A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may allow selfing; some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization. Flowers are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds. In addition to facilitating the reproduction of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans to bring beauty to their environment, as objects of romance, religion, medicine and as a source of food; the essential parts of a flower can be considered in two parts: the vegetative part, consisting of petals and associated structures in the perianth, the reproductive or sexual parts. A stereotypical flower consists of four kinds of structures attached to the tip of a short stalk.
Each of these kinds of parts is arranged in a whorl on the receptacle. The four main whorls are as follows: Collectively the calyx and corolla form the perianth. Calyx: the outermost whorl consisting of units called sepals. Corolla: the next whorl toward the apex, composed of units called petals, which are thin and colored to attract animals that help the process of pollination. Androecium: the next whorl, consisting of units called stamens. Stamens consist of two parts: a stalk called a filament, topped by an anther where pollen is produced by meiosis and dispersed. Gynoecium: the innermost whorl of a flower, consisting of one or more units called carpels; the carpel or multiple fused carpels form a hollow structure called an ovary, which produces ovules internally. Ovules are megasporangia and they in turn produce megaspores by meiosis which develop into female gametophytes; these give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is described using an alternative terminology wherein the structure one sees in the innermost whorl is called a pistil.
A pistil may consist of a number of carpels fused together. The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen; the supportive stalk, the style, becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma. The relationship to the gynoecium on the receptacle is described as hypogynous, perigynous, or epigynous. Although the arrangement described above is considered "typical", plant species show a wide variation in floral structure; these modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species. The four main parts of a flower are defined by their positions on the receptacle and not by their function. Many flowers lack some parts or parts may be modified into other functions and/or look like what is another part. In some families, like Ranunculaceae, the petals are reduced and in many species the sepals are colorful and petal-like. Other flowers have modified stamens.
Flowers show great variation and plant scientists describe this variation in a systematic way to identify and distinguish species. Specific terminology is used to describe their parts. Many flower parts are fused together; when petals are fused into a tube or ring that falls away as a single unit, they are sympetalous. Connate petals may have distinctive regions: the cylindrical base is the tube, the expanding region is the throat and the flaring outer region is the limb. A sympetalous flower, with bilateral symmetry with an upper and lower lip, is bilabiate. Flowers with connate petals or sepals may have various shaped corolla or calyx, including campanulate, tubular, salverform or rotate. Referring to "fusion," as it is done, appears questionable because at least some of the processes involved may be non-fusion processes. For example, the addition of intercalary growth at or below the base of the primordia of floral appendages such as sepals, petals and carpels may lead to a common base, not the result of fusion.
Many flowers have a symmetry. When the perianth is bisected through the central axis from any point and symmetrical halves are produced, the flower is said to be actinomorphic or regular, e.g. rose or trillium. This is an example of radial symmetry; when flowers are bisected and produce only one line that produces symmetrical halves, the flower is said to be irregular or zygomorphic, e.g. snapdragon or most orchids. Flowers may be directly attached to the plant at their base; the stem or stalk subtending a flower is called a peduncle. If a peduncle supports more than o
Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14O, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, extracted from Thymus vulgaris and various other kinds of plants as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. Thymol provides the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme produced from T. vulgaris. Thymol is only soluble in water at neutral pH, but it is soluble in alcohols and other organic solvents, it is soluble in alkaline aqueous solutions due to deprotonation of the phenol. Thymol has a refractive index of 1.5208 and an experimental dissociation exponent of 10.59±0.10. Thymol absorbs maximum UV radiation at 274 nm. Thymol is chemically related to the anesthetic propofol. Regions lacking natural sources of thymol obtain the compound via total synthesis. Thymol is produced from m-cresol and propene in the gas phase: C7H8O + C3H6 ⇌ C10H14O The bee balms Monarda fistulosa and Monarda didyma, North American wildflowers, are natural sources of thymol.
