George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. He was the son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. From the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession behind his father and his own brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, on the death of his grandmother in 1901, Georges father became King-Emperor of the British Empire, and George was created Prince of Wales. He succeeded his father in 1910 and he was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar. His reign saw the rise of socialism, fascism, Irish republicanism, the Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, in 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations.
He had health problems throughout much of his reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son. George was born on 3 June 1865, in Marlborough House and he was the second son of the Prince and Princess of Wales, Albert Edward and Alexandra. His father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and he was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was expectation that George would become king. He was third in line to the throne, after his father and elder brother, George was only 17 months younger than Albert Victor, and the two princes were educated together. John Neale Dalton was appointed as their tutor in 1871, neither Albert Victor nor George excelled intellectually. For three years from 1879, the brothers served on HMS Bacchante, accompanied by Dalton. They toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa and Australia, and visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean, Dalton wrote an account of their journey entitled The Cruise of HMS Bacchante.
Between Melbourne and Sydney, Dalton recorded a sighting of the Flying Dutchman, after Lausanne, the brothers were separated, Albert Victor attended Trinity College, while George continued in the Royal Navy. He travelled the world, visiting many areas of the British Empire, during his naval career he commanded Torpedo Boat 79 in home waters HMS Thrush on the North America station, before his last active service in command of HMS Melampus in 1891–92. From on, his rank was largely honorary
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
The Deputy Prime Minister of Australia is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Australia. The office of Deputy Prime Minister was created as a portfolio in 1968. The Deputy Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister, the current Deputy Prime Minister of Australia since 18 February 2016 is Barnaby Joyce. He is the National Party leader in the Parliament of Australia and they are the junior party in a coalition with the Liberal Party of Australia, led by Prime Minister of Australia and Liberal Party leader Malcolm Turnbull. Originally the position of deputy Prime Minister was an unofficial or honorary position, the unofficial position acquired more significance following the 1922 federal election, which saw the governing Nationalist Party lose its parliamentary majority. While Pages only official title was Treasurer, he was considered as a deputy to Bruce, until 1968 the term was used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government, especially while the Coalition was in government.
Under the Coalition agreement between the Liberals and Country Party, when in government, the position was held by the leader of the Country Party and that continues to be case when the Coalition is in government. In the case of Labor governments, the deputy leader was. McEwen was sworn in as Prime Minister on the understanding that his commission would continue only so long as it took for the Liberals to elect a new leader, the Liberal leadership ballot was rescheduled for 9 January 1968. As it turned out, McMahon did not stand, and Senator John Gorton was elected, McEwen reverted to his previous status as the second-ranking member of the government, as per the Coalition agreement. Since 1968 only two Deputy Prime Ministers have gone on to become Prime Minister, Paul Keating and Julia Gillard, in November 2007, when the Australian Labor Party won government, Julia Gillard became Australias first female, and first foreign-born, Deputy Prime Minister. In practice, only National party leaders or Labor Party deputy leaders have held the position, the duties of the Deputy Prime Minister are to act on behalf of the Prime Minister in his or her absence overseas or on leave.
The Deputy Prime Minister has always been a member of the Cabinet and this has not occurred since the office was created as a portfolio in 1968. The most recent former deputy minister to die was Lionel Bowen. The official site of the Deputy Prime Minister of Australia
Alexander Pope was an 18th-century English poet. He is best known for his verse and for his translation of Homer. He is the second-most frequently quoted writer in The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations after Shakespeare, Alexander Pope was born to Alexander Pope Senior, a linen merchant of Plough Court, Lombard Street and his wife Edith, who were both Catholics. Ediths sister Christiana was the wife of the miniature painter Samuel Cooper. Pope was taught to read by his aunt, and went to Twyford School in about 1698/99 and he went to two Catholic schools in London. Such schools, while illegal, were tolerated in some areas, in 1700, his family moved to a small estate at Popeswood in Binfield, close to the royal Windsor Forest. This was due to strong anti-Catholic sentiment and a statute preventing Catholics from living within 10 miles of either London or Westminster, Pope would describe the countryside around the house in his poem Windsor Forest. He studied languages and read works by English, Italian, Latin.
After five years of study, Pope came into contact with figures from the London literary society such as William Wycherley, William Congreve, Samuel Garth, William Trumbull, at Binfield, he began to make many important friends. One of them, John Caryll, was twenty years older than the poet and had many acquaintances in the London literary world. He introduced the young Pope to the ageing playwright William Wycherley and to William Walsh, a minor poet and he met the Blount sisters and Martha, both of whom would remain lifelong friends. From the age of 12, he suffered health problems, such as Potts disease. His tuberculosis infection caused other problems including respiratory difficulties, high fevers, inflamed eyes. He grew to a height of only 1.37 m. Pope was already removed from society because he was Catholic, although he never married, he had many female friends to whom he wrote witty letters. Allegedly, his lifelong friend Martha Blount was his lover, in May,1709, Popes Pastorals was published in the sixth part of Tonsons Poetical Miscellanies.
