The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539, in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used by French courts. The work of Chancellor Guillaume Poyet, the legislative edict had 192 articles and dealt with a number of government and ecclesiastical matters. Articles 110 and 111, the most famous, the oldest still in use in the French legislation, called for the use of French in all legal acts, notarized contracts and official legislation to avoid any linguistic confusion: CX. Que les arrestz soient clers & entendibles. Et affin quil ny ait cause de doubter sur lintelligence desdictz arrestz. Nous voulons & ordonons quilz soient faictz & escriptz si clairement quil ny ait ne puisse auoir aulcune ambiguite ou incertitude ne lieu a en demander interpretation. 110. That decrees be understandable, and in order that there may be no cause for doubt over the meaning of the said decrees.
We will and order that they be composed and written so that there be not nor can be any ambiguity or uncertainty, nor grounds for requiring interpretation thereof. CXI. De prononcer & expedier tous actes en langage francoys. Et pource que telles choses sont souuentesfoys aduenues sur lintelligence des motz latins contenuz esdictz arrestz. Nous voulons que doresenavant tous arrestz ensemble toutes autres procedeures soyent de noz cours souueraines ou autres subalternes et inferieures, soyent de registres, contractz, sentences, testamens et autres quelzconques actes et exploictz de justice, ou qui en dependent, soyent prononcez, enregistrez et deliurez aux parties en langage maternel francoys et non autrement. 111. On pronouncing and drawing up all legal documents in the French language, and because so many things hinge on the meaning of Latin words contained in the said documents. We will that from henceforth all decrees together with all other proceedings, whether of our royal courts or others subordinate or inferior, whether records, contracts, awards and all other acts and deeds of justice or dependent thereon be spoken and given to the parties in the French mother tongue and not otherwise.
The major goal of these articles was to discontinue the use of Latin in official documents, but they had an effect on the use of the other languages and dialects spoken in many regions of France. The ordinance was part of a wider legislation regarding the policing of church benefices, to keep vital records registers in the various church local institutions; the ordinance ordered the creation of at least a register of baptisms, needed for determining the age of candidates for ecclesiastical office, as a proof of one's date of birth, a register of burials of churchmen, as a proof of one's date of death. Though both registers were kept by religious authorities, they were authenticated by a public notary, always a layman, were kept in the local royal administration's archives. In fact, as the church kept parish registers since the Middle Ages, these registers were used to meet the ordinance's dispositions; the national registration was laicized in 1792 during the French Revolution by order of the French Republic.
These records are kept at the departmental archives. The civil registration now includes birth, marriage and death records. Another article prohibited guilds and trade federations in an attempt to suppress workers' strikes. Many of these clauses marked a move towards an expanded and centralized state and the clauses on the use of French marked a major step towards the linguistic and ideological unification of France at a time of growing national sentiment and identity. Despite the effort to bring clarity to the complex systems of justice and administration prevailing in different parts of France and to make them more accessible, Article 111 left uncertainty in failing to define the French mother tongue. Many varieties of French were spoken around the country, to say nothing of sizeable regional minorities like Bretons and Basques whose mother tongue was not French at all, it was not until 1794 that the government decreed French to be the only language of the state for all official business, a situation still in force under Article 2 of the current French Constitution.
Sachsenspiegel, c. 1220, first legal document written in German rather than Latin Pleading in English Act 1362, English law mandating use of English instead of French in oral argument in court Proceedings in Courts of Justice Act 1730, British law mandating use of English instead of Latin in court writing
Ferrum is a census-designated place in Franklin County, United States. The population was 2,043 at the 2010 census, an increase of over fifty percent from the 1,313 reported in 2000. Ferrum is home to its Blue Ridge Folklife Festival, it is part of the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area. Ferrum is located at 36°55′35″N 80°0′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,313 people, 285 households, 169 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 141.9 people per square mile. There were 307 housing units at an average density of 33.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 80.81% White, 16.22% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.69% Asian, 0.91% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.68% of the population. There were 285 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families.
33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.07. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 13.6% under the age of 18, 53.4% from 18 to 24, 17.2% from 25 to 44, 11.2% from 45 to 64, 4.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females there were 122.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 131.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $35,208, the median income for a family was $46,818. Males had a median income of $27,938 versus $22,917 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $12,276. About 4.0% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen or sixty-five or over. Ferrum is home to Ferrum College, a small college of 1,500 students
Jiří Mordechai Langer was a Hebrew poet and essayist, journalist and teacher. Langer attended Czech schools; however in his early years he felt attracted to Judaism and studied Talmud and Kabbalah with his friend from school: Alfred Fuchs. At the age of 19 he decided to leave his family home and went alone to Belz to join the Hasidic court of Yissachar Dov Rokeach, he described this journey and his experience in the Hasidic shtetl in the book Nine Gates to Hasidic Mysteries. At the outbreak of World War I he was drafted to the Austro-Hungarian army, but refused to obey military orders because of his religious beliefs. For refusing to obey orders he was imprisoned in military jail. After being released he came back to the Rokeah's court upon its exile to Hungary during the war years. In this time he deepened his studies of Torah, Talmud and Kabbalah and lived the hasidic life together with the community. With the end of World War I Jiří Langer left the hasidic court and decided to move to Vienna, where he studied at the Hebrew Pedagogic Academy.
