Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
The Order of Merit of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a distinguished honorary order of Luxembourg. It was instituted on January 23,1961 by Grand Duchess Charlotte, Grand Master of the order is the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Besides the five classes, a gilt medal can be bestowed, knight Josy Linkels, painter Fernand Roda, painter Jean-Claude Schlim Marianne Majerus, Anglo-Luxembourgish photographer. Marie-Joseé Stark Le Mémorial 13 du 14.04.1961, Arrêté grand-ducal du 23 janvier 1961 portant institution de lOrdre de Mérite du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Luxembourg War Cross
The Luxembourg War Cross is a military decoration of Luxembourg. It was created on 17 April 1945 by the Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, the War Cross recognizes military service and feats of bravery. The medal is referred to as the Luxembourg Croix de Guerre as French is one of Luxembourgs three official languages. Luxembourg bestowed the War Cross on both Luxembourg citizens and members of the Allied Forces for acts of bravery or valor during the Liberation of Luxembourg. The War Cross could be awarded to military units, the War Cross 1940–1945 was established in April 1945 by Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. This decoration was awarded to members of the forces and paramilitary organizations who rendered distinguished service during World War II. Foreigners were eligible for award, the medal is a dark bronze cross in the Cross pattée design. The cross is surmounted by a ducal crown. On the obverse side it has a large letter C surmounted by a crown, the reverse side of it has the date 1940.
The cross has crossed swords between the arms of the cross pointing upward, made of the dark bronze, the ribbon of the War Cross is Nassau blue, with three stripes of yellow-orange spaced equally from the center. The War Cross 1951 was instituted in May 1951 and this decoration is awarded to those members of Military of Luxembourg and paramilitary organizations who have distinguished themselves through acts of bravery and courage. The decoration may be awarded to foreigners, the War Cross 1951 was established to allow the government of Luxembourg to recognize service in the Korean War, as well as in future conflicts. The War Cross 1951 appears exactly as the War Cross 1940–1945, instead of bearing the date 1940, that space is occupied by a wreath of oak leaves. The United States Military allows members of units which have been awarded the decoration wear the blue and yellow-orange ribbon. This represent the units receipt of the award as a streamer in the colors as the ribbon carried on the units standard
Monarchy of Luxembourg
The Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the monarchical head of state of Luxembourg. Since 1815, there have been nine monarchs of Luxembourg, including the incumbent, the constitution of Luxembourg defines the grand dukes position, The Grand Duke is the head of state, symbol of its unity, and guarantor of national independence. He exercises executive power in accordance with the constitution and the laws of the country, after a constitutional change in December 2008 resulting from Henris refusal to sign a law legalizing euthanasia, laws now take effect without the grand dukes assent. As a result, the grand duke no longer has any role in the legislative process. Succession to the throne was governed by Salic law, as dictated by the Nassau Family Pact, an heir apparent may be granted the style Hereditary Grand Duke. The current heir apparent is Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume, in June 2011, agnatic primogeniture was dropped in favour of absolute primogeniture, allowing any legitimate female descendants within the House of Nassau to be included in the line of succession.
It should, however, be noted that many of the titles are held without regard to the rules of Salic inheritance. When William III died leaving only his daughter Wilhelmina as an heir, the crown of Luxembourg passed to a male of another branch of the House of Nassau, the dispossessed Duke of Nassau and head of the branch of Nassau-Weilburg. Charlottes descendants have reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau
A rosette /roʊˈzɛt/ is a small, circular device that is typically presented with a medal. The rosettes are worn on the medal to denote a higher rank, or for situations where wearing the medal is deemed inappropriate. Rosettes are issued in such as Belgium, Italy. Rosettes are sometimes called bowknots, due to their shape, moreover, a large rosette is sometimes pinned onto the ribbon which suspends a medal, typically the Officer s badge of certain orders of chivalry. Some small lapel rosettes are worn in the manner as lapel pins. For instance, knights of the Order of the British Empire now wear a lapel rosette bearing the cross in the center. While a metal pin mounted on a silk rosette is considered a decoration of distinction. In the United States, the Medal of Honor is issued with a 1/2 inch light blue rosette with white stars, the Purple Heart was presented with a purple and white rosette, but now has been replaced by a metallic lapel pin. The lapel pin is designed to be a version of the rectangular service ribbon.
