Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Salt Lake Temple
The Salt Lake Temple is a temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints located on Temple Square in Salt Lake City, United States. At 253,015 square feet, it is the largest LDS temple by floor area. Dedicated in 1893, it is the sixth temple completed by the church, requiring 40 years to complete, the fourth temple built since the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1846; the Salt Lake Temple is the centerpiece of the 10-acre Temple Square in Utah. Like other LDS temples, it is considered sacred by the church and its members and a temple recommend is required to enter, so there are no public tours inside the temple as there are for other adjacent buildings on Temple Square. In 1912, the first public photographs of the interior were published in the book The House of the Lord, by James E. Talmage. Since various photographs have been published, including by Life magazine in 1938; the temple grounds are a popular tourist attraction. Due to its location at LDS Church headquarters and its historical significance, the Temple is patronized by Latter-day Saints from many parts of the world.
The Salt Lake Temple is the location of the weekly meetings of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. As such, there are special meeting rooms in the building for these purposes, including the Holy of Holies, which are not present in other temples; the temple includes. It is oriented towards Jerusalem and the large basin used as a baptismal font is mounted on the backs of twelve oxen, as was the Molten Sea in Solomon's Temple. At the east end of the building, the height of the center pinnacle to the base of the angel Moroni is 210 feet, or 120 cubits, making this Temple 20 cubits taller than the Temple of Solomon; the official name of the Salt Lake Temple is unique. In 1999, as the building of LDS temples accelerated, the church announced a formal naming convention for all existing and future temples. For temples located in the United States and Canada, the name of the temple is the city or town in which the temple is located, followed by the name of the applicable state or province.
For temples outside of the U. S. and Canada, the name of the temple is the city name followed by the name of the country. However, for reasons on which the church did not elaborate, the Salt Lake Temple was made an exception to the new guidelines and was not renamed the "Salt Lake City Utah Temple"; the temple is located with several mountain peaks close by. Nearby, a shallow stream, City Creek and flows both to the west and to the south, flowing into the Jordan River. There is a wall around the 10-acre temple site; the surrounding wall became the first permanent structure on. The wall is a uniform 15 feet high but varies in appearance because of the southwest slope of the site; the temple is considered the house of God and is reserved for special ceremonies for practicing Latter-Day Saints. The main ordinance rooms are used during the endowment ceremony—namely the creation, telestial and celestial rooms in that order of use. A washing and anointing ceremony is administered, until 1921, the rooms were used for healing rituals of washing and anointing for the sick or pregnant and were administered by women and men.
The temple serves as a place for marriage sealing ceremonies for live and deceased persons. Additional uses include functioning as a location for baptisms for the dead, baptisms for health, for re-baptism for the renewal of covenants. Other rituals performed in the temple include the second anointing ordinance for live and deceased persons, meeting rooms for church leaders; the location for the temple was first marked by LDS prophet Brigham Young, the second president of the church, on July 28, 1847, just four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley. In 1901 the apostle Anthon H. Lund recorded in his journal that "it is said" that Oliver Cowdery's divining rod was used to locate the temple site; the temple site was dedicated on February 14, 1853 by Heber C. Kimball. Groundbreaking ceremonies were presided over by Young, who laid the cornerstone on April 6 of that year; the architect was Truman O. Angell, the temple features both Gothic and Romanesque elements. Sandstone was used for the foundation.
During the Utah War, the foundation was buried and the lot made to look like a plowed field to prevent unwanted attention from federal troops. After tensions had eased in 1858 and work on the temple resumed, it was discovered that many of the foundation stones had cracked, making them unsuitable for use. Although not all of the sandstone was replaced, the inadequate sandstone was replaced; the walls are quartz monzonite from Little Cottonwood Canyon, located twenty miles southeast of the temple site. Oxen transported the quarried rock but as the Transcontinental Railroad neared completion in 1869 the remaining stones were carried by rail at a much faster rate; the capstone—the granite sphere that holds the statue of the Angel Moroni—was laid on April 6, 1892, by means of an electric motor and switch operated by Wilford Woodruff, the church's fourth president, thus completing work on the temple's exterior. The Angel Moroni statue, standing 12.5 feet tall, was placed on top of the capstone later
The Endowment House was an early building used by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to administer temple ordinances in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. From the construction of the Council House in 1852, Salt Lake City's first public building, until the construction of the Endowment House, the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints used the top floor of the Council House for administering temple ordinances; when this arrangement proved impractical, Brigham Young directed Truman O. Angell, architect of the Salt Lake Temple, to design a temporary temple. Completed in 1855, the building was dedicated by Heber C. Kimball and came to be called the Endowment House after the endowment ceremonies that were conducted inside it; the Endowment House stood on the northwest corner of Temple Square. It was a two-story adobe building, 44 by 34 feet, with a single-story 20-foot extension on its north side. In 1856, another extension was added on a baptistry on its west side. Inside, the Endowment House was the first building designed for administering temple ordinances.