This was a time when his philosophy turned into the direction of religious Zionism. He came back to Prague, where he joined the work of Zionist institutions and worked as teacher of Jewish religion in Czech schools; this was a time when he developed his friendship with Franz Kafka and Max Brod. He is remembered today as the first non-Eastern European Jew to write poetry in Hebrew in modern times, as well as for the daring homoerotic strain that runs through his writing, unusual in those days. Recent scholarship has examined Langer's homosexuality, he was the brother of František Langer. Die Erotik der Kabbala Funktion der Jüdischen Türpfostenroll Die Gebetriemen Devĕt bran Talmud: ukázky a dĕjiny Zpĕvy zavržených. Walter Koschmal: Der Dichternomade: Jiří Mordechai Langer, ein tschechisch-jüdischer Autor. Böhlau, Köln 2010, ISBN 978-3-412-20393-1 The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe: Langer, Jiří
The Saint Arnold Brewing Company is a brewery in Houston, Texas, USA, named after a patron saint of brewing, Saint Arnulf of Metz. It was founded in 1994 by graduates of Rice University; the brewery offers tours every weekday & Saturday afternoons, which have attracted a large following. Saint Arnold has won numerous national and international awards including Mid Size Brewery of The Year 2017. Saint Arnold Brewing Company was founded in 1994 and was located on the far northwest side of Houston, it operated out of that location for more than fifteen years. Brock Wagner, a resident of Southgate in Houston and a graduate of Rice University, founded the company and, as of 2003, owns it. In 2008, St. Arnold announced that it planned to move from its northwest Houston facility to a new facility in the Northside district, north of Downtown Houston. By 2009 the company had purchased a three-story 104,000-square-foot square foot brick building, constructed in 1914, which most served as a food service facility for the Houston Independent School District.
The prominent location of the new brewery on the highway was key to its selection. The redevelopment effort was expected to take a year to complete and cost a total of $6 million. Due to unforeseen events, such as the theft of copper pipes from the building, the move was delayed and was not completed until the spring of 2010. A new round of investing to help finance the new brewery gave 100 investors 30% of the company at an average investment of $25,000 each. St. Arnold received a bank loan from the Small Business Administration at a 4.17% interest rate over 20 years. The brewery anticipated brewing over 30,000 barrels in 2010, up from 26,000 barrels at their previous location; the maximum capacity of the new brewery is over 100,000 barrels. In 2018, the company opened a beer garden attached to the brewery with a taproom and gift shop. In 2019, they made a wager against Washington, DC-based DC Brau in which the winner of the World Series receives the loser's signature brews, plus other stuff from the barrel room.
They lost. The brewery relies on brewery tours and e-mail marketing to grow its business, it has an e-mail list of 30,000 people and has run innovative programs like auctioning off naming rights to its brewing vessels on eBay. The brewery offers an uncommon recycling program through which usable bottle carriers may be redeemed for promotional merchandise. 200,000 bottle carriers can be redeemed for the official St. Arnold's 1957 Bentley. Official company website
Hilary du Pré is a British flautist and memoirist best known for her co-authorship of the book A Genius in the Family and contributions to the film Hilary and Jackie, both of which relate the story of her sister, cellist Jacqueline du Pré. Du Pré was married to conductor Christopher "Kiffer" Finzi until the death of Finzi in 2019, they had four children together. Hilary du Pré was born in Hertfordshire, the daughter of Iris Greep and Derek du Pré, she has a sister, Jacqueline. She revealed a natural affinity for music at an early age, but was overshadowed by the talents of her younger sister Jackie, a celebrated cellist whose life and career were cut short by multiple sclerosis. Hilary lived with him in the country with their family. With his wife's consent, Finzi had a romantic affair with his ailing sister-in-law, exhibiting suicidal behaviour as the result of a nervous breakdown. During the 1970s she taught the flute at Downe House School, Cold Ash, Newbury. In her 1997 memoir A Genius in the Family, co-written with her brother Piers, du Pré chronicled the complex relationship, both tortured and loving, which she had with her sister.
She claimed to have agreed to the affair because she wanted Jackie to experience the stable family life the younger woman envied. This version of events has been contradicted by a number of sources, including Hilary's daughter with Christopher, she said that her father had more than one affair and exhibited abusive behaviour towards Jacqueline du Pré while she was in a vulnerable, emotional state. Anand Tucker's controversial 1998 film Hilary and Jackie is based on A Genius in the Family, it features Emily Watson as Rachel Griffiths as Hilary. Although the film was a critical and box-office success, received several Academy Award nominations, it ignited a furore in London, where Jacqueline du Pré lived. A group of her closest colleagues sent a bristling letter to The Times. Clare Finzi, Hilary's daughter, charged that the film was a "gross misinterpretation, which I cannot let go unchallenged." Daniel Barenboim – who has always teetered on the edge of villainy in du Pré-revering quarters—said, "Couldn't they have waited until I was dead?".