Most American military medals have the ribbon bar design scaled down to the size of a lapel pin, members of the Sons of the American Revolution wear small, blue-and-buff rosettes as lapel buttons. The colors match those of the uniform of Gen. George Washington, a rosette adorns the ribbon of all national Orders of Merit at the rank of Officer. Such rosette may be worn in diminutive form on appropriate civilian dress, ranks above that of Officer may wear a rosette adorned with gold and/or silver bars on each side of the rosette on appropriate civilian dress. Such rosette adorns ribbon bars worn on the dress uniform. Several of the top decorations of France, including the Légion dhonneur, the Legion of Honor authorized a rosette for those who are the rank of officer or above. If the grade is higher, the rosette is adorned with gold and/or silver bars which are place beside each side of the rosette, the same manner is accorded to the Order of National Merit. In occasions when bars are worn alone, the above-mentioned half-knots and/or rosettes are pinned onto the ribbon bars as appropriate to denote the wearers grade.
In the United Kingdom, small silver rosettes can be added to the ribbons that are worn in place of medals, usually these indicate multiple award bars, the number of times a decoration for merit or distinguished service has been awarded. Holders of the 1914 Star, the 1939-45 Star, the Pacific Star, the Burma Star, several American-based lineage societies provide a rosette as an insignia of membership for informal wear
House Order of Hohenzollern
The House Order of Hohenzollern was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status. Associated with the versions of the order were crosses and medals which could be awarded to lower-ranking soldiers. The House Order of Hohenzollern was instituted on December 5,1841 by joint decree of Prince Konstantin of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and these two principalities in southern Germany were Catholic collateral lines of the House of Hohenzollern, cousins to the Protestant ruling house of Prussia. On August 23,1851, after the two principalities had been annexed by Prussia, the order was adopted by the Prussian branch of the house. Also, although the two principalities had become a region of the Prussian kingdom, the princely lines continued to award the order as a house order. The Prussian version was known as the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. The Princely House Order continued to be awarded, after the fall of the German Monarchy, Prince Karl Antons second son, Karl Eitel Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, had become prince and king of Romania as Carol I.
Carol I had died childless and was succeeded by his nephew Ferdinand I and this form of the order existed until the Romanian monarchy was abolished in 1947, King Michael awarded a slightly altered order in exile. The Royal House Order of Hohenzollern came in the classes, Grand Commander Commander Knight Member Member was a lesser class for soldiers who were not officers. The Members Cross, especially swords, was a rare distinction for non-commissioned officers. Another decoration, the Members Eagle was often given as an award to lesser officials such as schoolteachers. The Eagles were solely civilian awards, and could not be awarded with swords, all other grades could be awarded with swords. When awarded with swords it was worn on the ribbon of the Iron Cross, all grades could be awarded with swords. During World War I, the grade of the Princely House Order was often awarded to officers. 40, a regiment raised in the principalities of Hohenzollern. Soldier in the regiments sister reserve and Landwehr regiments received the decoration.
Unlike the Royal House Order, awards of the Princely House Order were made on the ribbon of the order regardless of whether they were with or without swords. As with the Prussian and Hohenzollern versions, crossed swords could be used to indicate a wartime or combat award, the badge of the House Order of Hohenzollern was a cross pattée with convex edges and curved arms
Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions.
Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.
In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held
Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau was the first monarch of Luxembourg from the House of Nassau-Weilburg. He was a son of William, Duke of Nassau and his first wife Princess Louise of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Adolphes half-sister, Sophia of Nassau, was the wife of Oscar II of Sweden. Adolphe became Duke of Nassau in August 1839, after the death of his father, wiesbaden had by this time become the capital of the Duchy and Adolphe took up residence in the newly constructed Stadtschloss in 1841. On 4 March 1848 he consented to the population of Nassaus 9 Demands of the Nassauers, a few years later, however, he revoked his liberal views and took a strongly conservative and reactionary course. In general, though, he was seen as a popular ruler and he supported the Austrian Empire in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. After Austrias defeat, Nassau was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia, in 1879, Adolphes niece Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, the daughter of another of his half-sisters, married William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
In 1890, their only daughter Wilhelmina succeeded on his death without surviving male issue to the Dutch throne, the Grand Duchy, which had been linked to the Netherlands in personal union since 1815, passed to Adolphe in accordance with the Nassau Family Pact. Adolphe was King-Grand Duke William IIIs 17th cousin once removed through male line and he had, in fact, taken over the regency of Luxembourg for a short time during William IIIs illness. In any case, as he was already 73 years old and knew little of Luxembourgish politics, he left his hands off the day-to-day governing. The prime minister Paul Eyschen, in office since 1888, took care of the affairs of state, in 1902 Adolphe appointed his son William as Lieutenant-Representative. He died in 1905 at his home, Schloss Hohenburg in Lenggries. On 31 January 1844, Adolphe married firstly in St. Petersburg Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna of Russia and she died less than a year afterwards giving birth to a stillborn daughter. Adolphe built the Russian Orthodox Church of Saint Elizabeth 1847 to 1855 as her funeral church, on 23 April 1851, he remarried in Dessau Princess Adelheid-Marie of Anhalt-Dessau.