Earlier buildings used for such purposes—such as Joseph Smith’s Red Brick Store in Nauvoo. The Endowment House had the typical ordinance rooms found in some temples: a creation room. In 1856, William Ward painted the walls of the creation room to represent the Garden of Eden, the first such temple mural, it was one of the first buildings in Utah to have indoor bathrooms. The Endowment House was used for performing temple ordinances. From 1857 to 1876 the baptismal font was used to perform 134,053 baptisms for the dead. Between 1855 and 1884 54,170 persons endowments. Between 1855 and 1889 68,767 couples were sealed in marriage—31,052 for the living and 37,715 for the dead. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints did not consider the Endowment House a temple, so they did not perform all temple ordinances in it. Brigham Young explained, “We can, at the present time, go into the Endowment House and be baptized for our dead, receive our washings and anointings, etc.... We have the privilege of sealing women to men without a Temple... but when we come to other sealing ordinances, ordinances pertaining to the holy Priesthood, to connect the chain of the Priesthood from father Adam until now, by sealing children to their parents, being sealed for our forefathers, etc. they cannot be done without a temple”.
Hence, there were no sealing of children nor endowments for the dead performed in the Endowment House. These ordinances were first administered in Utah’s first temple, in St. George, in 1877; the Endowment House was used for other purposes, including prayer circles, settings apart, instructing missionaries before their departure, as well as meetings of the various church leaders, such as the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. The Endowment House became a casualty of the anti-polygamy campaign of the U. S. Federal Government the Edmunds–Tucker Act of 1887, which disincorporated the LDS Church and allowed the federal government to seize all of its assets. In response, church leaders ceased performing new plural marriages. In October 1889, Wilford Woodruff, President of the Church, learned that a plural marriage had been performed the previous spring in the Endowment House without his permission. After discussing the matter with the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, he ordered the building razed without delay.
The Salt Lake Tribune, in its issue dated November 17, 1889, reported that the building was "being demolished". By the end of the month all trace of the Endowment House was gone; some two years Woodruff issued the 1890 Manifesto ending the Mormon practice of polygamy, so associated in the mind of the public with the Endowment House. The Endowment House at Salt Lake City may not have been the only non-temple structure used for administering temple ordinances in Utah. One of these is a building known as the "Endowment House" in Spring City, built by Orson Hyde; the building is still standing at 85 West 300 South. Local records indicate, it is unclear whether it was used to administer temple ordinances. Council House Berrett, Lamar C. "Endowment Houses", in Ludlow, Daniel H, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, p. 456, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140. Brown, Lisle G. "'Temple Pro Tempore': The Salt Lake City Endowment House", Journal of Mormon History, 34: 1–68. Lund, A. William, "The Endowment House", Improvement Era, 39: 213.
Tingen, James D. The Endowment House, 1855-1889, Utah: Brigham Young University, OCLC 367419171. Media related to Endowment House at Wikimedia Commons
Brigham Young was an American religious leader and settler. He was the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Young had many nicknames, among the most popular being "American Moses", like the biblical figure, Young led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, in an exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. Young was dubbed by his followers the "Lion of the Lord" for his bold personality and was commonly called "Brother Brigham" by Latter-day Saints. A polygamist, Young had 55 wives, he instituted a church ban against conferring the priesthood on men of black African descent, led the church during the Utah War against the United States. Young was born to John Young and Abigail "Nabby" Howe, a farming family in Whitingham and worked as a travelling carpenter and blacksmith, among other trades.
Young was first married in 1824 to Miriam Angeline Works. Though he had converted to the Methodist faith in 1823, Young was drawn to Mormonism after reading the Book of Mormon shortly after its publication in 1830, he joined the new church in 1832 and traveled to Upper Canada as a missionary. After his wife died in 1832, Young joined many Mormons in establishing a community in Kirtland, Ohio. Young was ordained a member of the original Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in 1835, he assumed a leadership role within that organization in taking Mormonism to the United Kingdom and organizing the exodus of Latter Day Saints from Missouri in 1838. In 1844, while in jail awaiting trial for treason charges, Joseph Smith, president of the church, was killed by an armed mob. Several claimants to the role of church president emerged during the succession crisis. Before a large meeting convened to discuss the succession in Nauvoo, Sidney Rigdon, the senior surviving member of the church's First Presidency, argued there could be no successor to the deceased prophet and that he should be made the "Protector" of the church.
