Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge was a member of the British royal family, a granddaughter of George III, grandmother of Edward VIII and George VI and great-grandmother of Elizabeth II. She held the title of Duchess of Teck through marriage. Mary Adelaide is remembered as the mother of Queen Mary, the wife of King George V, she was one of the first royals to patronise a wide range of charities. Mary Adelaide was born on 27 November 1833 in Germany, her father was Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, the youngest surviving son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Her mother was Princess Augusta of the daughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse-Cassel; the young princess was baptized on 9 January 1834 at Cambridge House, Hanover, by Rev John Ryle Wood, Chaplain to the Duke of Cambridge. Her godmother and paternal aunt Princess Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg, was the only godparent, present; the others were King William IV and Queen Adelaide, Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Princess Marie of Hesse-Cassel and Princess Marie Luise Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel.
She was named Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth for her aunts and uncle. Mary Adelaide spent the early years of her life in Hanover, where her father acted as viceroy, in place of her uncles George IV and William IV. After the death of William IV, Mary Adelaide's first cousin, Princess Victoria of Kent ascended the throne in 1837. However, Salic law prevented Victoria from ascending the throne of Hanover, which instead passed to Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. Thus, the personal union which had existed for over a century between Britain and Hanover came to an end along with the arrangement of Hanover's ruler living in England as the British monarch and using a viceroy to represent him in Hanover; the Duke of Cumberland moved to Hanover as King and Mary Adelaide's father, no longer needed in Hanover, returned to London with his family, setting up residence in Kensington Palace. By the age of 30, Mary Adelaide was still unmarried, her large girth and lack of income were contributing factors.
However, her royal rank prevented her from marrying someone not of royal blood. Her cousin, Queen Victoria, attempted to arrange pairings. A suitable candidate was found in Württemberg, Prince Francis of Teck; the Prince was of lower rank than Mary Adelaide, was the product of a morganatic marriage and had no succession rights to the throne of Württemberg, but was at least of princely title and of royal blood. With no other options available, Mary Adelaide decided to marry him; the couple were married on 12 June 1866 at St. Anne's Church, Surrey; the Duke and Duchess of Teck chose to reside in London rather than abroad because Mary Adelaide received £5,000 per annum as a Parliamentary annuity and carried out royal duties. Her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge provided her with supplementary income. Requests to Queen Victoria for extra funds were refused. Mary Adelaide requested that her new husband be granted the style Royal Highness, but this was refused by Queen Victoria; the queen did, promote Francis to the rank of Highness in 1887 in celebration of her Golden Jubilee.
The Tecks had one daughter and three sons: Despite their modest income, Mary Adelaide had expensive tastes and lived an extravagant life of parties, expensive food and clothes and holidays abroad. In 1883 they were forced to live more cheaply abroad to reduce their debts, they travelled to Florence and stayed with relatives in Germany and Austria. They travelled under the names of the Count and Countess von Hohenstein. However, Mary Adelaide wished to travel in more style and reverted to her royal style, which commanded more attention and better service; the Tecks returned from their self-imposed exile in 1885 and continued to live at Kensington Palace and White Lodge in Richmond Park. Mary Adelaide began devoting her life to charity, serving as patron to Barnardo's and other children's charities. In 1891, Mary Adelaide was keen for her daughter, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck to marry one of the sons of the Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII. At the same time, Queen Victoria wanted a British-born bride for the future king, though of course one of royal rank and ancestry, Mary Adelaide's daughter fulfilled the rank criteria.
