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Order of the Chrysanthemum

The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is Japan's highest order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan. Although technically the order has only one class, it can either be awarded "with collar", meaning on a chain, or "with grand cordon", accompanied by a sash. Unlike its European counterparts, the order may be conferred posthumously. Apart from the Imperial Family, only six Japanese citizens have been decorated with the collar in their lifetimes. Seven others have been posthumously decorated with the collar. Today, only the reigning Emperor holds this dignity as sovereign of the order; the grand cordon is the highest possible honour a Japanese citizen can be awarded during his or her lifetime. Aside from members of the Imperial Family, 44 Japanese citizens have been decorated with the grand cordon; the collar of the order is made of gold, features the kanji for "Meiji", in classic form, indicating the era of the order's establishment. It is decorated with green-enamelled leaves.

The sash of the grand cordon of the order is red with dark blue border stripes. It is worn on the right shoulder; the star of the order is similar to the badge, but in silver, without the chrysanthemum suspension, with an eight-pointed gilt medallion placed at the centre. It is worn on the left chest; the badge of the order is a four-pointed gilt badge with white-enamelled rays. On each of the four corners of the badge is a yellow-enamelled chrysanthemum blossom with green-enamelled chrysanthemum leaves; the badge is suspended on a yellow-enamelled chrysanthemum, either on the collar or on the grand cordon. Information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Emperor Meiji Emperor Taishō Emperor Shōwa Emperor Heisei Emperor Reiwa Information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Prince Komatsu Akihito Prince Fushimi Sadanaru Prince Kan'in Kotohito Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu Prince Nashimoto Morimasa Prince Arisugawa Taruhito Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa Prince Arisugawa Takehito Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni Gojong of the Korean Empire Information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Prince Arisugawa Taruhito Prince Komatsu Akihito Prince Arisugawa Takahito Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa Prince Arisugawa Takehito Prince Kuni Asahiko Prince Fushimi Sadanaru Prince Yamashina Akira Prince Kan'in Kotohito Prince Higashifushimi Yorihito Prince Kaya Kuninori Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi Prince Yamashina Kikumaro Prince Nashimoto Morimasa Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu Prince Arisugawa Tanehito Prince Takeda Tsunehisa Prince Asaka Yasuhiko Prince Kuni Taka Prince Kitashirakawa Naruhisa Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko Prince Chichibu Prince Kachō Hirotada Prince Takamatsu Prince Fushimi Hiroyoshi Prince Kaya Tsunenori Prince Kuni Asaakira Prince Kan'in Haruhito Prince Mikasa Prince Takeda Tsuneyoshi Prince Asaka Takahiko Prince Hitachi Prince Tomohito of Mikasa Prince Katsura Prince Takamado Crown Prince Naruhito Prince Akishino Prince Kitashirakawa Nagahisa Prince Yi Un of Korea Prince Yi Kang of Korea Prince Yi Geon of Korea Prince Yi Wu of Korea Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah of Brunei King Birendra of Nepal Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal Information incorporated from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Itō Hirobumi Ōyama Iwao Yamagata Aritomo Matsukata Masayoshi Tōgō Heihachirō Saionji Kinmochi Katsura Tarō Inoue Kaoru Tokudaiji Sanetsune Ōkuma Shigenobu Yamamoto Gonbee Shigeru Yoshida Eisaku Satō Incorporates information from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Sanjō Sanetomi Iwakura Tomomi Shimazu Hisamitsu Nakayama Tadayasu Itō Hirobumi * Kujō Michitaka Ōyama Iwao *


Nonnebakken is a hill in Odense, Denmark. It is the site of one of Denmark's six former Viking ring castles, built during the reign of Sweyn Forkbeard, who had forced his father Harold Bluetooth to leave the country and seek refuge by the Jomsvikings on Wollin around 975; the fort enabled its occupier command of the Odense River passing next to the hill. The name refers to a benedictine nunnery located here in earlier times. At the end of the 12th century, the nuns left the site to build a new church in Dalum to the southeast, now a suburb of Odense; the earthwork ramparts can be recognized in the "panorama of Odense" in the medieval tome Civitates Orbis Terrarum from Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg. The panorama appears as plate 30 in Volume 5, finished in 1598. Plate 30 was engraved in 1593, based on information from Heinrich Rantzau or from sketches he gave in order, it appears on the panorama of Odense published by Braunius in 1593. The archaeological remains of Nonnebakken took heavy damage during the late 19th century, when a building for the Odd Fellow lodge was constructed on the site.