In 1892, Grand Duke Adolphe conferred the hereditary title Count of Wisborg on his Swedish nephew, Wisborg was the old castle in the city of Visby within Prince Oscars lost Dukedom of Gotland, but the title itself was created in the nobility of Luxembourg. On April 20,1842, the Adelsverein, Society for the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas, was organized in the Grand Dukes castle at Biebrich on the Rhine and he was named the Protector of the organization
Prussia was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centred on the region of Prussia. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership, in November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19. The Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, from 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was successfully establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state. Prussia existed de jure until its liquidation by the Allied Control Council Enactment No.46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians, in the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights—an organized Catholic medieval military order of German crusaders—conquered the lands inhabited by them.
In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk and their monastic state was mostly Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany and in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, and exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries. During the 18th century it had a say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a Lesser Germany which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleons defeat, Prussia acquired a section of north western Germany.
The country grew rapidly in influence economically and politically, and became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, and of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians. In the Weimar Republic, the state of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. East Prussia lost all of its German population after 1945, as Poland, the main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white colours were already used by the Teutonic Knights. The Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a cross with gold insert
Order of the Oak Crown
The Order of the Oak Crown is an order of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The Order of the Oak Crown was established in 1841 by Grand Duke William II who was King of the Netherlands, William II conferred the order on fewer than 30 recipients. His successor, William III, liked the ability to confer this Order by his sole discretion, in the following years hundreds of additional awards of the Order were made. Indeed, there were so many recipients in the kingdom of the Netherlands itself that the Order was widely regarded as a Dutch decoration, the Order of the Oak Crown remained a solely Luxembourgish decoration, subsequently the Netherlands established the Order of Orange-Nassau instead. HRH the Grand Duke of Luxembourg is the Grand Master of the Order, after the abdication of King-Grand Duke William I in 1841, his successor William II granted Luxembourg a written anti-liberal constitution in order to strengthen his authority over the country. At the same occasion, he established the Order of the Oak Crown with the idea to be able to award loyal supporters of his regime in liberal-minded Luxembourg.
The badge, the ribbon, and the hierarchy of the order were inspired by the Russian Order of St. George. The badge of the order is a gilt cross pattée, enamelled in white, the central disc bears the crowned monogram W on a green enamel background. The plaque of the order is a faceted silver star. The central disc bears the crowned monogram W on a green background, surrounded by a red enamel ring with the motto Je Maintiendrai. The medal of the order is in a shape, with the motif of the badge of the Order without enamel on the obverse. The ribbon of the order is yellow-orange moiré with three green stripes. The colors are said to be inspired by the oak forests, a, portant institution, pour le Grand-Duché du Luxembourg dun Ordre de la Couronne de Chêne. Mémorial A n°56 du 24.08.1876, Circulaire du 21 août 1876 - Ordre de la Couronne de chêne, honorary distinctions of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg - Official website of the Luxembourg gouvernement
Order of Merit of the Prussian Crown
The order was presented in one class and consisted of a badge and a breast star. For military merit the award was presented with crossed swords, the order was presented once with diamonds. In each of the compartments between the four arms of the cross is a crown surmounting the royal monogram. The central disc on the obverse of the shows a golden crown with red enamel, surrounded by a blue-enamelled circular band bearing the gold-lettered motto. The disc on the bears the intertwined initials IR W II. The star of the order is a golden eight-pointed star with straight rays, the sash of the order is blue, edged with orange stripes. The medal was awarded only 57 times, general von Gossler was the only person who received the awards in both departments. Zentralstelle für wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, München 1997, ISBN 3-00-001396-2, kurt-Gerhard Klietmann, Der Verdienstorden der Preußischen Krone, Mitteilung aus dem Institut für Wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, Der Herold - Band 12,32