This brought Pope instant fame, and was followed by An Essay on Criticism, published in May 1711, around 1711, Pope made friends with Tory writers John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Thomas Parnell and John Arbuthnot, who together formed the satirical Scriblerus Club. The aim of the club was to satirise ignorance and pedantry in the form of the fictional scholar Martinus Scriblerus and he made friends with Whig writers Joseph Addison and Richard Steele. In March 1713, Windsor Forest was published to great acclaim, during Popes friendship with Joseph Addison, he contributed to Addisons play Cato, as well as writing for The Guardian and The Spectator
John Douglas Anthony AC, CH, PC is a former Australian politician. He was leader of the National Party from 1971 to 1984, Anthony was born in Murwillumbah in northern New South Wales. He was the son of Hubert Lawrence Larry Anthony, a well-known Country Party politician, Doug Anthony was educated at Murwillumbah Primary School and Murwillumbah High School, before attending The Kings School in Sydney between 1943 and 1946 and Gatton College in Queensland. After graduating he took up dairy-farming near Murwillumbah, in 1957 he married Margot Budd, with whom he had three children, Dougald and Larry. He was appointed Minister for the Interior in 1964, in 1967 he became Minister for Primary Industry. It was obvious that the Country Party leader, John McEwen, was grooming Anthony to succeed him and he was a shrewd, attractive figure, with considerable public speaking skills. He rescinded McEwens veto of McMahon as liberal leader and Prime Minister, however, McMahon was quickly seen as being in over his head, and many people would have preferred to see Anthony as Prime Minister.
Such was not to be, but he showed his tough streak within the cabinet when he forced McMahon to accede to the Country Partys demands on petrol prices and other issues which affected rural voters. After McMahons defeat in 1972, Anthony was said to favour a policy of opposition to the Labor government of Gough Whitlam. Despite this, the Country Party voted with the Labor Government on some bills and he urged the Liberals to take a hard line against Whitlam thereafter, and welcomed his dismissal by the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, in 1975. To broaden the appeal of his party beyond its declining rural base, he changed the name to the National Country Party and began contesting urban seats in Queensland. The Coalition was confirmed in power at the 1975 election, with the biggest majority government in Australian history, Anthony again became Deputy Prime Minister, with the portfolios of Overseas Trade and National Resources under Malcolm Fraser. But with the Liberals having a majority in their own right between 1975 and 1980, Anthony found that he did not have the power he had possessed before the 1972 election.
Even Frasers near-defeat in 1980 did not significantly increase Anthonys cabinet standing, after Fraser lost office in 1983, Anthony remained as party leader for less than a year before retiring from politics in 1984. By then, although still only 55, he was the Father of the House of Representatives and he returned to his farm near Murwillumbah and generally stayed out of politics. In 1996 his son Larry Anthony won his fathers old seat, in 1981 Anthony was appointed a Companion of Honour. During 1999 Doug Anthony spoke in support of Australia becoming a Republic
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind
Kiri Te Kanawa
Dame Kiri Janette Te Kanawa ONZ DBE AC is a New Zealand soprano who has had a successful international opera career since 1968. She possesses a full lyric soprano voice, which has been described as mellow yet vibrant, ample. Te Kanawa has received accolades in many countries, singing a wide array of works in languages from the 17th to the 20th centuries. Although she now only sings in operas, Te Kanawa still frequently performs in concert and recital, while giving masterclasses. Te Kanawa was born Claire Mary Teresa Rawstron in Gisborne on New Zealands North Island. She has Māori and European ancestry, but little is known about her parents, as she was adopted as an infant by Thomas Te Kanawa, a Māori. She was educated at St Marys College and formally trained in singing by Dame Sister Mary Leo, DBE. Te Kanawa began her career as a mezzo-soprano, but developed into a soprano. Her recording of the Nuns Chorus from the Strauss operetta Casanova was New Zealands first gold record, Te Kanawa met Desmond Park on a blind date in London in August 1967, and they married six weeks at St Patricks Cathedral, Auckland.
They adopted two children and Thomas and she had never made any attempt to contact her natural parents, but around this time, her half-brother Jim Rawstron contacted her. Initially, she was not willing to meet him, but agreed to and this episode ended in bitterness, and she has since reaffirmed her decision to have nothing to do with her birth family. In her teens and early 20s, Te Kanawa was a pop star and popular entertainer at clubs in New Zealand, in 1965 she won the Mobil Song Quest with her performance of Vissi darte from Puccinis Tosca. In 1963, she was runner-up to Malvina Major in the same competition, as the winner, she received a grant to study in London. In 1966, she won the prestigious Australian Melbourne Sun-Aria contest. Both students had been taught by Sister Mary Leo and she first appeared on stage as the Second Lady in Mozarts The Magic Flute, as well as in performances of Purcells Dido and Aeneas in December 1968 at the Sadlers Wells Theatre. She sang the role in Donizettis Anna Bolena.
