Order of the Golden Fleece
The Distinguished Order of the Golden Fleece is a Roman Catholic order of chivalry founded in Bruges by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabella. Today, two branches of the Order exist, the Austrian Fleece; the chaplain of the Austrian branch is Archbishop of Vienna. Having had only 1,200 recipients since its establishment, the Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece has been referred to as the most prestigious and exclusive order of chivalry in the world and contemporaneously. Unlike any other distinction, the Golden Fleece is only granted for life, meaning it must be returned to the Spanish Monarch whenever the recipient deceases; each collar is coated in gold, is estimated to be worth around $60,000 USD, making it the most expensive chivalrous order. The Order of the Golden Fleece was established on 10 January 1430, by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in celebration of the prosperous and wealthy domains united in his person that ran from Flanders to Switzerland.
The jester and dwarf Madame d'Or performed at the creation of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Bruges. It is restricted to a limited number of knights 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign; the Order's first King of Arms was Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy. It received further privileges unusual to any order of knighthood: the sovereign undertook to consult the order before going to war; the order, conceived in an ecclesiastical spirit in which mass and obsequies were prominent and the knights were seated in choirstalls like canons, was explicitly denied to heretics, so became an Catholic honour during the Reformation. The officers of the order were the chancellor, the treasurer, the registrar, the King of Arms, or herald, Toison d'Or; the Duke's stated reason for founding this institution had been given in a proclamation issued following his marriage, in which he wrote that he had done so "for the reverence of God and the maintenance of our Christian Faith, to honor and exalt the noble order of knighthood, also...to do honor to old knights.
So that those knights and gentlemen who shall see worn the order... should honor those who wear it, be encouraged to employ themselves in noble deeds...". The Order of the Golden Fleece was defended from possible accusations of prideful pomp by the Burgundian court poet Michault Taillevent, who asserted that it was instituted: Translated into English: The choice of the Golden Fleece of Colchis as the symbol of a Christian order caused some controversy, not so much because of its pagan context, which could be incorporated in chivalric ideals, as in the Nine Worthies, but because the feats of Jason, familiar to all, were not without causes of reproach, expressed in anti-Burgundian terms by Alain Chartier in his Ballade de Fougères referring to Jason as "Who, to carry off the fleece of Colchis, was willing to commit perjury." The bishop of Châlons, chancellor of the Order, rescued the fleece's reputation by identifying it instead with the fleece of Gideon that received the dew of Heaven. The badge of the Order, in the form of a sheepskin, was suspended from a jewelled collar of firesteels in the shape of the letter B, for Burgundy, linked by flints.
With the absorption of the Burgundian lands into the Spanish Habsburg empire, the sovereignty of the Order passed to the Habsburg kings of Spain, where it remained until the death of the last of the Spanish Habsburgs, Charles II, in 1700. He was succeeded as king by a Bourbon; the dispute between Philip and the Habsburg pretender to the Spanish throne, the Archduke Charles, led to the War of the Spanish Succession, resulted in the division of the Order into Spanish and Austrian branches. In either case the sovereign, as Duke of Burgundy, writes the letter of appointment in French; the controversial conferral of the Fleece on Napoleon and his brother Joseph, while Spain was occupied by French troops, angered the exiled King of France, Louis XVIII, caused him to return his collar in protest. These, other awards by Joseph, were revoked by King Ferdinand on the restoration of Bourbon rule in 1813. Napoleon created by Order of 15 August 1809 the Order of the Three Golden Fleeces, in view of his sovereignty over Austria and Burgundy.
This was opposed by Joseph I of Spain and appointments to the new order were never made. In 1812, the acting government of Spain conferred the Fleece upon the Duke of Wellin
Military order (religious society)
A military order is a chivalric order with military elements. Western military orders were established as Catholic religious societies. Most members titled knights were laymen. Prominent examples include the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar, as well as the Teutonic Knights in the Baltics; the Knights Templar, the largest and most influential of the military orders, was suppressed in the early fourteenth century. However, some persisted longer in their original functions, only evolving into purely honorific and/or ceremonial chivalric orders with charitable aims in modern times, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, both of which are still conferred as Papal orders of knighthood. Notably, the Teutonic Order became monastic except a limited associated confraternity of honorary Knights. In 1053, for the Battle of Civitate, the Knights of Saint Peter was founded as a militia by Pope Leo IX to counter the Normans. In response to the Islamic conquests of the former Byzantine Empire, numerous Catholic military orders were set up following the First Crusade.