Young opposed this motion. Smith had earlier recorded a revelation which stated the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was "equal in authority and power" to the First Presidency, so Young claimed that the leadership of the church fell to the Twelve Apostles; the majority in attendance were persuaded that the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles was to lead the church with Young as the Quorum's president. Many of Young's followers would reminisce that while Young spoke to the congregation, he looked or sounded like Smith, which they attributed to the power of God. Young was ordained President of the Church in December 1847, three and a half years after Smith's death. Rigdon became the president of a separate church organization based in Pittsburgh and other potential successors emerged to lead what became other denominations of the movement. Repeated conflict led Young to relocate his group of Latter-day Saints to the Salt Lake Valley, part of Mexico. Young organized the journey that would take the Mormon pioneers to Winter Quarters, Nebraska, in 1846 to the Salt Lake Valley.
By the time Young arrived at the final destination, it had come under American control as a result of war with Mexico, although U. S. sovereignty would not be confirmed until 1848. Young arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847, a date now recognized as Pioneer Day in Utah. Young's expedition was one of one of the best organized westward treks. On August 22, 29 days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Young organized the Mormon Tabernacle Choir. After three years of leading the church as the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Young reorganized a new First Presidency and was declared president of the church on December 27, 1847; as colonizer and founder of Salt Lake City, Young was appointed the territory's first governor and superintendent of American Indian affairs by President Millard Fillmore on February 3, 1851. During his time as prophet, Young directed the establishment of settlements throughout present-day Utah, Arizona, Nevada and parts of southern Colorado and northern Mexico.
Under his direction, the Mormons built roads and bridges, irrigation projects. Young was one of the first to subscribe to Union Pacific stock, for the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Young established Fillmore as the territory's first capital. Young organized a board of regents to establish a university in the Salt Lake Valley, it was established on February 1850, as the University of Deseret. In 1851, Young and several federal officials, including territorial Secretary Broughton Harris, became unable to work cooperatively. Harris and the others departed Utah without replacements being named, these individuals became known as the Runaway Officials of 1851. Young supported slavery and its expansion into Utah, led the efforts to legalize and regulate slavery in the 1852 Act in Relation to Service, based on his beliefs on slavery. In 1856, Young organized an efficient mail service. In 1858, following the events of the Utah War, he stepped down to Alfred Cumming. Young was the longest-serving President of the LDS Church in history.
Nauvoo Illinois Temple
The Nauvoo Illinois Temple is the 113th dedicated temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. It is the third such temple, built in Illinois. Located in the town of Nauvoo, the temple's construction was announced on April 4, 1999, by church president Gordon B. Hinckley. Groundbreaking was conducted on October 24, 1999 and the cornerstones were laid November 5, 2000; the structure itself was built in the Greek Revival architectural style using limestone block quarried in Russellville, Alabama. It is built in the same location as the original structure, dedicated in 1846; the origins of the temple go back to 1937. In that year Wilford C. Wood purchased some of the land on behalf of the LDS Church and purchased another piece of land that he sold to the Church, he organized a group of Latter-day Saints from the Chicago Illinois Stake, co-led by Ariel S. Williams to clear and beautify the purchased land. At the time the Chicago Stake was one of only two east of the Mississippi River. Wood purchased land in 1951 that included a house, made a visitors center for the temple site.
In the late-1950s and in 1962 agents for the LDS Church completed the purchase of the temple lot. The building measures 130 feet long, 90 feet wide, 162 feet tall to the top of the statue of Angel Moroni, it has an area of 54,000 square feet. It is the only temple owned by the LDS Church today that has a bell tower, although the Kirtland Temple has a bell tower. Church leaders and architects worked to replicate the original exterior design of the 19th-century temple, damaged by an arson fire in 1848 and by a tornado on May 27, 1850, it was condemned and demolished by the Nauvoo City Council. Construction materials and furniture were derived from the original design as well, its interior floor plan is noticeably different from that of the old Nauvoo Temple, as is the style of the golden angel at the top of the spire. The completion and official dedication took place on June 27, 2002, on the anniversary of the death of Joseph Smith, the church's founder. Up to 1.5 million visitors a year have visited Nauvoo since the temple opened in 2002.