After Queen Victoria's approval, May became engaged to Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, second in line to the British throne. He died six weeks later. Queen Victoria was fond of Princess Mary and persuaded the Duke of Clarence's brother and next in the line of succession, Prince George, Duke of York, to marry her instead, they married in the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, on 6 July 1893. Mary Adelaide never lived to see her daughter become Princess of Wales or Queen, as she died on 27 October 1897 at White Lodge, following an emergency operation, she was buried in the royal vault at Windsor. 27 November 1833 – 12 June 1866: Her Royal Highness Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge 12 June 1866 – 16 December 1871: Her Royal Highness Princess Francis of Teck 16 December 1871 – 27 October 1897: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of TeckAs a male-line granddaughter of the British monarch, she was styled Her Royal Highness Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge. As the male-line granddaughter of a king of Hanover, Princess Mary Ad
Thanjavur Tanjore, is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion and architecture. Most of the Great Living Chola Temples, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments, are located in and around Thanjavur; the foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District; the city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu". Thanjavur is administered by a municipal corporation covering an area of 36.33 km2 and had a population of 222,943 in 2011. Roadways are the major means of transportation, while the city has rail connectivity; the nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located 59.6 km away from the city. The nearest seaport is Karaikal, 94 km away from Thanjavur; the city first rose to prominence during the reign of Mutharaiyar when it served as the capital of the empire.
After the fall of Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and British Empire. It has been a part of independent India since 1947; the city name "Thanjavur" seems to be derived from the name of a Mutharayar king "Thananjay" or "Dhananjaya". According to local legend, the word Thanjavur is derived from "Tanjan", an asura in Hindu mythology, killed in what is now Thanjavur by the Hindu god Neelamegha Perumal, a form of Vishnu; the word Thanjavur is indeed a Tamil name."Than"-cold, "chei"-farmland, "ur"- city, a city surrounded by cold farmlands. The word "Thancheiur" has become "Thanjavur". There are no references to Thanjavur in any of the Sangam period Tamil records, though some scholars believe that the city has existed since that time. Kovil Venni, situated 15 miles to the east of the city, was the site of the Battle of Venni between the Chola king Karikala and a confederacy of the Cheras and the Pandyas.
The Cholas seemed to have faced an invasion of the Kalabhras in the third century AD after which the kingdom faded into obscurity. The region around present day Thanjavur was conquered by the Mutharayars during the sixth century, who ruled it up to 849; the Cholas came to prominence once more through the rise of the Medieval Chola monarch Vijayalaya in about 850. Vijayalaya conquered Thanjavur from the Mutharayar king Elango Mutharayar and built a temple dedicated to Hindu goddess Nisumbhasudani, his son Aditya. The Rashtrakuta king Krishna II, a contemporary of the Chola king Parantaka I, claims to have conquered Thanjavur, but there are no records to support the claim. Thanjavur became the most important city in the Chola Empire and remained its capital till the emergence of Gangaikonda Cholapuram in about 1025. During the first decade of the eleventh century, the Chola king Raja Raja Chola I constructed the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur; the temple is considered to be one of the best specimens of Tamil architecture.
When the Chola Empire began to decline in the 13th century, the Pandyas from the south invaded and captured Thanjavur twice, first during 1218–19 and during 1230. During the second invasion, the Chola king Rajaraja III was exiled and he sought the help of the Hoysala king Vira Narasimha II to regain Thanjavur. Thanjavur was annexed along with the rest of the Chola kingdom by the Pandya king Maravarman Kulasekara Pandyan I in 1279 and the Chola kings were forced to accept the suzerainty of the Pandyas; the Pandyas ruled Thanjavur from 1279 to 1311 when their kingdom was raided by the forces of Malik Kafur and annexed by the Delhi Sultanate. The Sultanate extended its authority directly over the conquered regions from 1311 to 1335 and through the semi-independent Ma'bar Sultanate from 1335 to 1378. Starting from the 1350s, the Ma'bar Sultanate was absorbed into the rising Vijayanagar Empire. Thanjavur is believed to have been conquered by Kampanna Udayar during his invasion of Srirangam between 1365 and 1371.
