Cheiry is a municipality in the district of Broye in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. Cheiry is first mentioned around 1184-85 as Chirie, its territory was enlarged in 2005 with the independent municipality Chapelle. On October 5, 1994, 23 members of the cult the Order of the Solar Temple were found in dead in the farm La Rochette in Cheiry. Cheiry has an area, as of 2009, of 6.5 square kilometers. Of this area, 4.25 km2 or 65.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.76 km2 or 27.2% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.45 km2 or 6.9% is settled and 0.02 km2 or 0.3% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 2.5% and transportation infrastructure made up 3.4%. Out of the forested land, 24.4% of the total land area is forested and 2.8% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 42.7% is used for growing crops and 22.4% is pastures. The municipality is located in the Surpierre exclave; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess, Or a Semi-Eagle displayed issuant Gules, Azure three Plates.
Cheiry has a population of 412. As of 2008, 2.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 4.6%. Migration accounted for 8.9%, while births and deaths accounted for -0.9%. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and English is the third; as of 2008, the population was 51.1% male and 48.9% female. The population was made up of 179 Swiss men and 7 non-Swiss men. There were 172 Swiss women and 6 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 106 or about 39.7% were born in Cheiry and lived there in 2000. There were 52 or 19.5% who were born in the same canton, while 77 or 28.8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 24 or 9.0% were born outside of Switzerland. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Cheiry is. Of the adult population, 31 people or 9.4% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 54 people or 16.3% are between 30 and 39, 53 people or 16.0% are between 40 and 49, 27 people or 8.2% are between 50 and 59.
The senior population distribution is 26 people or 7.9% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 30 people or 9.1% are between 70 and 79, there are 11 people or 3.3% who are between 80 and 89, there are 2 people or 0.6% who are 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 106 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 137 married individuals, 16 widows or widowers and 8 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 119 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 22 households that consist of only one person and 7 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 94 apartments were permanently occupied, while 8 apartments were seasonally occupied and 5 apartments were empty; the historical population is given in the following chart: The Granary at Route Du Centre 21 A is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance. In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 32.8% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the CVP, the SP and the FDP. The SVP received about the same percentage of the vote; the CVP increased in popularity, the SPS increased in popularity and the FDP increased in popularity. A total of 120 votes were cast in this election, of which 1 or 0.8% was invalid. As of 2010, Cheiry had an unemployment rate of 2.1%. As of 2008, there were 51 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 16 businesses involved in this sector. 7 people were employed in the secondary sector and there was 1 business in this sector. 19 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 8 businesses in this sector. There were 125 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 44.0% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 52; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 31, all of which were in agriculture. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 6, all of which were in construction.
The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 15. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 10 workers who commuted into the municipality and 87 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 8.7 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. Of the working population, 1.3% used public transportation to get to work, 61.4% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 189 or 70.8% were Roman Catholic, while 49 or 18.4% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 3 members of an Orthodox church. There were 4 who were Islamic. There were 3 individuals who were 1 individual who belonged to another church. 14 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 4 individuals did not answer t
Morin-Heights is a town in the Laurentian Mountains region of Quebec, Canada. It is north of Lachute, it is a tourist town, having a large ski hill, popular during the winter months and being on a recreational trailway, used year-round. A dense network of hiking, cross country skiing and mountain biking trails surround Morin Heights, making it the closest multi-recreational outdoor hub to Montreal; the old train station, on Lac Écho road, is the starting point for most recreational activities, year-round. The Rivière à Simon offers enjoyable canoeing and kayaking all the way down to Christieville and beyond. Located just south of the town was a recording studio, called Le Studio, built in 1975, now closed; the facility was used by numerous Canadian and international artists, including The Tragically Hip, Nazareth, April Wine, Barenaked Ladies, The Police, The Rolling Stones, David Bowie, The Bee Gees, Cat Stevens, Lawrence Gowan, as well as by Québec artists Jean-Pierre Ferland, Richard Séguin, Lucien Francoeur and Garolou.
In 1994, another important music recording facility was built in Morin Heights, on the northern edge of town. Conceived and built by Swedish-born artist Lars Westvind, Studio Nomade hosted Sarah McLachlan's recording projects up to 2000, it became opened to other artists as well, is still a used production facility. The town hosts a theater company, as well as a choir; the first European settlers arrived from Ireland around 1850, followed by French Canadians from Lachute, Saint-Jérôme and Saint-Eustache. In 1852, the Morin Township was formed and in 1855, the Township Municipality of Morin-Partie-Sud was established in a part of the township; the township was named after its founder and 19th-century politician Augustin-Norbert Morin who had at that point a huge farm of more than 3 square kilometres on the banks of the Rivière du Nord, built around 1850-1860 and included a home, saw mill, flour mill. An alternate, less accepted origin for the name Morin concerns an engineer named Morin, dispatched by the provincial government to survey the region and had hired a Native American named Simon as guide, whose name was used to identify the river flowing through the township.
