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The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in Great Britain before the Roman invasion. Their tribal lands were located in present-day North Wales and England between the Silures to the south and the Deceangli to the north-east; the Ordovices were conquered by the Roman governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola in the campaign of AD 77–78. The Celtic name *ordo-wik- could be cognate with the words for "hammer": Irish'Ord', Welsh'Gordd' and Breton'Horzh'; the Ordovices farmed and kept sheep, built fortified strongholds and hill forts. They were among the few British tribes; the resistance was organised by the Celtic leader Caratacus, exiled in their lands after the defeat of his tribe in the Battle of the Medway. Caratacus became the warlord of the Ordovices and neighbouring Silures, a Roman public enemy in the 50s AD. Following the Battle of Caer Caradoc, where governor Publius Ostorius Scapula defeated Caratacus, the Ordovices were no longer a threat to Rome due to heavy losses. In the 70s, the Ordovices destroyed a cavalry squadron.

This act of war provoked an strong response from Agricola, according to Tacitus, exterminated the whole tribe. No other mention of the tribe appears in the historical records, but in view of the mountainous terrain of the lands of the Ordovices, it is questionable whether Agricola could have wiped out the entire population; the name of this tribe appears to be preserved in the place name Dinorwig in North Wales. The Ordovician geological period was first described by Charles Lapworth in 1879, based on rocks located in the lands of the Ordovices. List of Celtic tribes Prehistoric Wales Ordovices at Ordovices at Romans in Britain

Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School

Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School is the oldest nonsectarian private school in the United States, located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, in New York City, New York. It was founded in 1764 by what is now Columbia University in order to properly prepare incoming freshmen in the fields of English and Latin grammar. By 1865, the school had grown and was no longer connected to the university; the school was known as The Grammar School of King's College. The school changed its name concurrently with the university during the American Revolution to Columbia Grammar School, added the word "preparatory" in 1969. While "grammar" and "preparatory" have differing connotations, the entire school is known by its full name; the school has existed in several locations over the centuries. In 1907, the school moved to its current location off Central Park West, it consisted of one building, expanded by adding five brownstones through the merger of the adjacent Leonard School for Girls in 1956. A building across the street was built in 1984, followed by two more in 1997 and 2001.

An administration building was added to the school in 2009. In the past 20 years, the size of the graduating class has more than doubled from 45 to 125. Columbia Grammar School was founded in 1764, just ten years after the founding of King's College. Established as a boys' preparatory school for the college, it functioned for one hundred years under the direct auspices of the college. One of the most illustrious headmasters during that period was Dr. Charles Anthon, one of America's earliest and most distinguished classical scholars. During his tenure the Grammar School provided over half the students to Columbia College's freshman class. In 1864, when Dr. Anthon retired as headmaster, the trustees of Columbia College terminated their relationship with the Grammar School and the school became a proprietary institution, only achieving its nonprofit status in 1941. In 1937, the Leonard School for Girls was founded, using several interconnected brownstones on West 94th Street; the school joined with the Grammar School in 1956 to become a coed institution.

As the 13th headmaster in the school's long history, Dr. Richard J. Soghoian guided the physical expansion of the school from its 1906 home at 5 West 93rd Street to the present complex, which totals 215,000 square feet with 14 buildings between 92nd and 94th streets. In 2017, Dr. Richard Soghoian, who held the position of headmaster since 1981 retired; as of the 2017 school year, the new headmaster is Dr. William Donohue. Dr. Stanley Seidman was the Grammar School director until his retirement in 2010. Joanie Dean is the current Prep School director; the school offers a college preparatory curriculum. Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School is a independent, non-sectarian school governed by a board of trustees composed of alumni and parents; the school is accredited by the New York State Association of Independent Schools, the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, the New York State Board of Regents. The school is a member of the Independent School Admissions Association of New York.