In the 20th century, scientific excavations led by Fyns Stiftsmuseum revealed that the circular castle had an inner diameter of 120 m and was built in the years 980-1000, similar to the other Viking ring castles. Although finds have been reported from 1775 and 1889, the extent of the whole structure was first determined in 1953. In 1988, archaeological excavations was conducted in relation to a construction project involving cable laying. A filled ditch with a pointed profile around the fortress was observed, it was 2 m deep, with a berm of maximal 10-12 m. The latest filling could be dated to the time of the nunnery; the profile of a pointed bottom ditch 8 m wide and some 4 m deep, was excavated in the northeast and the northwest. During excavations prior to larger construction works for heating pipes in 1995/97/98, a ditch 11 m wide and 3 m deep was observed. An oaken spade was unearthed, dated by dendrochronology to the "functioning" time of the ring castle. In 2002, excavations revealed parts of the old nunnery.

Kronborg Christensen, John. Vikingetidens langhuse på Trelleborg, Fyrkat og Nonnebakken. Copenhagen: Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole. Thrane, Henrik. Nonnebakken. Odenses forsvundne vikingeborg, 3rd revised ed.. Odense: Fyens Stiftsmuseum. Fund og Fortidsminder with a list of all activities on the site.. History of the local Odd Fellows Lodge with information about the place in earlier times; the history of Odense page at includes Braunius' 1593 engraving showing the site of Nonnebakken south of the river opposite the medieval city

Firewall (computing)

In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A firewall establishes a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external network, such as the Internet. Firewalls are categorized as either network firewalls or host-based firewalls. Network run on network hardware. Host-based firewalls run on host computers and control network traffic out of those machines; the term firewall referred to a wall intended to confine a fire within a line of adjacent buildings. Uses refer to similar structures, such as the metal sheet separating the engine compartment of a vehicle or aircraft from the passenger compartment; the term was applied in the late 1980s to network technology that emerged when the Internet was new in terms of its global use and connectivity. The predecessors to firewalls for network security were the routers used in the late 1980s, because they separated networks from one another, thus halting the spread of problems from one network to another.

Before it was used in real-life computing, the term appeared in the 1983 computer-hacking movie WarGames, inspired its use. The first reported type of network firewall is called a packet filter. Packet filters act by inspecting packets transferred between computers; when a packet does not match the packet filter's set of filtering rules, the packet filter either drops the packet, or rejects the packet else it is allowed to pass. Packets may be filtered by source and destination network addresses, protocol and destination port numbers; the bulk of Internet communication in 20th and early 21st century used either Transmission Control Protocol or User Datagram Protocol in conjunction with well-known ports, enabling firewalls of that era to distinguish between, thus control, specific types of traffic, unless the machines on each side of the packet filter used the same non-standard ports. The first paper published on firewall technology was in 1988, when engineers from Digital Equipment Corporation developed filter systems known as packet filter firewalls.

At AT&T Bell Labs, Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin continued their research in packet filtering and developed a working model for their own company based on their original first generation architecture. From 1989–1990, three colleagues from AT&T Bell Laboratories, Dave Presotto, Janardan Sharma, Kshitij Nigam, developed the second generation of firewalls, calling them circuit-level gateways. Second-generation firewalls perform the work of their first-generation predecessors but maintain knowledge of specific conversations between endpoints by remembering which port number the two IP addresses are using at layer 4 of the OSI model for their conversation, allowing examination of the overall exchange between the nodes; this type of firewall is vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks that bombard the firewall with fake connections in an attempt to overwhelm the firewall by filling its connection state memory. Marcus Ranum, Wei Xu, Peter Churchyard released an application firewall known as Firewall Toolkit in October 1993.

