and hot, surpassing oak in this regard. Although drought tolerant and fast growing, Arbutus menziesii is declining throughout most of its range. One cause is fire control. Mature trees survive fire, can regenerate more after fire than the Douglas firs with which they are associated, they produce large numbers of seeds, which sprout following fire. Increasing development pressures in its native habitat have contributed to a decline in the number of mature specimens.
This tree is sensitive to alteration of the grade or drainage near the root crown. Until about 1970, this phenomenon was not recognized on the west coast; the species is affected to a small extent by sudden oak death, a disease caused by the water-mold Phytophthora ramorum. During the Soberanes Fire in the summer of 2016, the largest known specimen of madrone was burned and killed; the tree, 125 feet tall and more th
Pig War (1859)
The Pig War was a confrontation in 1859 between the United States and United Kingdom over the British–U. S. Border in the San Juan Islands, between Vancouver Island and the mainland; the Pig War, so called because it was triggered by the shooting of a pig, is called the Pig Episode, the Pig and Potato War, the San Juan Boundary Dispute and the Northwestern Boundary Dispute. With no shots exchanged and no human casualties, this dispute was a bloodless conflict; the Oregon Treaty of June 15, 1846, resolved the Oregon boundary dispute by dividing the Oregon Country/Columbia District between the United States and Britain "along the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver Island, thence southerly through the middle of the said channel, of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, to the Pacific Ocean."However, there are two straits that could be called the middle of the channel: Haro Strait, along the west side of the San Juan Islands. In 1846, there was still some uncertainty about the geography of the region.
The most available maps were those of George Vancouver, published in 1798, of Charles Wilkes, published in 1845. In both cases the maps are unclear in the vicinity of the southeastern coast of Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands; as a result, Haro Strait is not clear either. In 1856, the US and Britain set up a Boundary Commission to resolve a number of issues regarding the international boundary, including the water boundary from the Strait of Georgia to the Strait of Juan de Fuca; the British appointed James Charles Prevost First Commissioner, George Henry Richards Second Commissioner, William A. G. Young Secretary; the US appointed Archibald Campbell First Commissioner, John Parke Second Commissioner, William J. Warren Secretary. On June 27, 1857, the American and British commissioners met for the first time on board the British ship HMS Satellite, anchored in Esquimalt Harbour; the two sides met several more times in 1857 in Esquimalt Harbour and Nanaimo Harbour, corresponded by letter between meetings.
The water boundary was discussed from October to December. From the start, Prevost maintained that Rosario Strait was required by the treaty's wording and was intended by the treaty framers, while Campbell had the same opinion for Haro Strait. Prevost held that the channel specified in the treaty must have three key qualities: it must separate the continent from Vancouver Island, it must carry the boundary in a southerly direction, it must be navigable. Only Rosario fulfilled these requirements, he wrote. Campbell countered that the expression "southerly", in the treaty, was to be understood in a general sense, that Rosario Strait did not separate the continent from Vancouver Island, but the San Juan Islands from Lummi Island, Cypress Island, Fidalgo Island, others, that navigability was not germane to the issue, but if it was, Haro Strait was the wider and more direct passage, he challenged Prevost to produce any evidence showing that the treaty framers had intended Rosario Strait. Prevost responded to the challenge by referring to American maps showing the boundary running through Rosario Strait, included one by John C.
Frémont, produced for and published by the US government, another by John B. Preston, Surveyor-General of Oregon in 1852. To the other points, Prevost repeated his statements about Rosario Strait's navigability—the channels between Lummi and Fidalgo islands not being navigable—and that a line through Rosario would be southerly, while one through Haro would have to be drawn westerly; the two continued to discuss the issue into December 1857, until it was clear what each side's argument was and that neither would be convinced of the other. Prevost made a final offer at the sixth meeting, December 3, he suggested a compromise line through San Juan Channel, which would give the US all the main islands except San Juan Island. This offer was rejected and the commission adjourned, agreeing to report back to their respective governments, thus ambiguity over the water boundary remained. Because of this ambiguity, both the United States and Britain claimed sovereignty over the San Juan Islands. During this period of disputed sovereignty, Britain's Hudson's Bay Company established operations on San Juan and turned the island into a sheep ranch.