The school began its expansion in 1984 with the construction of a new Preparatory School at 4 West 93rd, containing a full-sized gymnasium, three science labs, state-of-the art computer lab, three music studios, nine classrooms. Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School expanded its physical plant after 1985. Three new buildings and a renovated brownstone have, together with the existing buildings, added academic facilities as well as two new theaters, several computer labs, a variety of art studios and space for a growing music program; the Grammar School is located in a series of five interconnecting brownstones on 94th Street just off Central Park, the 1905 Columbia Grammar School building at 5 West 93rd Street. In addition to classrooms, these house two libraries, two art studios, a gymnasium, swimming pool, two music studios, a science lab, a computer lab, the Grammar School cafeteria. In 1996, 36 West 93rd Street was completed, adding 42,500 square feet of space to the physical plant; this building, which goes through from 93rd to 92nd Street, has two computer labs, five art studios, science labs, classrooms for grades 5 and 6, a equipped theater, a large cafeteria.

In September 2001 a major addition was added onto the high school containing yet another full-sized gym, a state-of-the-art theater, three floors of classrooms and science labs. Five new classrooms were added. Since many brownstones have been added, one for offices, one building dedicated to the arts. A walkway has been built behind the multiple brownstones to make them easier to navigate. In 2009, CGPS purchased several new brownstones, one for the kindergarten, another for a science building, one for administrative offices; the Prep School added a new level to its library. The new CGPS Middle School opened its doors to students in grades 5, 6 and 7 on Thursday, September 8, 2016. Two floors were added to the existing 36 West 93rd Street building to create a 6th and 7th floor for these grades, while the remainder of the building has been renovated; the ground floor now features an expansive dance studio. New art studios as well as a new

Playing the Field

Playing the Field is a BBC television drama series following the lives of the Castlefield Blues, a fictitious female football team from South Yorkshire. Inspired by Pete Davies’s novel I Lost My Heart To The Belles —, written about a real-life club, the Doncaster Belles — Playing the Field ran for five series, from 1998–2002, with scripts by, amongst others, Kay Mellor, Sally Wainwright and Gaynor Faye. Despite being set in South Yorkshire, much of the location filming took place in Ilkeston, although the fifth series was filmed around Leeds. A young Marsha Thomason — who has since appeared in U. S. shows Las Lost -- featured in the first three series of Playing the Field. The first four series have been released on DVD in the UK, but the fifth has yet to be made available. Lorraine Ashbourne … Geraldine Powell Melanie Hill … Rita Dolan Jo McInnes … Jo Mullen Lesley Sharp … Theresa Mullen Marsha Thomason … Sharon'Shazza' Pearce Saira Todd … Gabrielle'Gabby' Holmes Debra Stephenson … Diane Powell Tracy Whitwell … Angie Gill Emma Rydall … Mikey Olivia Caffrey … Kate Howard Gaynor Faye … Holly Quinn Claudie Blakley … Kelly Powell James NesbittJames Dolan Tim DantayDave Powell Nicholas GleavesRick Powell Ralph Ineson … Luke Mullen Chris WalkerMatthew Mullen John ThomsonEddie Ryan James Thornton … Scott Lee Ross … Ryan Pratt James Ellis … Mr. Mullen Brigit Forsyth … Francine Pratt Elizabeth Spriggs … Mrs. Mullen Ricky TomlinsonJim Pratt Jason O'Mara … Lee Quinn Tom Moore … Martin Dolan Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 The first four series of Playing the Field have been made available via Universal Playback.