This became the basis for Gauntlet firewall at Trusted Information Systems. The key benefit of application layer filtering is that it can understand certain applications and protocols; this is useful as it is able to detect if an unwanted application or service is attempting to bypass the firewall using a disallowed protocol on an allowed port, or detect if a protocol is being abused in any harmful way. As of 2012, the so-called next-generation firewall is a wider or deeper inspection at the application layer. For example, the existing deep packet inspection functionality of modern firewalls can be extended to include: Intrusion prevention systems User identity management integration Web application firewall. WAF attacks may be implemented in the tool "WAF Fingerprinting utilizing timing side channels" Firewalls are categorized as network-based or host-based. Network-based firewalls are positioned on the gateway computers of WANs and intranets, they are either software appliances running on general-purpose hardware, or hardware-based firewall computer appliances.

Firewall appliances may offer other functionality to the internal network they protect, such as acting as a DHCP or VPN server for that network. Host-based firewalls are positioned on the host itself and control network traffic in and out of those machines; the host-based firewall may be a daemon or service as a part of the operating system or an agent application such as endpoint security or protection. Each has disadvantages. However, each has a role in layered security. Firewalls vary in type depending on where communication originates, where it is intercepted, the state of communication being traced. Network layer firewalls called packet filters, operate at a low level of the TCP/IP stack, blocking packets unless they match the established rule set; the firewall administrator may define the rules. Network layer firewalls fall into two sub-categories and stateless. Used packet filters on various versions of Unix are ipfirewall, NPF, PF (Mac OS X, OpenBSD, som

Alex Weyand

Alexander Mathias "Babe" Weyand was an American football player, Army officer and sports historian. He was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1974. Weyand was born on January 10, 1892 to Alexander Nicholas Weyand and Mary C. Lieberman in Jersey City, New Jersey. Weyand played high school football at Jersey City High School, where he did not earn a letter in any sport, as he chose to place priority on his education. At the United States Military Academy at West Point from 1911 to 1915, Weyand starred at tackle and was the captain of the 1915 team. Nicknamed during his "yearling" year at West Point "Babe" by his teammate Dwight David Eisenhower, he was described in The Real All Americans: The Team That Changed a Game, a People, a Nation as a "tireless, one-man wrecking crew." In 1913, Army lost one game -- against Notre Dame and its legends Gus Dorais. They were undefeated in 1914 with a 20–7 win over the Irish, and they beat Navy in 1913, 1914 and 1915, the same years Weyand was selected to the College Football All-America Team.

An all around athlete, Weyand played for the 1912 West Point Basketball and 1915 Ice Hockey squad, was a member of the class fencing and swimming teams in 1916, runner up to Bob Neyland for Heavyweight Boxing Champion of the Academy and Heavyweight Wrestling Champion of the Academy 1913, 1915 and 1916. After graduating from West Point, Weyand served with distinction in World War I, where he earned a Silver Star, Purple Heart and battlefield promotion to major and battalion commander. After World War I, he competed in the heavyweight Greco-Roman class in wrestling at the 1920 Summer Olympics. Due to severe hearing loss caused by frontline duty in World War I, Weyand could not serve in combat in World War II, he retired from active duty in 1946 at the rank of Colonel. In retirement, Col. Weyand wrote a series of acclaimed sports histories, including the seminal Saga of American Football, foreword by Grantland Rice who described him as the foremost living authority on the sport, winner of the 1955 Helms Athletic Foundation Award, "Football Immortals" winner of the 1962 Helms Award.