Until 1911, the territory had just the names of Bas-Morin or Morin Flats, name of the post office between 1875 and 1911, while the railway station was known as Morin Heights Station. In 1950, Morin-Partie-Sud changed its statutes and name to become the Municipality of Morin-Heights; the town gained notoriety in 1994 when members of the Order of the Solar Temple took part in a mass suicide, after setting fire to the ski chalet they occupied in the community. On March 12, 2008, a tragic roof collapse in the Gourmet du Village bakery warehouse killed three women. An excessive accumulation of snow was suspected to be the cause of the accident. A total of 40 people were in the building at the time of the collapse. Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 1841 Home language: English: 48% French: 51% other language] only: 1% Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates Anglophone public schools: Morin Heights Elementary School Laurentian Regional High School in LachuteMorin Heights Library serves the community.
List of municipalities in Quebec Morin Heights municipal/community Web Site Morin Heights Historical Association
The Last Supper is the final meal that, in the Gospel accounts, Jesus shared with his Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is commemorated by Christians on Maundy Thursday; the Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the Eucharist known as "Holy Communion" or "The Lord's Supper". The First Epistle to the Corinthians contains the earliest known mention of the Last Supper; the four canonical Gospels all state that the Last Supper took place towards the end of the week, after Jesus's triumphal entry into Jerusalem and that Jesus and his Apostles shared a meal shortly before Jesus was crucified at the end of that week. During the meal Jesus predicts his betrayal by one of the Apostles present, foretells that before the next morning, Peter will deny knowing him; the three Synoptic Gospels and the First Epistle to the Corinthians include the account of the institution of the Eucharist in which Jesus takes bread, breaks it and gives it to the Apostles, saying "This is my body given to you".
The Gospel of John does not include this episode, but tells of Jesus washing the feet of the Apostles, giving the new commandment "to love one another as I have loved you", has a detailed farewell discourse by Jesus, calling the Apostles who follow his teachings "friends and not servants", as he prepares them for his departure. Scholars have looked to the Last Supper as the source of early Christian Eucharist traditions. Others see the account of the Last Supper as derived from 1st-century eucharistic practice as described by Paul in the mid-50s; the term "Last Supper" does not appear in the New Testament, but traditionally many Christians refer so to the event. Many Protestants use the term "Lord's Supper", stating that the term "last" suggests this was one of several meals and not the meal; the term "Lord's Supper" refers both to the biblical event and the act of "Holy Communion" and Eucharistic celebration within their liturgy. Evangelical Protestants use the term "Lord's Supper", but most do not use the terms "Eucharist" or the word "Holy" with the name "Communion".
The Eastern Orthodox use the term "Mystical Supper" which refers both to the biblical event and the act of Eucharistic celebration within liturgy. The Russian Orthodox use the term "Secret Supper"; the last meal that Jesus shared with his disciples is described in all four canonical Gospels. This meal became known as the Last Supper; the Last Supper was a retelling of the events of the last meal of Jesus among the early Christian community, became a ritual which recounted that meal. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, written before the Gospels, includes a reference to the Last Supper but emphasizes the theological basis rather than giving a detailed description of the event or its background; the overall narrative, shared in all Gospel accounts that leads to the Last Supper is that after the Triumphal entry into Jerusalem early in the week, encounters with various people and the Jewish elders and his disciples share a meal towards the end of the week. After the meal, Jesus is betrayed, arrested and crucified.
Key events in the meal are the preparation of the disciples for the departure of Jesus, the predictions about the impending betrayal of Jesus, the foretelling of the upcoming denial of Jesus by Apostle Peter. In Matthew 26:24–25, Mark 14:18–21, Luke 22:21–23 and John 13:21–30 during the meal, Jesus predicted that one of his Apostles would betray him. Jesus is described as reiterating, despite each apostle's assertion that he would not betray Jesus, that the betrayer would be one of those who were present, saying that there would be "woe to the man who betrays the Son of man! It would be better for him if he had not been born."In Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27, Judas is identified as the traitor. In the Gospel of John, when asked about the traitor, Jesus states: It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.” Dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. As soon as Judas took the bread, Satan entered into him; the three Synoptic Gospel accounts give somewhat different versions of the order of the meal.