Playing the Field: Series 1 & 2 - 23 October 2000 Playing the Field: Series 3 & 4 - 23 October 2000 Playing the Field: Series 1 & 2 - 29 January 2007 Playing the Field: Series 3 & 4 - 23 April 2007 Series 5, broadcast in 2002 has not received a VHS release, nor has it been released on DVD. Playing the Field on IMDb


Shumshu is the second-northernmost island of the Kuril Islands chain, which divides the Sea of Okhotsk from the northwest Pacific Ocean. The name of the island is derived from the Ainu language, meaning "good island", it is separated from Paramushir by the narrow Second Kuril Strait in the northeast 2.5 kilometres, its northern tip is 11 kilometres, from Cape Lopatka at the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The island has a seasonal population of around 100 inhabitants. Shumshu is the least elevated in the entire Kuril group with a height of 189 metres; the terrain marshland. Shumshu is oval, has an area of 388 square kilometres. Ozero Utinoye Ozero Dogovoye Ozero Kuzminovskoye Ozero Bol'shoye Bukhta Shumnaya Bukhta Sakulina Bukhta Inozemtseva Bukhta Mayachnaya Nakagawa-wan Katoka-wan Shumshu was inhabited by the Ainu, who subsisted off of the abundant fish, marine mammals and birdlife in the area, at the time of European contact; the island appears on an official map showing the territories of Matsumae Domain, a feudal domain of Edo-period Japan dated 1644.

Due to its proximity to the Kamchatka Peninsula, Shumshu became the first of the Kurils to be reached by Cossacks from the peninsula in the first years of the 18th century. Russian fur traders are known to have visited the island in 1711 and 1713, it was from this base that Russian fur hunters and traders expanded into other islands of the chain and Sakhalin. Although the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan confirmed the Matsumae Domain’s claims to the island, the island remained outside of de facto Japanese control. Claimed by the Empire of Russia, sovereignty over the island was confirmed to be under Russia under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1855. In 1875, sovereignty over the Kuril Islands, including Shumshu, was transferred to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg. A number of Japanese colonizing expeditions followed, establishing the settlement of Kataoka as the commercial center of Shumshu; as the island closest to Russia, it became an important Japanese military outpost, as well as a center for the commercial fishing industry.

The island was administered as part of the Shumushu District of Nemuro Subprefecture of Hokkaidō. In 1910, a cannery was established, the island’s civilian population exceeded 2,000 by the early 1940s. Towards the end of World War II the island was garrisoned by both the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy. A garrison of over 24,500 men reinforced by sixty tanks was garrisoned on Shumshu in nine locations centered around Kataoka. All coastal areas suitable for enemy amphibious landings were covered with permanent emplacements and bunkers, interconnected with underground passages and trenches. All the warehouses, power stations, hospitals were up to 50 metres underground; these defenses were manned with the IJA 73rd Infantry Brigade. Miyoshino Airfield was a joint IJA-IJN airfield, located near the center of the island, it hosted several aviation units operating various aircraft including IJN Nakajima B5N2 and Mitsubishi G3M and IJA Nakajima Ki-44 and Nakajima Ki-43 aircraft. Kataoka Naval Base was under the command of the IJN′s 5th Fleet and had three 60-foot oil storage tanks as well as barracks and supply buildings.

The base had a seaplane facility in the harbor, neighboring Imaizaki Airfield had a 4,000-foot and a 5,000-foot runway. These facilities were subject to sporadic air raids by United States Army Air Forces and United States Navy forces based in the Aleutian Islands from 1943 until the Japanese Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender of Japan on 15 August 1945; the Soviet Union continued combat operations against Japan until early September 1945. During the Invasion of the Kuril Islands, Soviet forces landed on Shumshu on 18 August 1945, beginning the Battle of Shumshu, one of the last battles of World War II. Combat operations continued through 23 August 1945, ending with the surrender of the surviving members of the Japanese garrison; the Soviets sent the Japanese prisoners of war, including most Japanese male civilians, to labor camps and forcibly deported the remaining Japanese civilian inhabitants. The Soviets renamed Kataoka Baikovo, the Soviet Union annexed the island in 1946, including it in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic.