Hilary, Jackie's sister and co-author of the book defends both the book and the film, writing, in The Guardian: "At first I could not understand why people didn't believe my story because I had set out to tell the whole truth. When you tell someone the truth about your family, you don't expect them to turn around and say that it's bunkum, but I knew. If I had gone for half-measures, she would have torn it up, she would have wanted the complete story to be told.". The New Yorker reported her as saying, ``, you love the whole of them; those who are against the film want to look only at the pieces of Jackie's life. I don't think. Jackie would have loved it."
Laos is a source country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and labor exploitation as domestics or factory workers in Thailand. Some Lao men and children migrate to neighboring countries in search of better economic opportunities but are subjected to conditions of forced or bonded labor or forced prostitution after arrival; some Lao men who migrate willingly to Thailand are subjected to conditions of involuntary servitude in the Thai fishing and construction industry. To a lesser extent Laos is a country of transit for Vietnamese and Burmese women destined for Thailand. Laos’ potential as a transit country is on the rise with the construction of new highways linking the People’s Republic of China, Vietnam and Cambodia through Laos. Internal trafficking is a problem that affects young women and girls who are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation in urban areas; the Government of Laos does not comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.
The government increased law enforcement efforts to investigate trafficking offenses and prosecute and punish trafficking offenders. It increased collaboration with international organizations and civil society to provide training for government and law enforcement officials, to provide repatriation and reintegration services for victims, to launch public awareness campaigns to combat trafficking. A severe lack of resources remains the biggest impediment to the government’s ability to combat trafficking in persons and it remains dependent on the international donor community to fund anti-trafficking activities. U. S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 3 Watchlist" in 2018; the Lao government demonstrated progress in its anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts and willingness to collaborate with other countries as well as NGOs and international organizations. Laos prohibits all forms of trafficking through Penal Code Article 134, which prescribes penalties that are sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for rape.
In 2007, the Ministry of Public Security used Article 134 to investigate 38 cases of trafficking, resulting in 23 arrests and eight ongoing prosecutions. An additional 20 cases are under investigation. Police corruption, a weak judicial sector and the population’s general lack of understanding of the court system impeded anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts. Through legal aid clinics, the Lao Bar Association assisted victims by educating the public at large on the legal system and by providing legal advice to victims of human rights abuses, including human trafficking. Corruption remained a problem with government officials susceptible to involvement or collusion in trafficking in persons, narcotics and illegal logging. No government or law enforcement officials have been disciplined or punished for involvement in trafficking in persons; the Lao government worked with international organizations and civil society to increase law enforcement capacity through training for police, investigators and customs and border officials.
The Lao government demonstrated progress in improving protection for victims of trafficking during the year. The Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare and Immigration Department cooperated with IOM, UNIAP, a local NGO to provide victim assistance; the MLSW continued operating a small transit center in Vientiane. Victims not wanting to return home are referred to a long-term shelter run by the Lao Women’s Union or to a local NGO. Over the last year, 280 formally identified victims of cross border trafficking were repatriated to Laos from Thailand and an additional 21 were repatriated in 2008. 100 victims are residing in rehabilitation centers in Thailand. The Lao government provided medical services, vocational training, employment services for victims in its transit shelter in Vientiane and at the Lao Women’s Union shelter; the government encouraged victims to participate in investigations and prosecutions of traffickers. As of January 2007, the Lao government stopped requiring exit permits for citizens to travel abroad, which eliminated the potential for penalizing illegal migrants and trafficking victims, through fines, upon their return.
Government instructions against fining, the removal of the legal basis for those fines reduced financial penalties faced by victims. The government provided land to an NGO for a new shelter and transit center for trafficking victims in Savannakhet in 2007 and it continued to provide office space and staff to assist IOM’s programs; the Lao government increased efforts to prevent trafficking in persons with assistance from international organizations and civil society. For example, the MLSW worked with UNICEF to set up awareness-raising billboards near border checkpoints and larger cities. In December 2007, the Lao Youth Union held a day-long event with workshops, puppet shows, plays to address child trafficking; the event was led by the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of National Defense who spoke about the dangers of trafficking. The government completed its national action plan to combat trafficking in July 2007; the Government of Laos demonstrated some efforts to reduce demand for commercial sex acts through periodic raids of nightclubs and discos used as fronts for commercial sex.
In October and November 2007, police shut down bars and entertainment venues used for commercial sexual activities in Luang Prabang. A general increase in tourism in Laos and a concomitant probable rise in child sex tourism in the region have attracted the attention of Lao authorities who seek to prevent child sex tourism from takin