The founding of such orders suited the Catholic church's plan of channeling the devotion of the European nobility toward achieving the Church's temporal goals, it complemented the Peace and Truce of God. The foundation of the Knights Templar in 1118 provided the first in a series of organized military forces for the purpose of opposing Islamic conquests in the Holy Land and in the Iberian Peninsula — see the Reconquista — as well as Islamic invaders and pagan tribes in Eastern Europe which were perceived as threats to the Church's supremacy; the first secularized military order was the Order of Saint George, founded in 1326 by King Charles I of Hungary, through which he made all the Hungarian nobility swear loyalty to him. Shortly thereafter, the Order of the "Knights of the Band" was founded in 1332 by King Alfonso XI of Castile. Both orders existed only for about a century; the original features of the military orders were the combination of religious and military ways of life. Some of them, like the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights of Saint Thomas had charitable purposes and cared for the sick and poor.
However, they were not purely male institutions, as nuns could attach themselves as convents of the orders. One significant feature of the military orders was that clerical brothers could be subordinate to non-ordained brethren. In 1818, the orientalist Joseph von Hammer compared the Catholic military orders, in particular the Knights Templar, to certain Islamic models such as the Muslim sect of Assassins. In 1820, José Antonio Conde suggested they were modeled on the ribat, a fortified religious institution which brought together a religious or hospital way of life with fighting the enemies of Islam; however popular such views may have become, others have criticized this view, suggesting there were no such ribats around Outremer until after the military orders had been founded. The role and function of the military orders extended beyond their military exploits in the Holy Land and the Baltics. In fact, they had staff throughout Western Europe; the majority were laymen. They provided a conduit for cultural and technical innovation, such as the introduction of fulling into England by the Knights Hospitaller, the banking facilities of the Knights Templar.
These are military orders listed chronologically according to their dates of foundation and extinction, sometimes approximate due to scarce sources, and/or repeated suppressions by Papal or royal authorities. Presently active institutions are listed in consideration with their legitimacy according to the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry, they are divided into international and national according to their adherence and enrollment, disregarding the extent of eventual gradual geographical distribution outside of their region of concern. Chivalric and/or military orders. Confraternity of Belchite, "experimental" confraternity of knights founded in 1122 by King Alfonso the Battler of Aragon Order of Saint Blaise, founded in the 12th century in Armenia to defend the country against the attacks of the Muslims Order of Saint George, world's first secular chivalric order founded in 1326 by King Charles I of Hungary Knights of the Band, early honorific military order founded c. 1330 by King Alfonso XI of Castile Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, military order founded in 1350 by Duke Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy, the first called the Order of the True Lover's Knots in memory of a bracelet of hair presented to the founder by a lady, but upon the election of Amadeus VIII to the pontificate in 1439, it changed its name for that of the Annunciation of angel Gabriel Order of the Dove, short-lived and controversial order founded in 1379 by King Juan I of Castile Order of Saint Anthony, Bavarian military order founded in 1382 by Duke Albert I, Duke of Bavaria Military Order of Cross-bearers with the Red Star on a Blue Field, hospitaller and/military order active from the 12th century until suppressed in 1656 by Pope Alexander VII.
Order of Saint Hubert, early honorific military order founded in 1444 or 1445 by Gerhard VII
Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt
Barthélemy Théodore, Count de Theux de Meylandt, OCIII was a Belgian Roman Catholic politician who served as Prime Minister of Belgium three times. Barthélemy Théodore de Theux de Meylandt was born in the castle of Schabroek in Sint-Truiden on 26 February 1794, he was Minister of State, a member of the National Congress, Belgium's Prime Minister, Minister of Internal Affairs & Minister of Foreign Affairs. The count died in the Meylandt Castle on 21 August 1874 in Belgium, he was the first Belgian Prime Minister. The first government of Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt was in office from 4 August 1834 to 18 April 1840. Members were: The second government of Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt was in office from 31 March 1846 to 12 August 1847. Members were: The third government of Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt was in office from 7 December 1871 to 11 June 1878; when Barthélémy de Theux de Meylandt died on 21 August 1874 he was succeeded by Jules Malou, Minister of Finance. Members were: National honours Belgium: Minister of State, by Royal Decree.
Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold. Croix de Fer. Foreign Honours France: Officer in the Legion of Honour. Kingdom of Italy: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus. Spain: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Charles III. Holy See: Knight Grand Cross in the Pontifical Order of Saint Gregory the Great. Portugal: Knight Grand Cross in the Military Order of Christ. Tunisia: Grand Cross with Brilliants in the Order of Nicham-el-Oftikhar
Pope Clement XIV
Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 May 1769 to his death in 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals. To date, he is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Clement" upon his election, he is best known for his suppression of the Society of Jesus. Ganganelli was born in Santarcangelo di Romagna in 1705 as the second child of Lorenzo Ganganelli and Angela Serafina Maria Mazza, he received the sacrament of baptism on 2 November 1705. He studied at Verucchio but received his education from the Society of Jesus at Rimini from 1717, he studied with the Piarists of Urbino. Ganganelli entered the Order of Friars Minor Conventual on 15 May 1723 in Forlì and he changed his name to "Lorenzo Francesco", he did his novitiate in Urbino. He was professed as a full member of that order on 18 May 1724, he was sent to the convents of Pesaro and Recanati from 1724 to 1728 where he did his theological studies.
He continued his studies in Rome under Antonio Lucci and obtained his doctorate in theology in 1731. He was ordained around this time after he received his doctorate and he taught philosophy and theology for a decade in Ascoli and Milan, he returned to Rome as the regent of the college that he studied in and was elected as the Definitor General of the order in 1741. In the general chapters of his order in 1753 and 1756, he declined the generalship of his order and some rumored it was due to his desire of a higher office. Ganganelli became a friend of Pope Benedict XIV, who in 1758 appointed him to investigate the issue of the traditional blood libel regarding the Jews, which Ganganelli found to be untrue. Pope Clement XIII elevated Ganganelli to the cardinalate on 24 September 1759 and appointed him as the Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Panisperna, his elevation came at the insistence of Lorenzo Ricci, the Superior-General of the Society of Jesus. Ganganelli opted to become the Cardinal-Priest of Ss.
XII Apostoli in 1762. In 1768 he was named the "ponens" of the cause of beatification of Juan de Palafox y Mendoza; the papal conclave in 1769 was completely dominated by the problem of the Society of Jesus. During the previous pontificate, the Jesuits had been expelled from Portugal and from all the courts of the House of Bourbon, which included France, Spain and Parma. In January, 1769, these powers made a formal demand for the dissolution of the Society. Clement XIII had planned a consistory to discuss the matter, but died on February 2, the night before it was to be held. Now the general suppression of the order was urged by the faction called the "court cardinals", who were opposed by the diminished pro-Jesuit faction, the Zelanti, who were opposed to the encroaching secularism of the Enlightenment. Much of the early activity was pro forma as the members waited for the arrival of those cardinals who had indicated that they would attend; the conclave had been sitting since 15 February 1769 influenced by the political maneuvers of the ambassadors of Catholic sovereigns who were opposed to the Jesuits.
Some of the pressure was subtle. On March 15, Emperor Joseph II visited Rome to join his brother Leopold, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who had arrived on March 6; the next day, after touring St. Peter's Basilica, they took advantage of the conclave doors being opened to admit Cardinal Girolamo Spinola to enter as well, they were shown, upon the Emperor's request, the ballots, the chalice into which they would be placed, where they would be burned. That evening Gaetano Duca Cesarini hosted a party, it was the middle of Passion Week. King Louis XV of France's minister, the duc de Choiseul, had former experience of Rome as the French ambassador and was Europe's most skilled diplomat. "When one has a favour to ask of a Pope", he wrote, "and one is determined to obtain it, one must ask for two". Choiseul's suggestion was advanced to the other ambassadors and it was that they should press, in addition to the Jesuit issue, territorial claims upon the Patrimony of Peter, including the return of Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin to France, the duchies of Benevento and Pontecorvo to Spain, an extension of territory adjoining the Papal States to Naples, an immediate and final settlement of the vexed question of Parma and Piacenza that had occasioned a diplomatic rift between Austria and Pope Clement XIII.
By May 18, the court coalition appeared to be unravelling as the respective representatives began to negotiate separately with different cardinals. The French ambassador had earlier suggested that any acceptable candidate be required to put in writing that he would abolish the Jesuits; the idea was dismissed as a violation of canon law. Spain still insisted that a firm commitment should be given, though not in writing. However, such concessions could be nullified by the pope upon election. On 19 May 1769, Cardinal Ganganelli was elected as a compromise candidate due to support of the Bourbon courts, which had expected that he would suppress the Society of Jesus. Ganganelli, educated by Jesuits, gave no commitment, but indicated that he thought the dissolution was possible, he took the pontifical name of "Clement XIV". Ganganelli first received episcopal consecration in the Vatican on 28 May 1769 by Cardinal Federico Marcello Lante and was crowned as pope on 4 June 1769 by the cardinal protodeacon Alessandro Albani.
