Department of Defence (Ireland)
The Department of Defence is the department of the Government of Ireland, responsible for preserving peace and security in Ireland. The department is led by the Minister for Defence, assisted by one Minister of State; the official headquarters of department are at Station Road, County Kildare. The departmental team consists of the following: Minister for Defence: Leo Varadkar, TD Minister of State at the Department of Defence: Paul Kehoe, TD Secretary General of the Department: Maurice Quinn The Department of Defence was created at the first meeting of Dáil Éireann on 21 January 1919. Over the years the role of the Department has remained the same; the Department has been known as the Department of Defence since 1919, however on some occasions it has been coupled with the Marine portfolio. The mission of the Department of Defence is to meet the needs of Government and the public by providing value for money defence and civil defence services and by co-ordinating and overseeing the emergency planning process via the Office of Emergency Planning.
The Department is concerned with ensuring the secure and stable environment necessary for economic growth and development in Ireland. The military budget was €1.005 Billion in 2007 and €1.354 Billion in 2010. By 2015 the budget had been cut to €885 Million and is projected to stay at that level until 2017 according to the latest Department of Finance report; the Department oversees the operations of the Irish Defence Forces whose roles are: to defend the State against armed aggression. When not engaged in military operations at home or overseas, most defence organisations concentrate on training and preparation and not on the provision of non-military services; the Defence Forces have achieved high levels of training and preparation in recent years while providing a wide range of services to other Government Departments and agencies. The Defence Forces Training Centre at the Curragh Camp is staffed by 1,300 soldiers and 300 civilians. Records are maintained by the Irish Military Archives. Department of Defence
Tuam. It is situated west of the midlands of Ireland 35 km north of Galway city. Human existence in the area dates to the Bronze Age while the historic period dates from the 6th century; the town became important in the 11th and 12th centuries in political and religious aspects of Ireland. The market-based layout of the town and square indicates the importance of commerce; the record of human settlement in Tuam dates back to the Bronze Age when an area adjacent to Shop Street was used as a burial ground. The name Tuam is a cognate with the Latin term tumulus; the town's ancient name was Tuaim Dá Ghualann. The name refers to the high ground on either side of the River Nanny, overlooking a probable fording point over the River Nanny. In 1875, a Bronze Age burial urn was discovered in the area by workmen, dating from c.1500 B. C. An early glass photograph still exists; the history of Tuam as a settlement dates from the early sixth century. Legend states that a monk called Iarlaithe mac Loga, a member of a religious community at Cloonfush some 6 km west of Tuam and adjacent to the religious settlement at Kilbannon.
Iarlaithe's life became uncertain. Iarlaithe's abbot, Benignus of Armagh told him to "Go, where your chariot wheel breaks, there shall be the site of your new monastery and the place of your resurrection". Iarlaithe's wheel broke at Tuam and he established a monastery there, known as the School of Tuam; as was typical with early settlements in Ireland, religious sites became established first and towns grew around them. Tuam grew up around the monastery and has kept the broken chariot wheel as its heraldic symbol. In 1049, when Aedh O'Connor defeated Amalgaid ua Flaithbertaigh, King of Iar Connacht, the O'Connor kings became kings of Connacht. O'Connor built a castle at Tuam and made it his principal stronghold; this event was directly responsible for the subsequent rise in the importance of the town. Its position dominated the Iar Connacht heartland of Maigh Seóla. In the twelfth century, the town became the centre of Provincial power during the fifty-year reign of Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, he brought Tuam its most prominent status as seat of the High King of Ireland which he achieved by force of arms during his long career.
At the Synod of Kells in 1152, the centre of government became the ecclesiastical centre, as Tuam was erected into an Archbishopric, with Áed Ua hOissín as the first Archbishop. Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair, as High King of Ireland from 1128–1156, was a great patron of the Irish Church and it was due to his patronage that Tuam became the home of some masterpieces of 12th century Celtic art, including the Cross of Cong. Tairrdelbach was succeeded by his son Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, the last native High King of Ireland. In 1164, Ruaidrí had a "wonderful castle" erected, with a large courtyard defended by lofty and massive walls and a deep moat into which the adjacent river was diverted through; this was the first Irish built stone castle. A small part of the castle still stands. Following the destruction of the first Cathedral in 1184, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair left Tuam and retired to Cong Abbey, where he entrusted the Church valuables from the Cathedral at Tuam into the care of the abbot; this left Tuam as a small settlement and it wasn't until the early 17th century that it began to grow in importance again.