Deva Raya's inscription dated 1443, Thirumala's inscription dated 1455 and Achuta Deva's land grants dated 1532 and 1539 attest Vijayanagar's dominance over Thanjavur. Sevappa Nayak, the Vijayanagar viceroy of Arcot, established himself as an independent monarch in 1532 and founded the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom. Achuthappa Nayak, Raghunatha Nayak and Vijaya Raghava Nayak are some of the important rulers of the Nayak dynasty who ruled Thanjavur. Thanjavur Nayaks were notable for their patronage of literature and arts; the rule of the dynasty came to an end when Thanjavur fell to the Madurai Nayak king Chokkanatha Nayak in 1673. Vijaya Raghunatha Nayak, the son of Chokkanatha, was killed in a battle and Chokkanatha's brother Alagiri Nayak was crowned as the ruler of the empire. Thanjavur was conquered in 1674 by Ekoji I, the Maratha feudatory of the sultan of Bijapur and half-brother of Shivaji of the Bhonsle dynasty. Ekoji founded the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom which ruled Thanjavur till 1855; the Marathas exercised their sovereignty over Thanjavur throughout the last quarter of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century.
The Maratha rulers patronized Carnatic music. In 1787, Amar Singh, the regent of Thanjavur, deposed the minor Raja, his nephew Serfoji II and captured the throne. Serfoji II was restored in 1799 with the assistance of the British, who induced him to re
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala
Field Marshal Robert Cornelius Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala was an Indian Army officer. He fought in the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Second Anglo-Sikh War before seeing action as chief engineer during the second relief of Lucknow in March 1858 during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, he served in the Second Opium War as commander of the 2nd division of the expeditionary force which took part in the Battle of Taku Forts, the surrender of Peking's Anting Gate and the entry to Peking in 1860. He subsequently led the punitive expedition to Abyssinia July 1867, defeating the Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia with minimal loss of life among his own forces and rescuing the hostages of Tewodros. Born the son of Major Charles Frederick Napier, wounded at the storming of Meester Cornelis in Java on and died some months and Catherine Napier, Napier was educated at Addiscombe Military Seminary before being commissioned into the Bengal Engineers on 15 December 1826, he attended the Royal Engineer Establishment at Chatham with the rank of ensign from 7 June 1827 before being promoted to lieutenant on 28 September 1827 and being sent to India in November 1828.
After commanding a company at Delhi, he was employed in the irrigation works of the Public Works Department until 1836 when he returned to England for leave on account of his poor health. Promoted to captain on 25 January 1841, he was appointed garrison engineer at Sirhind in 1842. Napier served under Sir Hugh Gough during the First Anglo-Sikh War and commanded the Bengal Engineers at the Battle of Mudki in December 1845, he was wounded at the Battle of Ferozeshah in December 1845 while storming the Sikh camp and was present at the Battle of Sobraon in February 1846. Promoted to brevet major on 3 April 1846, he was chief engineer at the siege of the fortress of Kote Kangra in the Punjab by Brigadier-General Wheeler in May 1846. Having been appointed as consulting engineer to the Punjab resident and to the Council of Regency of the Punjab, Napier was called to direct the siege of Multan in September 1848 at the outset of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, he was wounded during the siege but managed to recover sufficiently to be present at the successful storming of Multan in January 1849 and at the surrender of the fortress of Chiniot shortly thereafter.
He took part in the Battle of Gujrat in February 1849 and accompanied Sir Walter Gilbert as he pursued the Sikhs and was at the surrender of the Sikh army. He was promoted to brevet lieutenant-colonel on 7 June 1849 and became chief engineer to the Board of Administration of Punjab Province at the end of the War. In December 1852 Napier took command of a column in the first Hazara expedition, in November 1853 against the Afridis on the North-West frontier, he was promoted to the brevet rank of colonel on 28 November 1854 and the substantive rank of lieutenant colonel on 15 April 1856. Napier was appointed military secretary and adjutant general to Sir James Outram, whose forces took part in the actions leading to the first relief of Lucknow in September 1857, he remained as chief engineer until the second relief in November 1857, when he was badly wounded while crossing an exposed space with Outram and Sir Henry Havelock to meet with Sir Colin Campbell. He recovered sufficiently to be present at the capture of Lucknow in March 1858.