Japan formally gave up sovereignty over the island under the terms of the San Francisco Peace Treaty of 1951. The island remained a part of Russia after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union and is now administered as part of the Sakhalin Oblast of the Russian Federation. List of islands of Russia Gorshkov, G. S. Volcanism and the Upper Mantle Investigations in the Kurile Island Arc. Monographs in geoscience. New York: Plenum Press, 1970. ISBN 0-306-30407-4 Krasheninnikov, Stepan Petrovich, James Greive; the History of Kamtschatka and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963. Rees, David; the Soviet Seizure of the Kuriles. New York: Praeger, 1985. ISBN 0-03-002552-4 Takahashi and Masahiro Ōhara. Biodiversity and Biogeography of the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin. Bulletin of the Hokkaido University Museum, no. 2-. Sapporo, Japan: Hokkaido University Museum, 2004. Shumshu Island — Oceandots. At the Wayback Machine Pictures

Jesús Marcelo de los Santos

Jesús Marcelo de los Santos Fraga is a Mexican politician, member of the PAN party, Governor of the state of San Luis Potosí. Marcelo de los Santos studied public accounting at Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, has spent most of his life practising his profession in a variety of organizations, he was questioned regarding his involvement in the 1999 bankruptcy of the credit union "UNICRER", where his competence was scrutinized. He was a soccer player and a lecturer at UASLP. In 1997 he joined the PAN and was a candidate for governor of San Luis Potosí, losing by a single percentage point, he was municipal president of the capital named San Luis Potosí, from 2000 to 2003. In 2003 he ran for governor again, this time he won the election; as governor, the state of San Luis Potosi became more industrialized and this can be seen with many new plants like the GM San Luis Potosí Assembly. He built the new Centro de Convenciones, one of the biggest in Mexico; the Museo Laberinto de las Ciencias y de las Artes, an interactive museum for children and teens, was built during his governorship.

During his period as governor President Felipe Calderon declared war on drugs. Despite increasing violence in most parts of Mexico during the years 2006-2009 the state of San Luis Potosi remained one of the safest states in Mexico and one of the least affected by drug violence, his term ended in 2009 and Fernando Toranzo Fernandez became governor of San Luis Potosi. San Luis Potosí List of Mexican governors List of presidents of San Luis Potosí Municipality

Nadine Ernsting-Krienke

Nadine Ernsting-Krienke is a field hockey striker from Germany, who won the gold medal with the women's national team at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. She is one of the most decorated field hockey players in Germany, having played in four consecutive Summer Olympic Games, starting in 1992, she retired from international play in 2009, after having represented Germany 360 times, scoring 137 goals. Since 1989 she has been playing for Eintracht Braunschweig in Bundesliga. 1990 – World Cup, Sydney 1991 – Champions Trophy, Berlin 1991 – European Championship, Brussels 1992 – Summer Olympics, Barcelona 1993 – Champions Trophy, Amstelveen 1994 – World Cup, Dublin 1995 – European Championship, Amstelveen 1995 – Champions Trophy, Mar del Plata 1995 – Olympic Qualifying Tournament, Cape Town 1996 – Summer Olympics, Atlanta 1997 – Champions Trophy, Berlin 1998 – European Indoor Nations Cup, Orense 1998 – World Cup, Utrecht 1999 – Champions Trophy, Brisbane 1999 – European Championship, Cologne 2000 – Olympic Qualifying Tournament, Milton Keynes 2000 – Champions Trophy, Amstelveen 2000 – Summer Olympics, Sydney 2002 – European Indoor Nations Cup, France 2002 – World Cup, Perth 2003 – World Indoor Nations Cup, Leipzig 2003 – Champions Challenge, Catania 2003 – European Championship, Barcelona 2004 – Olympic Qualifier, Auckland 2004 – Summer Olympics, Athens 2004 – Champions Trophy, Rosario 2005 – Champions Trophy, Canberra 2006 – Champions Trophy, Amstelveen 2006 – World Cup, Madrid 2007 – Champions Trophy, Quilmes Profile on Hockey Olympia