Throughout history, Tuam has been an important commercial centre with fairs and markets being an important part of commerce in the region. One of its fairs dates to 1252 when Letters Patent were granted to Archbishop MacFlynn by Henry III of England. Other fairs were authorised by Charters granted by James VI and I and George III of the United Kingdom. In July 1920, the town hall and other properties were burned down by armed Royal Irish Constabulary men, after two had been killed in an ambush by the Irish Republican Army near the town the day before. On 30 March 1613, Tuam received a royal charter from James VI and I, which enabled the Tuam Parliamentary constituency to send two representatives to Irish House of Commons until its abolition in 1800; the town was laid out as a market town to its present plan with all the streets converging on the central square. The charter established a formal local council with an elected sovereign and 12 burgesses; the sovereign was sworn into office at the site of the "Chair of Tuam", believed to be situated within the remaining tower of Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair's castle.
A monumental "Chair of Tuam" was unveiled in May 1980 by the late Cardinal Tomás O'Fiaich. The High Cross of Tuam was erected in 1152 to commemorate the appointment of the first Archbishop of Tuam, Archbishop Áed Ua hOissín. An inscription at the base calls for "A prayer for O'hOisín, it is reputed to have been the tallest of the High Crosses of Ireland, but its artistry is scarred by the absence of the top portion of the main shaft. The sandstone Cross was erected in proximity to the earliest Cathedral erected in the town, a part of which still remains and is incorporated into St Mary's Cathedral; the original High Cross or Market cross may have been erected close to what is now the Market Square and High Street. When the first Cathedral collapsed after being destroyed by fire in 1184, the High Cross was dismantled into pieces, each under different ownership; the archaeologist George Petrie discovered the base of the High Cross c. 1820 and discovered two other pieces in
Gratis versus libre
The English adjective free is used in one of two meanings: "for free" and "with little or no restriction". This ambiguity of free can cause issues where the distinction is important, as it is in dealing with laws concerning the use of information, such as copyright and patents; the terms gratis and libre may be used to categorise intellectual property computer programs, according to the licenses and legal restrictions that cover them, in the free software and open source communities, as well as the broader free culture movement. For example, they are used to distinguish freeware from free software. Richard Stallman summarised the difference in a slogan: "Think free as in free speech, not free beer." Gratis in English is adopted from the various Romance and Germanic languages descending from the plural ablative and dative form of the first-declension noun grātia in Latin. It means "free" in the sense that some good or service is supplied without need for payment though it may have value. Libre in English is adopted from the various Romance languages descending from the Latin word līber.
It denotes "the state of being free", as in "liberty" or "having freedom". The Oxford English Dictionary considers libre to be obsolete, but the word has come back into limited use. Unlike gratis, libre appears in few English dictionaries, although there is no other English single-word adjective signifying "liberty" without meaning "at no monetary cost". In software development, where the cost of mass production is small, it is common for developers to make software available at no cost. One of the early and basic forms of this model is called freeware. With freeware, software is licensed for regular use: the developer does not gain any monetary compensation. With the advent of the free software movement, license schemes were created to give developers more freedom in terms of code sharing called open source or free and open-source software; as the English adjective free does not distinguish between "for free" and "liberty", the phrases "free as in freedom of speech" and "free as in free beer" were adopted.
Many in the free software movement feel about the freedom to use the software, make modifications, etc. whether or not this usable software is to be exchanged for money. Therefore, this distinction became important. "Free software" means software that respects users' community. It means that the users have the freedom to run, distribute, study and improve the software. Thus, "free software" is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of "free" as in "free speech," not as in "free beer". We sometimes call it "libre software," borrowing the French or Spanish word for "free" as in freedom, to show we do not mean the software is gratis; these phrases have become common, along with gratis and libre, in the software development and computer law fields for encapsulating this distinction. The distinction is similar to the distinction made in political science between positive liberty and negative liberty. Like "free beer", positive liberty promises equal access by all without cost or regard to income, of a given good.