Notable presidents of the temple include Spencer J. Condie; the Nauvoo Temple was the second temple constructed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints known as the Mormons. The church's first temple was completed in Kirtland, United States in 1836; when the main body of the church was forced out of Nauvoo, Illinois in the winter of 1846, the church attempted to sell the building succeeding in 1848. The building was damaged by a tornado before being demolished. Media related to Nauvoo Illinois Temple at Wikimedia Commons Official Nauvoo Illinois Temple page Nauvoo Illinois Temple at LDSChurchTemples.com Tour of the original Temple
Book of Genesis
The Book of Genesis is the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament. It is divisible into the Primeval history and the Ancestral history; the primeval history sets out the author's concepts of the nature of the deity and of humankind's relationship with its maker: God creates a world, good and fit for mankind, but when man corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, saving only the righteous Noah to reestablish the relationship between man and God. The Ancestral History tells of God's chosen people. At God's command Noah's descendant Abraham journeys from his home into the God-given land of Canaan, where he dwells as a sojourner, as does his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. Jacob's name is changed to Israel, through the agency of his son Joseph, the children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with their households, God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of the Exodus; the narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, successively narrowing in scope from all mankind to a special relationship with one people alone.
In Judaism, the theological importance of Genesis centers on the covenants linking God to his chosen people and the people to the Promised Land. Christianity has interpreted Genesis as the prefiguration of certain cardinal Christian beliefs the need for salvation and the redemptive act of Christ on the Cross as the fulfillment of covenant promises as the Son of God. Tradition credits Moses as the author of Genesis, as well as the books of Exodus, Leviticus and most of Deuteronomy, but modern scholars see them as a product of the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Genesis appears to be structured around the recurring phrase elleh toledot, meaning "these are the generations," with the first use of the phrase referring to the "generations of heaven and earth" and the remainder marking individuals—Noah, the "sons of Noah", etc. down to Jacob. It is not clear, what this meant to the original authors, most modern commentators divide it into two parts based on subject matter, a "primeval history" and a "patriarchal history".
While the first is far shorter than the second, it sets out the basic themes and provides an interpretive key for understanding the entire book. The "primeval history" has a symmetrical structure hinging on chapters 6–9, the flood story, with the events before the flood mirrored by the events after. God consecrates the seventh as a day of rest. God creates the first humans Adam and Eve and all the animals in the Garden of Eden but instructs them not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. A talking serpent portrayed as a deceptive creature or trickster, entices Eve into eating it anyway, she entices Adam, whereupon God throws them out and curses them—Adam to getting what he needs only by sweat and work, Eve to giving birth in pain; this is interpreted by Christians as the fall of humanity. Eve bears two sons and Abel. Cain kills Abel but not Cain's. God curses Cain. Eve bears Seth, to take Abel's place. After many generations of Adam have passed from the lines of Cain and Seth, the world becomes corrupted by human sin and Nephilim, God determines to wipe out humanity.
First, he instructs the righteous Noah and his family to build an ark and put examples of all the animals on it, seven pairs of every clean animal and one pair of every unclean. God sends a great flood to wipe out the rest of the world; when the waters recede, God promises he will never destroy the world with water again, using the rainbow as a symbol of his promise. God sees mankind cooperating to build a great tower city, the Tower of Babel, divides humanity with many languages and sets them apart with confusion. God instructs Abram to travel from his home in Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There, God makes a covenant with Abram, promising that his descendants shall be as numerous as the stars, but that people will suffer oppression in a foreign land for four hundred years, after which they will inherit the land "from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates". Abram's name is changed to Abraham and that of his wife Sarai to Sarah, circumcision of all males is instituted as the sign of the covenant.
Due to her old age, Sarah tells Abraham to take Hagar, as a second wife. Through Hagar, Abraham fathers Ishmael. God resolves to destroy the cities of Gomorrah for the sins of their people. Abraham gets God to agree not to destroy the cities for the sake of ten righteous men. Angels save Abraham's nephew Lot and his family, but his wife looks back on the destruction against their command and turns into a pillar of salt. Lot's daughters, concerned that they are fugitives who will never find husbands, get him drunk to become pregnant by him, give birth to the ancestors of the Moabites and Ammonites. Abraham and Sarah go to the Philistine town of Gerar, pretending to be sister; the King of Gerar takes Sarah for his wife, but God warns him to return her, a