In chapter 26 of the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus prays thanks for the bread, divides it, hands the pieces of bread to his disciples, saying "Take, this is my body." In the meal Jesus takes a cup of wine, offers another prayer, gives it to those present, saying "Drink from it, all of you. I tell you, I will never again drink of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom." In chapter 22 of the Gospel of Luke, the wine is blessed and distributed before the bread, followed by the bread by a second, larger cup of wine, as well as somewhat different wordings. Additionally, according to Paul and Luke, he tells the disciples "do this in remembrance of me." This event has been regarded by Christians of most denominations as the institution of the Eucharist. There is recorded celebration of the Eucharist by the early Christian community in Jerusalem; the institution of the Eucharist is recorded in the three Synoptic Gospels and in Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians.
As noted above, Jesus's words differ in each account. In addition, Luke 22:19b–20 is a disputed text which does not appear in some of the early manuscripts of Luke; some scholars, believe that it is an interpolation, while others have argue
Knights Templar in popular culture
The original historic Knights Templar were a Christian military order, the Order of the Poor Fellow Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, that existed from the 12th to 14th centuries to provide warriors in the Crusades. These men were famous in the high and late Middle Ages, but the Order was disbanded suddenly by King Philip IV of France, who took action against the Templars in order to avoid repaying his own financial debts, he accused them of heresy, ordered the arrest of all Templars within his realm, had many of them burned at the stake. The dramatic and rapid end of the organization led to many stories and legends developing about them over the following centuries; the Order and its members appear in modern fiction, though most of these references portray the medieval organization inaccurately. In modern works, the Templars are portrayed as villains, misguided zealots, representatives of an evil secret society, or as the keepers of a long-lost treasure. Several modern organizations claim heritage from the medieval Templars, as a way of enhancing their own image or mystique.
Many temperance organizations named themselves after the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, citing the belief that the original Knights Templar "drank sour milk, because they were fighting'a great crusade' against'this terrible vice' of alcohol." The largest of these, the International Order of Good Templars, grew throughout the world after being started in the 19th century and continues to advocate for the abstinence of alcohol and other drugs. Freemasonry has contained references to the Knights Templar since at least the 18th century; the best-known reference to the Knights Templar in Freemasonry is the Degree of Knight of the Temple, or "Order of the Temple", the final order joined in "The United Religious and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine and Malta" known as the Knights Templar. Freemasonry is traditionally open to men of all faiths, asking only that they have a belief in a supreme being, but membership in this Masonic body is open only to Freemasons who profess a belief in the Christian religion.
These Knights Templar take part in public parades and exhibitions, wearing distinctive uniforms and have had a number of high-profile members such as Henry Ford, Harry S. Truman. In the 20th century, masonic Knights Templar became the subject of pseudohistorical theories connecting them to the medieval order though such a connection is rejected by Masonic authorities themselves and the source known to historians; the Order of the Solar Temple is one infamous example of a "neo-Templar" group, founded in 1984, that claimed descent from the original Knights Templar. Another Templar-related order, the Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, is a charitable organization founded in 1804 which has achieved United Nations NGO special status, they are a part of the larger Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani called Knights Templar International. Some members of the OSMTH claim to be the direct descendants of the original Knights Templar, citing the Larmenius Charter as proof. In May 2018 BBC News reported that since 2015 far-right activist Jim Dowson has been fronting a UK-based Knights Templar International organization with Dowson's sister-in-law Marion Thomas named as one of its directors.
The popularity of the Knights Templar in modern fiction and their presence in pseudohistorical or fringe literature has received scholarly attention. At the 2004 Annual Conference of the American Culture Association, their call for papers was about such conspiracy theories relating to the Templars and their association with other legends and mysterious organizations. Literary theorists puzzle over Umberto Eco's use in his novel Foucault's Pendulum of the Templars as a symbol of postmodernist rewriting of history. Historian Malcolm Barber writes that "Mystic Templars are omnipresent in all good conspiracy theories." On Day to Day, a program on American NPR, host Alex Chadwick discussed "the literary fascination with the Knights Templar." In Poland, the Toruń Museum had an exhibition entitled "The Knights Templar – History and Myth" which offered a description, "Apart from pieces of "high art", the exhibit will grant equal importance to "popular culture" items exploring the subject of the Knights Templar."