Sports historian John Sayle Watterson in his book College Football: History, Controversy described the "Saga" as follows "uccinct and fast-paced, Weyand's history masterfully depicts the game's origins, its early stars and teams, the geographic expansion of football, the changes in its rules." In 1965, Weyand and former Delaware lacrosse coach Milton Roberts wrote The Lacrosse Story, the first full-length history of the sport of lacrosse based on nine years of research. Weyand died on May 1982, in North Bellmore, New York, he is interred next to his wife, Marie, at New York. His son, Lieutenant General Alexander Mulqueen Weyand, graduated from West Point in 1952 and was a member of the 1951 National Championship Lacrosse team. Alex Weyand at the College Football Hall of Fame

John Merrill (American politician)

John Harold Merrill is an American politician serving as the 53rd secretary of state of Alabama since 2015. He served in the Alabama House of Representatives from 2010 through 2014. Merrill is a member of the Republican Party. Merrill was born in Wedowee and raised in Heflin, Alabama, his father served as a probate judge. In 1982, he graduated from Cleburne County High School. Merrill double majored in history and politics at the University of Alabama and received a Bachelor of Arts in 1987. Merrill interned for the United States Congress from May to July 1983, where he met representative William Flynt Nichols, who became his mentor; the following year, Merrill interned in the capitol for senator Howell Heflin between May and July 1984. He served as the president of the University of Alabama's Student Government Association from 1986 to 1987. Merrill served as the spokesperson for the Tuscaloosa County School District, as a business development officer for the First Federal Bank in Tuscaloosa, he was elected to represent the 62nd district in the Alabama House of Representatives in the 2010 elections having run and lost for the same seat in 2002 as a Democrat.

He served in the House of Representatives for a single term from 2010 through 2014. Merrill announced in January 2013 that he would run for Secretary of State of Alabama in the 2014 elections. In the Republican Party primary election in June 2014, Merrill finished in first, advancing to a runoff election in July, which he won. In the general election on November 3, 2014, he defeated Lula Albert-Kaigler, the Democratic Party nominee with more than 60% of the vote, he succeeded James R. Bennett, appointed to the office to fill out the remainder of the term of the Republican incumbent representative Beth Chapman. Merrill was elected to a second full term in 2018. A 2016 study by professors Bridget A. King and Norman E. Youngblood at Auburn University, found the content and quality of Alabama's county election and voting websites were lacking with relevant information regarding deadlines, polling stations, voter requirements. King and Youngblood's evaluation of the relationship between voting systems and "demographic, socioeconomic and participatory composition" of counties showed "limited voting and election information and are not in full compliance with accessibility and mobile readiness standards."

Furthermore, they found the extent to which voting and elections information are provided is "related to county composition." Merrill defended Alabama's Voter ID law passed in 2011. In a 2016 United States Court of Appeals decision, Alabama's Voter ID law was determined to be unconstitutional because of its perceived disruption to the federalized voter registration forms. Alabama's law was challenged by the League of Women Voters over a potential violation of the Voting Rights Act; the law had required voters to furnish proof of citizenship when registering at the polls in an effort to prevent voter fraud. The decision struck down a rule that required voters in Alabama to provide proof they are American citizens. Elsewhere, voters only need to swear. Following the court's decision, Merrill lead an effort to make Alabama's Voter ID law constitutional and legal again by conforming to constitutional mandates and federal guidelines. Merrill applauded the 2013 Shelby County v. Holder decision by the United States Supreme Court, which among other things, limits federal poll monitoring in Southern states.

The court's ruling was criticized by liberal groups like the Advancement Project. Merrill was part of a coalition of American election officials who traveled with fellow Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe poll monitors to Russia for poll monitoring during the parliamentary elections held on September 18, 2016. While Merrill did not witness corrupt or improper procedures, the report found systemic problems with "serious irregularities during voting" and worse practices during ballot counting. On June 25, 2019, Merrill announced his candidacy for Alabama's United States Senate seat in the 2020 election against incumbent Democratic senator Doug Jones, he is one of five GOP candidates. On July 17, 2019, at a campaign event in Fort Payne, he stated that "homosexual activities" persuasive in mainstream media had lead to the nation's moral decline; when asked in a follow-up interview, Merrill pointed to the media coverage of the United States women's national soccer team win in the World Cup as an instance.