Clement XIV's policies were calculated from the outset to smooth the breaches with the Catholic Crowns that had developed during the previous pontificate. The d
Felipe VI of Spain
Felipe VI is the King of Spain. He ascended the throne on 19 June 2014 upon the abdication of his father, King Juan Carlos I, his mother is Queen Sofía, he has two older sisters, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, Infanta Cristina. When Spanish dictator Francisco Franco chose Juan Carlos as his successor in 1969, Felipe became second in line to the Spanish throne. In 2004, Felipe married TV news journalist Letizia Ortiz with whom he has two daughters and Sofía. In accordance with the Spanish Constitution, as monarch, he is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces, plays a role in promoting relations with Spanish America and the former Spanish East Indies, which are collectively called the "nations of its historical community". Felipe was born at Our Lady of Loreto Clinic in Madrid, the third child and only son of Infante Juan Carlos of Spain and Princess Sofía of Greece and Denmark, he was baptised on 8 February 1968 at the Palace of Zarzuela by the Archbishop of Madrid, Casimiro Morcillo, with water from the Jordan River.
His full baptismal name, Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos, consists of the names of the first Bourbon King of Spain, his grandfathers, his great-grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain, de Todos los Santos as is customary among the Bourbons. His godparents were his paternal grandfather Juan and his paternal great-grandmother, Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain. Shortly after his birth he was styled infante; the ruling dictator Generalísimo Francisco Franco died just more than two months before Felipe's eighth birthday, Felipe's father ascended the throne. In his first official appearance, Felipe attended his father's proclamation as king on 22 November 1975. In 1977, Felipe was formally proclaimed Prince of Asturias. In May, nine-year-old Felipe was made an honorary soldier of the 1st King's Immemorial Infantry Regiment; the occasion was marked on 28 May and was attended by the king, the prime minister and several other ministers in a ceremony at the infantry's barracks. On 1 November the same year, he was ceremoniously paid homage as Prince of Asturias in Covadonga.
In 1981 Felipe received the Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece from his father, the Chief and Sovereign of the Order. On his 18th birthday on 30 January 1986, Felipe swore allegiance to the Constitution and to the King in the Spanish Parliament as required by the constitution accepting his role as successor to the Crown. Felipe attended school at Santa María de los Rosales, which his daughters attend. Felipe attended high school at Lakefield College School in Ontario and studied at the Autonomous University of Madrid, where he graduated with a degree in Law, he completed his academic studies by obtaining a Master of Science in Foreign Service degree from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, where he was the roommate of his cousin, Crown Prince Pavlos of Greece. As the heir to the throne, a regulated and structured plan was laid out for Felipe's military training. In August 1985, a Royal Decree named Felipe as officer at the General Military Academy in Zaragoza, he began his military training there in September.
He completed the first phase of his formation in October. In July 1986, he was promoted to Cadet 2nd Lieutenant, he was named as Midshipman. On September 1986, he began his naval training at the Escuela Naval Militar in Pontevedra, joining the Third Brigade. In January 1987, he continued his naval training on board the training ship Juan Sebastián Elcano. In July, he was named as Student Ensign at the Academia General del Aire in Murcia. In September 1987, he began his air force training there. In 1989, he was promoted to lieutenant in the Army, ensign in the Navy, lieutenant in the Air Force. In 1992, he was promoted to captain in the Air Force. In 1993, he was promoted to captain in the Infantry of the Army. Further promotions in 2000 were commandant in the Army, corvette captain in the Navy, commandant in the Air Force. Promotions in 2009 were lieutenant colonel in the Army, frigate captain in the Navy, lieutenant colonel in the Air Force. Since 19 June 2014, after his ascension to the throne, he acquired the rank of Capitán General of all the Spanish armies.