Like "free speech", negative liberty safeguards the right to use of something without regard to whether in each case there is a cost involved for this use. In order to reflect real-world differences in the degree of open access, the distinction between gratis open access and libre open access was added in 2006 by two of the co-drafters of the original Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access publishing. Gratis open access refers to online access free of charge, libre open access refers to online access free of charge plus some additional re-use rights. Libre open access is equivalent to the definition of open access in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities; the re-use rights of libre OA are specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses. The original gratis/libre distinction concerns software, with which users can do two kinds of things: 1.
Access and use it. Modify and re-use it. "Gratis" pertains to being able to access and use the code, without a price-barrier, while "libre" pertains to being allowed to modify and re-use the code, without a permission barrier. The target content of the open access movement, however, is not software but published, peer-reviewed research journal article texts.1. Source code use. For published research articles, the case for making their text accessible free for all online is stronger than it is for software code, because in the case of software, some developers may wish to give their code away for free, while others may wish to sell it, whereas in the case of published research article texts, all their authors, without exception, give them away for free: None seek or get royalties or fees from their sale. On the contrary, any access-denial to potential users means loss of potential research impact for the author's research—and researcher-authors' employment, salary and funding depends in part on the uptake and impact of their research.
2. Source code modifiability and re-use. For
An Post is the state-owned provider of postal services in the Republic of Ireland. An Post provides a "universal postal service" to all parts of the country as a member of the Universal Postal Union. Services provided include, letter post, parcel service, deposit accounts,'Express Post', an all-Ireland next-day delivery service, EMS, the international express-mail service. An Post, the Irish postal administration, came into being in 1984 when, under the terms of the Postal & Telecommunications Services Act of 1983, the Post Office services of the Department of Posts and Telegraphs were divided between An Post and Telecom Éireann, the telecommunications operator now called Eir. At its inception, during the early years of the Irish Free State, the Department of Posts and Telegraphs was the country's largest department of state, its employees constituted the largest sector of the civil service. Prior to this the Post Office in Ireland had been under the control of various Postmasters General and British, with the appointment of Evan Vaughan as postmaster in Dublin in 1638 accepted as the date for the establishment of a semi-formal postal system in Ireland.
Oliver Cromwell's postal Act of 1657 created a combined General Post Office for the three kingdoms of Ireland and England and the position was affirmed by Charles II and his parliament by the Post Office Act of 1660. Today An Post remains one of Ireland's largest employers but it has undergone considerable downsizing. In 2014, all parts of An Post made a profit for the first time in 8 years; as of 2018 there were 1,100 An Post offices and over 100 postal agents across the Republic of Ireland. The Irish government announced the introduction of a postcode system, Eircode, in Ireland from 2008 though An Post was against the system, saying it is unnecessary; the introduction of the postcode system took place on 13 July 2015, after a decade of delays. All parcel post arriving in Ireland passes through An Post's mail centre in Port Laoise, where customs officials are on duty to inspect it. An Post is involved in a number of joint venture operations and has several subsidiaries, it has complete ownership of some of these, while it is part-owner of others, such as the An Post National Lottery Company and the Prize Bond Company Limited.
An Post held the licence granted by the Minister for Finance to run the National Lottery through its subsidiary, An Post National Lottery Company until February 2014. All employees of An Post National Lottery Company were seconded from An Post, as such were employed and paid by An Post rather than by the subsidiary. Since 2014, the National Lottery has been operated by Premier Lotteries Ireland, in which An Post is a stakeholder. In 2003, An Post set up a new division to run its post office and transaction services business, entitled An Post Transaction Services or PostTS, it rebranded its post offices network as "Post Office" or "Oifig an Phoist" with a new, white-and-red logo, introduced banking services in conjunction with Allied Irish Banks. It introduced a service whereby newsagents could provide some Post Office services, entitled PostPoint. In 2005 PostTS sold its foreign operations; the rebranding effort was reversed due to criticism, with the traditional An Post logo restored to Post Offices.
The original PostTS shop front design which featured predominantly English branding "PostOffice" with the location in English, has been replaced with the Irish language "OifiganPhoist", with the location in both Irish and English. Between 2005 and 2006, An Post sold its interest in the Post TS UK and An Post Transaction Services businesses to Alphyra, for a reported €59.3m. Jointly established by An Post and Ordnance Survey Ireland, Geodirectory is a service that provides a database of buildings and addresses in the Republic of Ireland, as well as their geolocation details, it holds records for 2.2 million properties. GeoDirectory assigns each property its own individual "fingerprint" – a unique, verified address in a standardised format, together with a geocode which identifies every property in the country. Geodirectory operates an award-winning mobile app called GeoFindIT. On 5 October 2006 An Post signed an agreement for the creation of a joint venture with Fortis to provide financial services through the Post Office network.