Napier joined Sir Hugh Rose as second-in-command for the march on Gwalior and commanded the 2nd Brigade at the Battle of Morar in June 1858. After Gwalior fell and his 700 men pursued and defeated Tatya Tope's force of 12,000 men on the plains of Jaora Alipur. After Sir Hugh Rose's departure, Napier assumed command of the Gwalior division and helped capture Paori in August 1858, routed Prince Ferozepore at Ranode in December 1858 and secured the surrender of Man Singh and Tatya Tope, ending the war, in January 1859. In January 1860 during the Second Opium War, Napier assumed command of the 2nd division of the expeditionary force under Sir James Hope Grant. In the Battle of Taku Forts he led the assault on the main northern fort on 21 August 1860 where he counted six bullet holes in his clothing and equipment; the Anting Gate in Peking was surrendered to Napier on 13 October 1860 and he was responsible for protecting Lord Elgin's line of march into Peking on 24 October 1860. He was promoted to brevet major-general on 15 February 1861 and to the substantive rank of colonel on 18 February 1861.
Napier became the military member of the Council of the Governor-General of India in 1861, acting for a short while as Governor-General after the sudden death of Lord Elgin. He assumed command of the Bombay Army with the local rank of lieutenant general on 7 February 1865 and received promotion to the substantive rank of lieutenant-general on 1 March 1867 before taking command of the punitive expedition to Abyssinia July 1867. Napier achieved his greatest fame as an army officer when he led the expedition of 1868 against Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia; the Ethiopian ruler was holding a number of Protestant missionaries hostage, in his mountain capital of Magdala, as well as two British diplomats who had attempted to negotiate their freedom. After months of planning and other preparations, the advance guard of engineers landed at Zula on the Red Sea to construct a port on 30 October 1867; the expedition involved crossing 400 miles of mountainous terrain lacking roads or bridges occupied by local people with a known history of hostility towards outsiders.
The expedition overcame the first obstacle, the terrain, by thorough logistical planning and engineering abilit
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Princess Frederica of Hanover
Princess Frederica of Hanover, was a member of the House of Hanover. After her marriage, she lived in England, where she was a prominent member of society. Frederica was born 9 January 1848 in Hanover, the elder daughter of the Hereditary Prince of Hanover and of his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, she held the title of Princess with the style Her Royal Highness in Hanover. In the United Kingdom, she held the title of Princess with the style Her Highness as a male-line great-granddaughter of King George III, she was known as "Lily" within her family. In January 1866, the Prime Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck began negotiations with Hanover, represented by Count Platen-Hallermund, regarding the possible marriage of Frederica to Prince Albrecht of Prussia; these plans came to nothing as tensions grew between Hanover and Prussia resulting in the Austro-Prussian War. In 1866, Frederica's father was deposed as King of Hanover; the family settled at Gmunden in Austria, where they owned Schloss Cumberland.
Frederica visited England with her family in May 1876, again, after her father's death, in June 1878. Frederica was courted by her second cousin, Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, by Alexander, Prince of Orange. Frederica, was in love with Baron Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen, the son of a government official of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Alfons had served as an equerry to Frederica's father. Alfons was naturalised as a British subject on 19 March 1880 and, on 24 April 1880, he and Frederica were married; the wedding took. Alfons' sister Anna was married to Baron Oswald von Coburg, the son of an illegitimate son of Prince Ludwig Karl Friedrich of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Alfred Tennyson, the Poet Laureate, wrote a quatrain in honour of Frederica's marriage, focusing on her relationship to her blind father, who had died two years before: O you that were eyes and light to the King till he past away From the darkness of life — He saw not his daughter — he blest her: the blind King sees you to-day, He blesses the wife.
After their marriage Frederica and Alfons lived in an apartment at Hampton Court Palace. The apartment was in the south-west wing of the west front of the palace in the suite called the "Lady Housekeeper's Lodgings". Frederica and Alfons had one daughter, born and died at Hampton Court Palace: Victoria Georgina Beatrice Maud Anne, she was buried in the Albert Memorial Chapel in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. Frederica and Alfons were frequent guests at Osborne House. Frederica was involved with numerous charitable activities. In August 1881 she established the Convalescent Home, an institution for poor women who have given birth but have been discharged from maternity hospitals; because her father had been blind, she was a benefactress of the Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for the Blind at Upper Norwood. Frederica was interested in children & became patron of the Church Extension Association based in Kilburn, which wished to set up schools in Willesden a new suburb of London.