According to Merrill, there are no longer any television shows "that are based on biblical foundations" which "promote family and culture with a father, a mother, children" present. Merrill is a relative of Hugh Davis Merrill, the former lieutenant governor of Alabama and Speaker of the Alabama House of Representatives, Hugh Davis Merrill, Jr. who served in the House, Pelham Jones Merrill who served in the House and fought in World War II. Merrill has been married to the former Cindy Benford since 1987, they have two children. Profile at Vote Smart

Julian Piper

Julian Charles Piper was a British blues guitarist, writer and record producer, described in The Guardian as "one of the UK’s foremost champions of African-American blues". Piper was born in Topsham, England, as a boy decided he wanted to become a performer after seeing a show by Adam Faith in nearby Exeter, he wrote:"...when many of my friends were mainlining on the Beatles, my teenage years were spent thrilling to the sounds of Sam'Lightnin' Hopkins and Muddy Waters, wrestling with first a cigar box and a guitar with a neck like a banana, trying to copy the raw Blues emanating from the scratched vinyl on my distorted Dansette record player. And one day I hoped I'd own a red Fender Stratocaster like Hank Marvin, stand on a stage, play it LOUD, that one day I'd look out and see the girl of my dreams. I'm pleased to say that over the years it's all happened....give or take a few errors along the way." He taught himself guitar, formed his own rock band in his teens, before starting work as an insurance claims investigator.

He played in a band, who supported Hawkwind on several occasions. In 1975, he formed his own R&B band, Junkyard Angels with Steve Ewart, Dave Eustace and Craig Milverton; the band performed nationally as well as locally, supported visiting American blues musicians. They played on Paul Jones' BBC radio blues shows. Piper took a course in American Arts at Exeter University, in 1987 spent his final year in Baton Rouge, where he established himself as a guitarist in local blues clubs, he played there and elsewhere in the US with Carey and Lurrie Bell, Tabby Thomas, Silas Hogan, Chris Thomas King and Lazy Lester, among others, in 2009 performed at the New Orleans Jazz Festival. In England, Junkyard Angels supported such visiting musicians as Louisiana Red, Eddie C. Campbell and Lurrie Bell, Lazy Lester, Eddie Kirkland, the band performed at numerous blues festivals in the UK and Europe; the band released three albums, Dirty Work at the Crossroads, Lonesome La La, Tangled and Twisted, including some of Piper's own composition as well as blues standards.

Piper became a full-time musician and writer in England. He wrote articles on the blues for various publications including Mojo, The Guardian, specialist guitar magazines. Between 1991 and 1998 he ran courses on blues history at Exeter University, he presented a four-part documentary, Blues on the Bayou, on BBC Radio 3 in 1991, including his field recordings, published a book documenting his time in Baton Rouge, Blues from the Bayou, in 2016. He was reviews editor for Acoustic magazine, he established Blues South West, to promote the music in the region, set up local gigs by Robert Cray among others. He was involved in the release of eleven albums by his Exeter-based band Junkyard Angels, but with Carey and Lurrie Bell, Lazy Lester, Tabby Thomas and Silas Hogan, he was the only British guitarist to have played on two albums. He produced the 2003 album the Meantime by 1960s star Dave Berry, released a solo album, Terlingua, in 2011. As well as leading Junkyard Angels, he played cajun music with Papa Gator and the Levee Breakers, in a blues and jazz trio, Jelly Roll.

Piper died in 2019, aged 72, as a result of a cycling accident near Exeter. He had been married twice, had two sons, a daughter. Dirty Work at the Crossroads Lonesome La La Tangled and Twisted Backtracks Can I Play with your Poodle Terlingua Carey and Lurrie Bell, Straight Shoot Lazy Lester, Lester Rides Again Tabby Thomas, King of the Swamp Blues Silas Hogan, The Godfather Dave Berry, Memphis in the Meantime Obituary at Blues Matters 2015 interview by Michael Limnios, Julian Piper discography at Discogs