The Blackfoot Native Americans recognized these plants' strong antiseptic action, used poultices of the plants for skin infections and minor wounds. A tisane made from them was used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis. Thymol was first isolated by the German chemist Caspar Neumann in 1719. In 1853, the French chemist A. Lallemand determined its empirical formula. Thymol was first synthesized by the Swedish chemist Oskar Widman in 1882. An in vitro study found thymol and carvacrol to be effective in reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration of several antibiotics against zoonotic pathogens and food spoilage bacteria such as Salmonella Typhimurium SGI 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes ermB. In vitro studies have found thymol to be useful as an antifungal against food spoilage and bovine mastitis. Thymol demonstrates in vitro post-antibacterial effect against the test strains E. coli and P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and B. cereus. This antibacterial activity is caused by inhibiting growth and lactate production, by decreasing cellular glucose uptake.
Thyme essential oil is useful in preservation of food. The antibacterial properties of thymol, a major part of thyme essential oil, as well as other constituents, are in part associated with their lipophilic character, leading to accumulation in bacterial membranes and subsequent membrane-associated events, such as energy depletion; the antifungal nature of thymol against some fungi that are pathogenic to plants is due to its ability to alter the hyphal morphology and cause hyphal aggregates, resulting in reduced hyphal diameters and lyses of the hyphal wall. Thymol has been used in alcohol solutions and in dusting powders for the treatment of tinea or ringworm infections, was used in the United States to treat hookworm infections. People of the Middle East continue to use za'atar, a delicacy made with large amounts of thyme, to reduce and eliminate internal parasites, it is used as a preservative in halothane, an anaesthetic, as an antiseptic in mouthwash. When used to reduce plaque and gingivitis, thymol has been found to be more effective when used in combination with chlorhexidine than when used purely by itself.
Thymol is the active antiseptic ingredient in some toothpastes, such as Johnson & Johnson's Euthymol. Thymol has been used to control varroa mites and prevent fermentation and the growth of mold in bee colonies, methods developed by beekeeper R. O. B. Manley. Thymol is used as a degrading, non-persisting pesticide. Thymol can be used as a medical disinfectant and general purpose disinfectant. Euphrasia rostkoviana Monarda didyma Monarda fistulosa Trachyspermum ammi Origanum compactum Origanum dictamnus Origanum onites Origanum vulgare Thymus glandulosus Thymus hyemalis Thymus vulgaris Thymus zygis In 2009, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency reviewed the research literature on the toxicology and environmental impact of thymol and concluded that "thymol has minimal potential toxicity and poses minimal risk". Studies have shown that hydrocarbon monoterpenes and thymol in particular degrade in the environment and are, low risks because of rapid dissipation and low bound residues, supporting the use of thymol as a pesticide agent that offers a safe alternative to other more persistent chemical pesticides that can be dispersed in runoff and produce subsequent contamination.
British Pharmacopoeia Japanese Pharmacopoeia Thymoquinone Nigella sativa Bromothymol Media related to Thymol at Wikimedia Commons
Marjoram is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavors. In some Middle Eastern countries, marjoram is synonymous with oregano, there the names sweet marjoram and knotted marjoram are used to distinguish it from other plants of the genus Origanum, it is called pot marjoram, although this name is used for other cultivated species of Origanum. Marjoram is indigenous to Cyprus and southern Turkey, was known to the Greeks and Romans as a symbol of happiness; the name marjoram does not directly derive from the Latin word maior. Leaves are smooth, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, 0.5–1.5 cm long, 0.2–0.8 cm wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, symmetrical but tapering base, reticulate venation. The texture is smooth due to the presence of numerous hairs. Considered a tender perennial, marjoram can sometimes prove hardy in zone 5. Marjoram is green or dry, for culinary purposes, it is used in herb combinations such as herbes de Provence and za'atar. The flowering leaves and tops of marjoram are steam-distilled to produce an essential oil, yellowish in color.