On 24 July 1889 she opened Princess Frederica School in Kensal Rise. She was patron of the Training College for Teachers of the Deaf at Ealing, of the Strolling Players' Amateur Orchestral Society, of the Hampton Court and Dittons Regatta of the Home for Foreign Governesses, of the Mission to the French in London, of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, she was President of the Middlesex Branch of SSFA. Frederica and Alfons gave up their apartment at Hampton Court Palace in 1898. While they continued to live part of the year in England, they subsequently spent more time in Biarritz in France where they had vacationed, they owned Villa Mouriscot there. Frederica died in 1926 at Biarritz, she was buried in the Royal Vault in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. In 1927 a window in her memory was unveiled in the English Church in Biarritz
Princess Thyra of Denmark
Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation:, was the youngest daughter and fifth child of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878, she married the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover; as the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria. Thyra was the younger sister of Frederik VIII of Denmark, Queen Alexandra of the United Kingdom, George I of Greece, Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia and an elder sister of Prince Valdemar of Denmark. Princess Thyra was born on 29 September 1853 at the Yellow Palace in Copenhagen as the third daughter and fifth child of Prince Christian and Princess Louise of Denmark; as a child, she shared a bedroom with her elder sisters and Dagmar, was taught how to sew and knit her own clothes and socks. Her family had been obscure but happy until her father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was chosen with the consent of the great powers to succeed his childless distant cousin, Frederick VII, to the Danish throne.
Just two months before Thyra's birth, the new Act of Succession had been passed and Prince Christian given the title of Prince of Denmark. In 1863, when Thyra was 10 years old, King Frederick VII died, her father succeeded to the throne of Denmark as King Christian IX. Earlier the same year, her brother Vilhelm had been elected King of Greece, her sister Alexandra had married Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. In 1866, her other sister Dagmar married the tsarevich of Alexander. Thyra was an attractive and gentle young woman, with dark hair and dark blue eyes, Queen Louise wanted her youngest daughter to make a good marriage as her elder daughters had. Thyra's first suitor was King Willem III of the Netherlands, but as he was thirty-six years older than she was, she rejected him. In her youth, Thyra had fallen in love with Vilhelm Frimann Marcher, a lieutenant in the cavalry, which resulted in a pregnancy, her brother George I of Greece suggested. She gave birth to a girl, Maria, on 8 November 1871 at Schloss Glücksburg, adopted by Rasmus and Anne Marie Jørgensen of Odense shortly after birth and renamed Kate.
Marcher killed himself on 4 January 1872 after a confrontation with the King. On 21 December/22 December 1878, she married Crown Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, at the chapel of Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Ernst Augustus was the eldest child and only son of King George V of Hanover and his wife, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernest Augustus had been born as a Crown Prince of Hanover, but in 1866 his father had been deprived of his throne, when the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed by Prussia after siding with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War. Thanks to her marriage, Thyra became Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg, she was styled Crown Princess of Hanover. Her husband died on 14 November 1923. Thyra survived him by nine years and died in Gmunden, Upper Austria, on 26 February 1933; the Duke and Duchess of Cumberland had six children: 29 September 1853 – 21 December 1858: Her Highness Princess Thyra of Denmark 21 December 1858 – 22 December 1878: Her Royal Highness Princess Thyra of Denmark 22 December 1878 – 28 March 1919: Her Royal Highness The Crown Princess of Hanover and Duchess of Cumberland and Teviotdale 28 March 1919 – 26 February 1933: Her Royal Highness Crown Princess Thyra of Hanover Spain: 814th Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa Royal House of Hannover Royal House of Denmark Princess Thyra at the website of the Royal Danish Collection at Amalienborg Palace
