Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency for Great Britain. The agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Since 1 April 2015 Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It was a member of the Public Data Group. Paper maps for walkers represent only 5% of OS' annual revenue, they produce digital map data, online route planning and sharing services and mobile apps, plus many other location-based products for business and consumers. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised.

Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps. These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland.

Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson. The survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library. Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories; this work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured.

In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards; the Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819.

In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey. The survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846; the suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the thir

UEFA–CAF Meridian Cup

The UEFA–CAF Meridian Cup was a football tournament that featured national teams from Europe and Africa among players under 18, was part of the co-operation programme between UEFA and the CAF. The UEFA–CAF Meridian Cup is part of the Meridian Project, a co-operation agreement concluded by the African and European football confederations in Lisbon on 30 January 1997 to promote the exchange of cultures and to offer young footballers a unique learning experience within the framework of a footballing festival, it is held every two years. The competition evolved from its inception in 1997, running as an eight-team tournament until the 2005 event in Turkey after which the format was changed to a two-legged contest between two continental all-star U18 teams; the last UEFA–CAF Meridian Cup involved an educational component consisting of joint training sessions and meetings of coaches from Europe and Africa. The 2007 event took place in Barcelona and was hosted on the premises of FC Barcelona; the regulations for the UEFA–CAF Meridian Cup are drawn up by the UEFA Administration before being submitted to the Youth & Amateur Football Committee.

They are forwarded upon that committee's approval to the UEFA Executive Committee for ratification. UEFA official site CAF official site

Shizuwa Station

Shizuwa Station is a railway station on the Tobu Nikko Line in Tochigi, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Tobu Railway. The station is numbered "TN-09". Shizuwa Station is served by Tobu Nikko Line, is 37.3 km from the starting point of the line at Tōbu-Dōbutsu-Kōen. This station consists of a single island platform serving two tracks, connected to the station building by an underground passageway. Shizuwa Station opened on 1 April 1929; the station was called Tobu-Izumi Station, but the name was changed to its present name on 1 July 1929. From 17 March 2012, station numbering was introduced on all Tobu lines, with Shizuwa Station becoming "TN-09". In fiscal 2011, the station was used by an average of 1,473 passengers daily. Iwafune-Shizuwa Post Office List of railway stations in Japan Shizuwa Station information