Order of Saint John (chartered 1888)

The Order of St John, formally The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem and known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria; the Order traces its origins back to the Knights Hospitaller in the Middle Ages, known as the Order of Malta. A faction of them emerged in France in the 1820s and moved to Britain in the early 1830s, after operating under a succession of grand priors and different names, it became associated with the founding in 1882 of the St John Ophthalmic Hospital near the old city of Jerusalem and the St John Ambulance Brigade in 1887; the order is found throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, the United States of America, with the worldwide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and injury, to act to enhance the health and well-being of people anywhere in the world." The order's 25,000 members, known as confrères, are of the Protestant faith, though those of other Christian denominations or other religions are accepted into the order.

Except via appointment to certain government or ecclesiastical offices in some realms, membership is by invitation only and individuals may not petition for admission. The Order of St John is best known for the health organisations it founded and continues to run, including St John Ambulance and St John Eye Hospital Group; as with the Order, the memberships and work of these organizations are not constricted by denomination or religion. The Order is a constituent member of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem, its headquarters are in London and it is a registered charity under English law. In 1823, the Council of the French Langues—a French state-backed and hosted faction of the Order of Malta —sought to raise through private subscription sufficient money to restore a territorial base for the Order of Malta and aid the Greek War of Independence; this was to be achieved by issuing bonds in London to form a mercenary army of demobilized British soldiers using available, cheap war surplus.

A deal transferring various islands to the Order of Malta, including Rhodes when captured, was struck with the Greek rebels, but the attempt to raise money failed when details leaked to the press, the French monarchy withdrew its backing of the council, the bankers refused the loan. The council was reorganised and the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head. In June 1826, a second attempt was made to raise money to restore a Mediterranean homeland for the order when Philippe de Castellane, a French Knight of Malta, was appointed by the council to negotiate with supportive persons in Britain. Scotsman Donald Currie was in 1827 given the authority to raise £240,000. Anyone who subscribed to the project and all commissioned officers of the mercenary army were offered the opportunity of being appointed knights of the order. Few donations were attracted and the Greek War of Independence was won without the help of the knights of the Council of the French Langues. De Castellane and Currie were allowed by the French Council to form the Council of the English Langue, inaugurated on 12 January 1831, under the executive control of Alejandro, conde de Mortara, a Spanish aristocrat.

It was headquartered at what Mortara called the "Auberge of St John", Clerkenwell. This was the Old Jerusalem Tavern, a public house occupying what had once been a gatehouse to the ancient Clerkenwell Priory, the medieval Grand Priory of the Knights Hospitaller, otherwise known as the Knights of Saint John; the creation of the langue has been regarded either as a revival of the Knights Hospitaller or the establishment of a new order. The Reverend Sir Robert Peat, the absentee perpetual curate of St Lawrence, Brentford, in Middlesex, one of the many former chaplains to Prince George, had been recruited by the council as a member of the society in 1830. On 29 January 1831, in the presence of Philip de Castellane and the Agent-General of the French Langues, Peat was elected Prior ad interim, he and other British members of the organisation, with the backing of the Council of the French Langues on the grounds that he had been selling knighthoods, expelled Mortara, leading to two competing English chivalric groups between early 1832 and Mortara's disappearance in 1837.

On 24 February 1834, three years after becoming prior ad interim, in order to publicly reaffirm his claim to the office of prior and in the hope of reviving a charter of Queen Mary I dealing with the original English branch of the Order of Malta, took the oath de fideli administratione in the Court of the King's Bench, before the Lord Chief Justice. Peat was thus credited as being the first grand prior of the association, however, "W. B. H." wrote in January 1919 to the journal Notes & Queries: "His name is not in the knights' lists, he was never'Prior in the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem': he became an ordinary member of that Order on Nov. 11, 1830." Sir Robert Peat died in April 1837 and Sir Henry Dymoke was appointed grand prior and re-established contact with the knights in France and Germany, into which the group had by that time expanded. However, until the late 1830s, the British arm of the organisation had only considered itself to be a grand priory and langue of the Order of St John, having never been recognized as such by the established order.

Dymoke sought to rectify this by seeking acknowledgement from

Shekhar Dixit

Pt. Shekhar Dixit is a farmers leader and President of Rashtriya Kisan Manch, he is the former president of Kisan Manch Uttar Pradesh, youth general seceratary Jan Morcha, State president Jantantra Morcha Uttar Pradesh'. Pt. Shekhar Dixit was born on 20 January 1984 in Uttar Pradesh. From the age of 17 Dixit began raising awareness of environmental problems and started to bring the forest tribal issues into mainstream debate. In 2002 he visited villages in eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh and Seemanchal of Bihar. along with the central minister Alauddin Khan. Akhil Bhartiya Brahman Sabha honoured Dixit in 2004 for his concern on environmental and social matters, he was appointed as president of Akhil Bhartiya Brahman Sabha Uttar Pradesh. In 2005 Dixit joined the Kisan Manch at the suggestion of former prime minister and patron of Kisan Manch Vishwanath Pratap Singh. While holding the post of president of Kisan Manch, New Delhi Unit, he worked for the betterment of the slum dwellers in New Delhi.

In 2006 he fought vigorously against the acquisition of farming land in Dadri Andolan and for the rights of farmers. In 2008 he was appointed as Uttar Pradesh state president of Rashtriya Kisan Manch, before establishing Kisan Manch in 2010, increasing membership to over 350, 000, he joined with social activist Anna Hazare Jan Andolan and was appointed as convener of Uttar Pradesh of the Jantantra Morcha founded by Anna. From 2015, under the leadership of Dixit, Kisan Manch Uttar Pradesh launched a campaign against the laxity of government machinery towards the plight of farmers in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Since Kisan manch has been doing all sort of activities to support farmers in drought hit area of Uttar Pradesh. In 2016 he worked to prepare the political ground in Uttar Pradesh for Chief Minister of Bihar and JDU Leader Shri Nitish Kumar

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