It has many chemical components, some of which are borneol and pinene. Oregano, sometimes listed with marjoram as O. majorana) is called wild marjoram. It is a perennial common in southern Europe and north to Sweden in dry copses and on hedge-banks, with many stout stems 30–80 centimetres high, bearing short-stalked, somewhat ovate leaves and clusters of purple flowers, it has a stronger flavor than marjoram. Pot marjoram or Cretan oregano has similar uses to marjoram. Hardy marjoram or French marjoram, a cross of marjoram with oregano, is much more resistant to cold, but is less sweet. O. pulchellum is known as showy showy oregano. Marjoram is used for seasoning soups, dressings and for herbal teas. Data related to Origanum majorana at Wikispecies Media related to Origanum majorana at Wikimedia Commons Origanum majorana List of Chemicals Origanum majorana "Marjoram"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society, founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity. The RHS promotes horticulture through flower shows including the Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, Tatton Park Flower Show and Cardiff Flower Show, it supports training for professional and amateur gardeners. The current president is Sir Nicholas Bacon, 14th Baronet and the current director general is Sue Biggs CBE; the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. His aims were modest: he wanted to hold regular meetings, allowing the society's members the opportunity to present papers on their horticultural activities and discoveries, to encourage discussion of them, to publish the results; the society would award prizes for gardening achievements. Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Wedgwood was chairman. Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership; the proposal was accepted, despite Knight's ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was president of the society from 1811–1838, developed the society's aims and objectives to include a programme of practical research into fruit-breeding. In 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were decided by election, but are now by financial contribution. Fellowship may be secured through a "suggested" £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively; the Royal Horticultural Society's four major gardens in England are: Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey. The society's first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1820 the society leased some of Hugh Ronalds' nursery ground at Little Ealing to set up an experimental garden, but the next year part of the Duke of Devonshire's estate at Chiswick was obtained.
In 1823 it employed Joseph Paxton there. From 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables. In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, but it was closed in 1882; the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the society's oldest garden. Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Helen Robinson. Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection, based at Hyde Hall; the most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001. It had been the Northern Horticultural Society's trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens.
In 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its annual flower shows which take place across the UK; the most famous of these shows is the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, visited by people from across world. This is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire; the most recent addition to the RHS shows line-up is the RHS Show Cardiff, held at Cardiff Castle since 2005. The society is closely involved with the spring and autumn shows at Malvern and with BBC Gardeners' World Live held annually at the Birmingham National Exhibition Centre; the RHS is custodian of the Lindley Library, housed within its headquarters at 80 Vincent Square, in branches at each of its four gardens. The library is based upon the book collection of John Lindley; the RHS Herbarium has its own image library consisting of more than 3,300 original watercolours 30,000 colour slides and a increasing number of digital images.
Although most of the images have been supplied by photographers commissioned by the RHS, the archive includes a substantial number of slides from the Harry Smith Collection and Plant Heritage National Plant Collection holders. The reference library at Wisley Garden is open to visitors to the Garden. In 2002, the RHS took over the administration of the Britain in Bloom competition from the Tidy Britain Group. In 2010, The society launched'It's your neighbourhood', a campaign to encourage people to get involved in horticulture for the benefit of their community. In 2014, the'Britain in Bloom' celebrates its 50th anniversary; the RHS runs formal courses for professional and amateur gardeners and horticulturalists and validates qualifications gained elsewhere. The RHS Level 1 Award in
Kebabs are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine. Many variants are popular throughout Asia, around the world. In most English-speaking countries, a kebab is the internationally-known shish kebab or shashlik, though outside of North America a kebab may be the ubiquitous fast-food doner kebab or its variants. In contrast, in Indian English and in the languages of the Middle East, other parts of Asia, the Muslim world, a kebab is any of a wide variety of grilled meat dishes; some dishes derived from Middle Eastern kebab may have different names in their local languages, such as the Chinese chuanr. Although kebabs are cooked on a skewer, many types of kebab are not. Kebab dishes can consist of ground meat or seafood, sometimes with fruits and vegetables; the traditional meat for kebabs is most mutton or lamb, but regional recipes may include beef, chicken, fish, or more due to religious prohibitions, pork. Evidence of hominin use of fire and cooking in the Middle East dates back as far as 790,000 years, prehistoric hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones were spread across Europe and the Middle East by at least 250,000 years ago.