Ive taken thousands of auditions, but it was such a beautiful voice. Under director John Copley, Te Kanawa was carefully groomed for the role of the Countess for a December 1971 opening
Kenneth Baker, Baron Baker of Dorking
Kenneth Wilfred Baker, Baron Baker of Dorking, CH, PC is a British politician, a former Conservative Member of Parliament and cabinet minister and a life member of the Tory Reform Group. He did National Service as a lieutenant and worked for Royal Dutch Shell before being elected as a Member of Parliament at a by-election in March 1968. However, at the 1970 general election he was defeated by Labours Nigel Spearing, however he successfully obtained nomination at Mole Valley, a safely-Conservative rural seat in Surrey, which he held until his retirement in 1997. He was succeeded there by Sir Paul Beresford, bakers first government post was in the Heath ministry, in 1972 he became Parliamentary Secretary at the Civil Service Department, and in 1974 Parliamentary Private Secretary to Edward Heath. Having been sworn of the Privy Council in the 1984 New Year Honours, Baker served as Secretary of State for Education from 1986 to 1989. His most noted action in his time at the Department of Education was the introduction of the controversial National Curriculum through the 1988 Education Act and he introduced in-service training days for teachers, which became popularly known as Baker days.
At this time Baker was often tipped as a future Conservative leader, critchley quoted one journalists witticism I have seen the future and it smirks. Bakers mannerisms were unpopular with people, he dressed his hair with Brylcreem. In the July 1989 reshuffle Baker was appointed Chairman of the Conservative Party and he was still Party Chairman at the time Margaret Thatcher resigned in November 1990. After the change of regime Baker was promoted to Home Secretary and his time at the Home Office was marred by prison riots, and by bad publicity over the introduction of the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. After his term of office he was found to have been in contempt of court for having deported a man back to Zaire in 1991, in breach of an interim injunction. It would be a day for the rule of law and the liberty of the subject. This was the first time the courts had reached such a finding against a minister for exercise of Prerogative Powers, after the 1992 general election Baker left the government rather than accept demotion to the job of Welsh Secretary.
He was appointed a member of the Order of the Companions of Honour on 13 April 1992 and he proposed the Loyal Address in the Queens Speech debate on 6 May 1992, following the general election. He chose not to stand for re-election to the House of Commons in 1997 and he was interviewed in 2012 as part of the The History of Parliaments oral history project. In 2013 Baker was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Education from Plymouth University, until 1995 Baker lived in Station Road in the village of Betchworth,4 miles east of Dorking. He now lives in the hamlet of Iford near Lewes, East Sussex, in 2005 he published a book on King George IV, George IV, A Life in Caricature, followed by King George III, A Life in Caricature in 2007. Other publications include several compilations of poetry, a history of political cartoons, in 2006 Lord Baker announced that he was introducing a bill into the House of Lords to address the West Lothian question
Subsequently and Pakistan and Ceylon became Dominions. By the early 1950s, in order to reflect the equality between the countries in that group, each came to be known as a realm. The word was used in Britains proclamation of Elizabeth II as queen in 1952 and was adopted for the modern royal styles and titles under the legislation enacted by the individual countries. The principle was applied to countries as they became Commonwealth realms. The phrase Commonwealth realm, though used officially, is not a statutory term, the number of independent countries in the Commonwealth of Nations all sharing the same person as monarch reached 18 between 1983 and 1987. The Commonwealth realms are, for purposes of international relations, sovereign states, political scientist Peter Boyce called this grouping of countries associated in this manner, an achievement without parallel in the history of international relations or constitutional law. Since each realm has the person as its monarch, the diplomatic practice of exchanging ambassadors with letters of credence.
Diplomatic relations between the Commonwealth realms are thus at a cabinet level only and high commissioners are exchanged between realms, a high commissioners full title will thus be High Commissioner for Her Majestys Government in. Opinion on the prospect of the coming to fruition is mixed. This means that in different contexts the term Crown may refer to the extra-national institution associating all 16 countries, from a cultural standpoint, the sovereigns name and image and other royal symbols unique to each nation are visible in the emblems and insignia of governmental institutions and militia. By 1959, it was being asserted by Buckingham Palace officials that the Queen was equally at home in all her realms and this convention was first applied to the abdication of Edward VIII in 1936. For expediency and to avoid embarrassment, the British government had suggested that the Dominion governments automatically regard the monarch of the UK, whoever this may be, as their monarch also. Sir Maurice Gwyer, first parliamentary counsel in the UK, reflected this position and these changes came into effect on 26 March 2015.
Agreement among the realms does not, mean the succession laws cannot diverge, the parliament of South Africa, passed its own legislation—His Majesty King Edward the Eighths Abdication Act, 1937—which backdated the abdication there to 10 December. The Irish Free State recognised the kings abdication with the Executive Authority Act 1936 on 12 December, according to Anne Twomey, this demonstrated the divisibility of the Crown in the personal, as well as the political, sense. For E H Coghill, writing as early as 1937, it proved that the convention of a line of succession is not of imperative force. It is generally agreed that any alteration of succession by the UK would not have effect in all the realms. Following the accession of George VI to the throne, the United Kingdom created legislation that provided for a regency in the event that the monarch was not of age or incapacitated