In 2007, a National Post editorial noted that "the Templars remain a living presence in popular culture. This has happened because the historical record concerning their sudden annihilation in the early-14th century at the hands of Philip IV of France has been so sparse and ambiguous. Time and revolution have damaged and dispersed the sources, made the Templars a magnet for speculation and imagination." Popular themes are their supposed association with the Holy Grail and the Ark of the Covenant, the supposed historical connection to the Freemasons. The historical Templars had their first headquarters on the Temple Mount, assigned to them by King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, they were in operation there for 75 years. Pseudo-historical books such as The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail theorise that the Templars could have discovered documents hidden in the ruins of the Temple "proving" that Jesus survived the Crucifixion or "proving" Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene and had children by her. Indeed, the supposition that the Templars must have found something u
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or the Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by the papal bull Omne datum optimum. The order was founded in 1119 and was active until 1312 when it was perpetually suppressed by Pope Clement V by the bull Vox in excelso; the Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom and grew in membership and power. They were prominent in Christian finance. Templar knights, in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades. Non-combatant members of the order, who formed as much as 90% of the order's members, managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom, developing innovative financial techniques that were an early form of banking, building its own network of nearly 1,000 commanderies and fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land, arguably forming the world's first multinational corporation.
The Templars were tied to the Crusades. Rumours about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created distrust, King Philip IV of France – in debt to the order – took advantage of this distrust to destroy them and erase his debt. In 1307, he had many of the order's members in France arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, burned at the stake. Pope Clement V disbanded the order in 1312 under pressure from King Philip; the abrupt reduction in power of a significant group in European society gave rise to speculation and legacy through the ages. After Europeans in the First Crusade captured Jerusalem in 1099, many Christians made pilgrimages to various sacred sites in the Holy Land. Although the city of Jerusalem was secure under Christian control, the rest of Outremer was not. Bandits and marauding highwaymen preyed upon pilgrims, who were slaughtered, sometimes by the hundreds, as they attempted to make the journey from the coastline at Jaffa through to the interior of the Holy Land.
In 1119, the French knight Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, proposed creating a monastic order for the protection of these pilgrims. King Baldwin and Patriarch Warmund agreed to the request at the Council of Nablus in January 1120, the king granted the Templars a headquarters in a wing of the royal palace on the Temple Mount in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque; the Temple Mount had a mystique because it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon. The Crusaders therefore referred to the Al-Aqsa Mosque as Solomon's Temple, from this location the new order took the name of Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or "Templar" knights; the order, with about nine knights including Godfrey de Saint-Omer and André de Montbard, had few financial resources and relied on donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse; the impoverished status of the Templars did not last long. They had a powerful advocate in Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, a leading Church figure, the French abbot responsible for the founding of the Cistercian Order of monks and a nephew of André de Montbard, one of the founding knights.
Bernard put his weight behind them and wrote persuasively on their behalf in the letter'In Praise of the New Knighthood', in 1129, at the Council of Troyes, he led a group of leading churchmen to approve and endorse the order on behalf of the church. With this formal blessing, the Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, receiving money, land and noble-born sons from families who were eager to help with the fight in the Holy Land. Another major benefit came in 1139, when Pope Innocent II's papal bull Omne Datum Optimum exempted the order from obedience to local laws; this ruling meant that the Templars could pass through all borders, were not required to pay any taxes, were exempt from all authority except that of the pope. With its clear mission and ample resources, the order grew rapidly. Templars were the advance shock troops in key battles of the Crusades, as the armoured knights on their warhorses would set out to charge at the enemy, ahead of the main army bodies, in an attempt to break opposition lines.
One of their most famous victories was in 1177 during the Battle of Montgisard, where some 500 Templar knights helped several thousand infantry to defeat Saladin's army of more than 26,000 soldiers. Although the primary mission of the order was militaristic few members were combatants; the others acted in support positions to assist the knights and to manage the financial infrastructure. The Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations. A nobleman, interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away. Accumulating wealth in this manner throughout Christendom and the Outremer, the order in 1150 began generating letters of credit for pilgrims journeying to the Holy Land: pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques. Based on this mi
Ordo Templi Orientis
Ordo Templi Orientis is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century by Carl Kellner and Theodor Reuss. English author and occultist Aleister Crowley is the best-known and most influential member of the order, it was intended to be modelled after and associated with European Freemasonry, such as Masonic Templar organizations, but under the leadership of Aleister Crowley, O. T. O. was reorganized around the Law of Thelema as its central religious principle. This Law—expressed as "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law" and "Love is the law, love under will"—was promulgated in 1904 with the writing of The Book of the Law. Similar to many secret societies, O. T. O. Membership is based on an initiatory system with a series of degree ceremonies that use ritual drama to establish fraternal bonds and impart spiritual and philosophical teachings; the O. T. O. includes the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica or Gnostic Catholic Church, the ecclesiastical arm of the Order.