Excavations of the Minoan settlement of Akrotiri unearthed stone supports for skewers used before the 17th century BC. In ancient times, Homer in the Iliad mentions pieces of meat roasted on spits, the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian text mentions large pieces of meat roasted on spits. In Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's 10th-century Baghdadi cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, a compendium of much of the legacy of Mesopotamian and Arab cuisine, there are descriptions of kabāb as cut-up meat, either fried in a pan or grilled over a fire; the method of cooking smaller chunks or slices of meat on skewers has a long history in the region, where it would be practical in cities where small cuts of meat were available in butchers' shops, where fuel for cooking was scarce, compared to Europe, where extensive forests enabled farmers to roast large cuts of meat whole. Indeed, many cultures have dishes consisting of chunks of meat cooked over a fire on skewers, such as the anticucho, prepared in South America since long before contact with Europe and Asia.
However, while the word kebab or shish kebab may sometimes be used in English as a culinary term that refers to any type of small chunks of meat cooked on a skewer, kebab is associated with a diversity of meat dishes that originated in the medieval kitchens of Persia and Turkey. Though the word has ancient origins, it was popularized by Turks to refer to this range of grilled and broiled meat, which may be cooked on skewers, but as stews and other forms; this cuisine has spread in parallel with Muslim influence. According to Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan traveller, kebab was served in the royal houses during the Delhi Sultanate, commoners would enjoy it for breakfast with naan. Kebab dishes have been adopted and integrated with local cooking styles and innovations, from the now-ubiquitous doner kebab fast food, to the many variations of shish kebab, such as the satays of Southeast Asia; the word kebab came to English in the late 17th century from the Arabic kabāb through Urdu and Turkish. According to linguist Sevan Nişanyan, the Turkish word kebap is derived from the Arabic word kabāb, meaning roasted meat.
It appears in Turkish texts as early as the 14th century, in Kyssa-i Yusuf, though still in the Arabic form. Nişanyan states that the word has the equivalent meaning of "frying/burning" with "kabābu" in the old Akkadian language, "kbabā/כבבא" in Aramaic. In contrast, food historian Gil Marks says that the medieval Arabic and Turkish terms were adopted from the Persian kabab, which derived from the Aramaic; the American Heritage Dictionary gives a probable East Semitic root origin with the meaning of "burn", "char", or "roast", from the Aramaic and Akkadian. The Babylonian Talmud instructs; these words point to an origin in the prehistoric Proto-Afroasiatic language: *kab-, to burn or roast. Suya is a spicy kebab, a popular food item in West Africa, it is traditionally prepared by the Hausa people of northern Nigeria, Niger and some parts of Sudan. Kyinkyinga is popular in West Africa, it is a Ghanian dish similar to or synonymous with the Hausa suya kebab known as sooya, chichinga, tsire agashi, chachanga or tankora.
Sosatie is a traditional South African dish of meat cooked on skewers. The term derives from sate and saus, it is of Cape Malay origin. Sosatie recipes vary, but the ingredients can include cubes of lamb, chicken, dried apricots, red onions and mixed peppers. Afghan kebab is most found in restaurants and outdoor vendor stalls; the most used meat is lamb. Recipes differ with every restaurant. Afghan kebab is served with naan rice, customers have the option to sprinkle sumac or ghora, dried ground sour grapes, on their kebab; the quality of kebab is dependent on the quality of the meat. Pieces of fat from the sheep's tail are added with the lamb skewers to add extra flavor. Other popular kebabs include the lamb chop, beef and chicken, all of which are found in better restaurants. Chapli kebab, a specialty of Eastern Afghanistan, is a patty made from beef mince, it is a popula