This joint venture with BNP Paribas was created to offer financial products and services to the Irish market, including daily banking, savings products, insurance and credit cards. PostPoint and the company's insurance business, One Direct, was to become part of the new company, with access to the Post Office network. In April 2007 a press launch was held for the new bank, to be known as Postbank. By February 2010, the closure of the Postbank unit had been announced, the operation was wound down by the end of December 2010; some counter business for AIB and Ulster Bank can be conducted at post offices and all counter business for Danske Bank must be as that bank does not operate its own branches. Between 1982 and 2004 the company operated a postbus route linking Ennis with parts of County Clare. Television licensing is administered by An Post, it is responsible for the collection of revenue and prosecution in cases of non-payment of the licence on behalf of the state. In 2009 An Post sponsored a postcard project, called "C Both Sides", which ran for a year, with the public being invited to cre
Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route
George Petrie (artist)
George Petrie, was an Irish painter, musician and archaeologist of the Victorian era. George Petrie was born in Dublin and grew up there, living at 21 Great Charles Street, just off Mountjoy Square, he was the son of the portrait and miniature painter James Petrie, a native of Aberdeen, who had settled in Dublin. He was interested in art from an early age, he was sent to the Dublin Society's Schools, being educated as an artist, where he won the silver medal in 1805, aged fourteen. After an abortive trip to England in the company of Francis Danby and James Arthur O'Connor, both of whom were close friends of his, he returned to Ireland where he worked producing sketches for engravings for travel books – including among others, George Newenham Wright's guides to Killarney and Dublin, Thomas Cromwell's Excursions through Ireland, James Norris Brewer's Beauties of Ireland. In the late 1820s and 1830s, Petrie revitalised the Royal Irish Academy's antiquities committee, he was responsible for their acquisition of many important Irish manuscripts, including an autograph copy of the Annals of the Four Masters, as well as examples of insular metalwork, including the Cross of Cong.
His writings on early Irish archaeology and architecture were of great significance his essay on the Round Towers of Ireland, which appeared in his 1845 book titled The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland. He is called "the father of Irish archaeology", his survey of the tombs at Carrowmore still informs study of the site today. From 1833 to 1843 he was employed by Thomas Colby and Thomas Larcom as head of the Topographical Department of the Irish Ordnance Survey. Amongst his staff were John O'Donovan, one of Ireland's greatest scholars, Eugene O'Curry. A prizewinning essay submitted to the Royal Irish Academy in 1834 on Irish military architecture was never published, but his seminal essay On the History and Antiquities of Tara Hill was published by the Academy in 1839. During this period Petrie was himself the editor of two popular antiquarian magazines, the Dublin Penny Journal and the Irish Penny Journal. Another major contribution of Petrie's to Irish culture was the collection of Irish traditional airs and melodies which he published in 1855 as The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland.
The first commercial recording of Petrie's collection was The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland arranged and performed by Irish pianist J. J. Sheridan. William Stokes's contemporary biography includes detailed accounts of Petrie's working methods in his collecting of traditional music: "The song having been given, O'Curry wrote the Irish words, when Petrie's work began; the singer recommenced, stopping at a signal from him at every two or three bars of the melody to permit the writing of the notes, repeating the passage until it was taken down...". As an artist, his favourite medium was watercolour which, due to the prejudices of the age, was considered inferior to oil painting. Nonetheless, he can be considered as one of the finest Irish Romantic painters of his era; some of his best work is in the collections of the National Gallery of Ireland, such as his watercolour painting Gougane Barra Lake with the Hermitage of St. Finbarr, Co. Cork, he was awarded the Royal Irish Academy's prestigious Cunningham Medal three times: firstly in 1831 for his essay on the round towers, secondly in 1834 for the essay on Irish military architecture, thirdly in 1839 for his essay on the antiquities of Tara Hill.
List of Irish music collectors Dublin University Magazine 1839 Free scores by George Petrie at the International Music Score Library Project
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army