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia was the fifth child and only surviving daughter of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. She was the younger sister of Alexander III of Russia and the paternal aunt of Russia's last emperor, Nicholas II. In 1874, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna married Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; the couple had five children: a son and four daughters: Marie, Victoria Melita and Beatrice. For the first years of her marriage, Maria Alexandrovna lived in England, she neither overcame her dislike for her adopted country. She accompanied her husband on his postings as an Admiral of the Royal Navy at Devonport; the Duchess of Edinburgh travelled extensively through Europe. She visited her family in Russia and stayed for long periods in England and Germany attending social and family events. In August 1893, Maria Alexandrovna became Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha when her husband inherited the duchy on the death of his childless uncle, Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
She enjoyed life in Germany where she was active in charitable work. To her daughters, she gave all her support, but she was critical of her wayward son who died young in 1899, her husband died the following year. In her widowhood, Maria Alexandrovna continued to live in Coburg; the outbreak of World War I divided her sympathies. She sided with Germany against her native Russia, her only surviving brother, Grand Duke Paul, her nephew Tsar Nicholas II and many other relatives were killed during the Russian Revolution and she lost her considerable fortune. From 1893 until her death, she had the distinction of being an Imperial Russian grand duchess, a British royal Duchess, the consort of a German sovereign Duke. After World War I, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the duchy her husband and nephew had ruled, ceased to exist in November 1918. Maria Alexandrovna died two years while living under reduced circumstances in exile in Switzerland. Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna was born on 17 October 1853 at the Alexander Palace in Tsarskoye Selo.
She was the sixth child and only surviving daughter among the eight children of Emperor Alexander II of Russia and his first wife Empress Maria Alexandrovna of Russia, née Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine. At the time of her birth, her grandfather, Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, was on the throne and her father was Tsarevich. In 1855, when Maria Alexandrovna was seventeen months old, Nicholas I died and her father became the new Russian Emperor; the grand duchess grew up as the only girl with two younger ones. She did not know her only sister, Grand Duchess Alexandra Alexandrovna of Russia, who had died before she was born. Maria Alexandrovna herself died from a throat disease at the age of seven, her childhood was spent in luxury and splendor in the large palaces and country estates owned by the Romanovs. The family's main residence was the sixteen-hundred-room Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, with another residence at Gatchina, forty miles south. In the summer, the family stayed in Peterhof, a large complex with farms and various pavilions on the Gulf of Finland.
From the end of the summer until winter, the Imperial family moved to Tsarskoye Selo, the royal village, where the Romanovs had the Catherine Palace and Alexander Palace. In the children's island, located in a pond in the park of the Alexander Palace, Maria Alexandrovna had her own private little house, off limit to adults, which she used with her brothers as a playhouse, her father added a farm, built for her enjoyment. Both parents doted on her; the Empress was a loving mother, but physically cold towards her children. The Tsarina suffered from weak lungs and had to travel to Germany and southern Europe to escape the harsh Russian winters; the Tsarina took her three younger children with her on these trips. As a consequence, Maria Alexandrovna became closer to her two younger brothers, Grand Duke Sergei and Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich, than to her older siblings. Surrounded only by brothers, Maria grew up as a tomboy, with an independent character and a strong will. Maria was educated at the Russian court under the strict regime of her governess, Countess Alexandrine Tolstoy.
Maria Alexandrovna was the first Russian grand duchess to be raised by English nannies and to speak fluent English. Besides her native Russian, she became proficient in German and French. In August 1867, while the Imperial family was at Livadia Palace, in Crimea, Mark Twain met Maria Alexandrovna and her parents; the famous American writer described her as "blue-eyed and pretty". As many contemporaries did, Twain noticed the influence that the young grand duchess had over her father. "She is genuine and never changes in front of strangers," observed her lady in waiting, Anna Tyutcheva, a daughter of the celebrated poet Fyodor Tyutchev, adding that: "She is accustomed to be the center of the world and that everyone yields to her." Tyutcheva described her pupil as "stubborn and uncompromising" commenting that "one cannot treat her or reason with her a lot". During a visit to her maternal relatives, the Princes of Battenberg, at Jugenheim in August 1868, Grand D