Its central rite, public, is called Liber XV, or the Gnostic Mass. The early history of O. T. O. is difficult to trace reliably. It originated in Germany or Austria between 1895 and 1906, its apparent founder was Carl Kellner, a wealthy Austrian industrialist, in 1895. Kellner wanted to establish an Academia Masonica within which high-grade Freemasonic degrees could be conferred in German-speaking nations. Theodor Reuss collaborated with Kellner in creating O. T. O. and succeeded him as head of O. T. O. after Kellner's death. Under Reuss, charters were given to occult brotherhoods in France, Switzerland, the U. S. A. and Austria. There were nine degrees. In 1902, along with Franz Hartmann and Henry Klein, purchased the right to perform the Rite of Memphis and Mizraim of Freemasonry from English Freemason John Yarker, the authority of, confirmed in 1904 and again in 1905. Although these rites are considered to be irregular, along with the Swedenborg Rite formed the core of the newly established Order. Kellner, Reuss and Klein acquired authority to operate the rites of the Martinist Order from French Occultist Gérard Encausse and a clandestine form of the Scottish Rite deriving from Joseph Cerneau.
From William Wynn Westcott, Reuss acquired a warrant to start a College of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia in Germany. In 1902, Reuss began publishing a masonic journal, The Oriflamme, as the organ of these collected rites. Reuss’s rites aroused some degree of curiosity in the German-speaking Masonic milieu, as high degree Freemasonry had not been widespread in Germany during the 1800s; the O. T. O. had several hundred members and affiliates at its peak, but by 1905 and after Kellner's death, Reuss began to lose his supporters. He was attacked in Masonic periodicals for his alleged lack of Masonic regularity and credentials, for the alleged homosexual elements in Reuss's initiations. Reuss left Germany and moved to London in 1906, lost control of most of the lodges belonging to the O. T. O. Network. In 1908, Encausse invited to Reuss to an "International Masonic Conference", where he met Joanny Bricaud and was introduced to his Gnostic Catholic Church, an off-shoot of Jules Doinel's Église Gnostique.
O. T. O. documents would present the Order being linked to the E. G. C, subsequently portray the E. G. C. of O. T. O. as being autonomous with respect to Bricaud's organization. The sex magic of the higher O. T. O. degrees appears to be based on the writings of the American Occultist Paschal Beverly Randolph, which were adopted by the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, another group which Kellner had been in contact and whose teachings O. T. O. claimed to incorporate. Scholar Marco Pasi notes, that there is no evidence in support of this, suggests that Reuss acquired sexual ideas and techniques from Yarker, who had in his possession certain unpublished writings by Randolph. Reuss met Aleister Crowley and in 1910 admitted him to the first three degrees of O. T. O. Only two years Crowley was placed in charge of Great Britain and Ireland, was advanced to the X°; the appointment included the opening of the British section of O. T. O., called the Mysteria Mystica Maxima or the M∴M∴M∴. Crowley went to Berlin to obtain instructional manuscripts and the title of Supreme and Holy King of Ireland and all the Britains within the Sanctuary of the Gnosis.
Within the year, Crowley had written the Manifesto of the M∴M∴M∴ which described its basic ten-degree system with Kellner’s three degree Academia Masonica forming the seventh and ninth degrees. In 1913, Crowley composed the Gnostic Mass while in Moscow, which he described as being the Order’s "central ceremony of its public and private celebration". In 1914, soon after World War I broke out, he moved to the United States, it was around this time that Crowley decided to integrate Thelema into the O. T. O. System, in 1915 prepared revised rituals for use in the M∴M∴M∴. In 1917, Reuss wrote a Synopsis of Degrees of O. T. O. in which the third degree was listed as "Craft of Masonry" and listed the initiations involved as "Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason" and elaborated on this with "Full instruction in Craft Masonry, including the Catechism of the first three degrees, an explanation of all the various Masonic systems". The same document shows that the fourth degree of O. T. O. is known as the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch.
It was summarized by Reuss as the Degree of "Scotch Masonry," equiva