Felipe undertook his constitutional duties assiduously as heir to the throne, hosting many official events in Spain and participating in all events of different sectors and aspects of Spanish public life as required. Since October 1995, Felipe has represented Spain on a series of official visits to the Spanish Autonomous Communities, starting with Valencia, during which he made contact with Spaniards from all walks of life. Felipe has held regular meetings with constitutional bodies and state institutions keeping up-to-date with their activities, he attends meetings of the various bodies of the Central Administration and of the Autonomous Communities as required by his national and international constitutional obligations. Felipe has welcomed as many public and private audiences as possible to maintain Crown interaction in national and international affairs. In particular, he has held meetings with people of his generation who have built successful careers in political, economic and media circles.
As part of his military training, Felipe trained as a military helicopter pilot. On occasions when King Juan Carlos was unable to attend, Felipe presided over the annual presentation of dispatches to officers and non-c
Charles III of Spain
Charles III was King of Spain, after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Augustus III of Poland and an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; as King of Spain, Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernising agriculture. He tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars, his previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable.
He did not achieve complete control over Spain's finances, was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses, but most of his reforms proved to be successful and his legacy lives on to this day. Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was the most successful European ruler of his generation, he had provided firm, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers.... Personal life had won the respect of the people." In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Under the terms of the treaty, the Spanish Empire retained its American territories, but ceded to Habsburg Austria the Southern Netherlands, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, the Duchy of Milan, the State of Presidi. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Menorca and the fortress at Gibraltar. In 1700, Charles' father a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V.
For the remainder of his reign, he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories. In 1714, after the death of the king's first wife, the Princess Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy, the Piacenzan Cardinal Giulio Alberoni arranged the marriage between Philip and the ambitious Elisabeth Farnese and stepdaughter of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid, he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers: the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, Ferdinand. Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and Piacenza for Charles, she sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de' Medici, giving Charles a claim to the title through that lineage.
The birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia. In 1718, Alberoni ordered the invasion of Sicily, ruled by the House of Savoy. In the same year Charles' first sister, Infanta Mariana Victoria was born on 31 March. In reaction to the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the Duke of Savoy joined the Alliance and went to war with Spain; this war led to the dismissal of Alberoni by Philip in 1719. The Treaty of The Hague of 1720 included the recognition of Charles as heir to the Italian Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Charles' half-brother, Infante Philip Peter, died on 29 December 1719, putting Charles third in line to the throne after Louis and Ferdinand, he would retain his position behind these two until they died and he succeeded to the Spanish throne. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720. Beginning in 1721, King Philip had been negotiating with the Duke of Orléans, the French regent, to arrange three Franco-Spanish marriages that could ease tense relations.
The young Louis XV of France would marry the three-year-old Infanta Mariana Victoria and thus she would become Queen of France. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth, the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans. In 1726 Charles met Philippine Élisabeth for the first time, they embraced affectionately and kissed one another, it appears to me that he does not displease her. Thus, since this evening they do not like to leave one another, she says a hundred pretty things. She has the mind of an angel, my son is only too happy to possess her... She has charged me to tell you that she loves you with all her heart, that she is quite content with her husband." And to the duchesse d'Orléans she writes: "I find her the most beautiful and most lovable child in the world. It is the most pleasing thing imaginable to se
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon; the royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings; the senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon. In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line. Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV.
Bourbon monarchs united to France the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans ruled for 18 years, until it too was overthrown; the Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, the Princes de Conti were a cadet line of the Condé branch. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814. In 1700, at the death of Charles II of Spain, the Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in the male line. Under the will of the childless Charles II, the second grandson of Louis XIV of France was named as his successor, to preclude the union of the thrones of France and Spain.
The prince Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain. Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, similar arrangements kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma; the Spanish House of Bourbon has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734 to 1806 and in Sicily from 1734 to 1816, in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 to 1860, they ruled in Parma from 1731 to 1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859. Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.
All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France. The pre-Capetian House of Bourbon was a noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by the Sire de Bourbon, a vassal of the King of France; the term House of Bourbon is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1272, Count of Clermont and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527; because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, his title was discontinued after his death.
The remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, the senior line of the Count of La Marche became extinct. All future Bourbons would descend from James II's younger brother, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mother's inheritance. In 1525, at the death of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon, all of the princes of the blood royal were Bourbons. In 1514, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme, his son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoine's younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon and the French and Huguenot general Louis de Bourbon, 1st Prince of Condé. Louis' male-line descendants, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. In 1589, the House of Valois died out and Antoine's son Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France. Family from India's claim to be a branch and their claim to The "Throne of France" Bourbons of India, claim to be descendants of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, of the first House of Bourbon-Montpensier.
As per the latest research carried out by