Meanwhile, by mid-1859, twenty-five to twenty-nine American settlers had arrived. San Juan Island held significance not as a military strategic point. While the British held Fort Victoria on Vancouver Island to the west, overlooking the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the entry point to Haro Strait, leading to the Strait of Georgia, the nation that held the San Juan Islands would be able to dominate all the straits connecting the Strait of Juan de Fuca with the Strait of Georgia. General George B. McClellan, George Pickett’s West Point Classmate and lifelong friend, claimed that General William S. Harney and Pickett conspired with a cabal, to start a war with Britain, creating a common enemy, to head off a north-south confrontation. However, General Granville O. Haller debunked McClellan's theory, he said they had wanted to start a war, but with hope of distracting the north so that the south could gain independence. The theories are given credence when it is noted that Major General Silas Casey a Lieutenant Colonel and deputy commander of the 9th Infantry Division, was reduced to a support role for Captain George Pickett, given independent jurisdiction over a vast area by Harney a Brevet Major, was passed over by Harney in favor of Pickett when given this choice command.
On the other hand it can be said that Lt Col Casey had not been reduced, for he was given command over the USS Massachusetts and Major Hal
Vice Admiral Sir Henry Kellett was a British naval officer and explorer. Kellett joined the Royal Navy in 1822, he spent three years in the West Indies and served on survey vessels under William Fitzwilliam Owen in Africa, as second in command of HMS Sulphur under Edward Belcher in the East Indies, as captain of HMS Starling in the First Opium War with China during which he was promoted to Commander in 1841 and Post-Captain in 1842. In 1845 he was appointed captain of the survey ship HMS Herald as part of a hydrography survey mission whose primary mission was to survey the coast of North America from Guayaquil to Vancouver, including the Galápagos Islands, he was temporarily reassigned in 1848 to join the search for Sir John Franklin. During this voyage he sailed through the Bering Strait across the Chukchi Sea and discovered Herald Island. Kellett named it after his ship, he sighted Wrangel Island in the western horizon. William Pullen was on this expedition. In 1852, he commanded HMS Resolute and went to the aid of Robert McClure, whose vessel, was trapped in the Arctic.
His men constructed a storehouse on Dealy Island off the south coast of Melville Island. He superintended Jamaica Dockyard. Admiral Superintendent of the Malta Dockyard in 1864 and Commander-in-Chief, China Station in 1869, he retired in 1871. Several places in Hong Kong have been named after him: Kellett Island, Kellett Bay and Mount Kellett. Kellett Bluff on Henry Island, Washington, USA, was named after Captain Kellett as well, it is a place with extreme currents, is frequented by feeding orcas. Kellet's whelk Kelletia kelletii is named after him; this article is based on a translation of the article Henry Kellett from the French Wikipedia on 13 December 2006. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Kellett, Henry". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource. Murphy, David; the Arctic Fox: Francis Leopold-McClintock, Discoverer of the Fate of Franklin. Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-77070-179-3
Moran State Park
Moran State Park is a public recreation area on Orcas Island in Puget Sound's San Juan Islands in the state of Washington, United States. The state park encompasses over 5,000 acres of various terrain including forests, bogs and lakes, it is the largest public recreation area in the San Juan Islands and the fourth largest state park in the state. A park focal point is the observation tower atop Mount Constitution; the park was the estate of Seattle mayor and shipbuilder Robert Moran. Due to poor health, Moran moved to Orcas Island and between 1906 and 1909 built his estate, which included a large mansion named Rosario. Wood and stone material found on the island were used to construct the estate's houses and buildings. In 1921, Moran gave a large portion of his property to the state of Washington for the creation of Moran State Park; the mansion and its grounds remain in private hands, operated as Rosario Spa. In August 1935, 28 men from the 4768th Company of the Civilian Conservation Corps began constructing a stone observation tower atop 2,409-foot Mount Constitution.
Designed by noted Seattle architect Ellsworth Storey, the tower became the literal and figurative high point of eight years of work by crews from the CCC's Camp Moran. The state park was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2013; the park has more than 30 miles of trails for hiking and horseback riding, non-motorized boating from two boat ramps, year-round camping in five camping areas. The Mount Constitution observation tower commands sweeping marine views from the highest point in the San Juan Islands. Friends of Moran raise money for park needs through fundraising and by operating a small gift shop at the top of the mountain; the volunteer group organizes park cleanups and improvement events. Moran State Park Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission Moran State Park Map Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission Moran State Park Orcas Online