The Umpqua River on the Pacific coast of Oregon in the United States is 111 miles long. One of the principal rivers of the Oregon Coast and known for bass and shad, the river drains an expansive network of valleys in the mountains west of the Cascade Range and south of the Willamette Valley, from which it is separated by the Calapooya Mountains. From its source northeast of Roseburg, the Umpqua flows northwest through the Oregon Coast Range and empties into the Pacific at Winchester Bay; the river and its tributaries flow within Douglas County, which encompasses most of the watershed of the river from the Cascades to the coast. The "Hundred Valleys of the Umpqua" form the heart of the timber industry of southern Oregon centered on Roseburg; the Native Americans in the Umpqua's watershed consist of several tribes, such as the Umpqua, the Kalapuya. These tribes witnessed much of the Great Flood of 1862, during which the Umpqua and other rivers rose to levels so high that the oldest Indians had never seen a greater flood.
The North Umpqua and South Umpqua rivers rise in the Southern Oregon Cascades, flow west for over 100 miles to join 6 miles northwest of Roseburg. In modern terminology, the "Umpqua Valley" is sometimes taken to refer to the populated lower reaches of the South Umpqua south of Roseburg, along the route of Interstate 5; the North Umpqua rises from snowmelt and is considered one of the premier summer steelhead streams in the West. From Roseburg, the Umpqua flows northwest through broad farming valleys in the Oregon Coast Range in a serpentine course past the settlement of Umpqua and the city Elkton. At Elkton, it turns to flow west through a narrower canyon past Scottsburg, located at the head of tide, it enters Winchester Bay on the Pacific near Reedsport. It receives the Smith River from the north near its estuary on Winchester Bay; the Umpqua River Light protects ships nearing the mouth of the river. The Umpqua is one of four major rivers in Oregon that start in or east of the Cascade Range and reach the Pacific Ocean.
The others are Klamath River and Columbia River. Named tributaries from source to mouth are the North Umpqua and South Umpqua rivers followed by Hidden Valley, Mill and Rock creeks. Next come Bottle, Wolf, Leonard and Lost creeks followed by Galagher Canyon. Yellow Creek is next Deep Gulch and McGee, Martin, Williams, Mehl and Heddin creeks. Further downstream is Elk Creek Grubbe, Beener, Sawyer, Stony Brook, Little Stony Brook creeks. Come Scott, Lutsinger, Burchard, Golden and Little Mill Creek. Mill Creek is next, followed by Luder, Franklin, Indian Charlie and Dean creeks. Entering the lower reaches are the Smith River and Scholfield and Winchester creeks. In the early 19th century the river valley was inhabited by the Coquille tribe of Native Americans; the tribe ceded most of its land to the U. S. government in the 1854 Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya, agreeing to move to a reservation in Lincoln County as part of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz. The river itself is named for a band of the Coquille.
The Umpqua River valley was inhabited by several different bands of Indians: the Athabaskan-speaking Upper Umpqua, Takelman speaking Cow Creek Band of Umpqua, the Yoncalla in the north, the Quich from Scottsburg/Wells Creek to the coast. The Quich spoke a language distantly related to the Coos Bay languages. In the Great Flood of 1862, the Umpqua River had the largest flood known to all of the area's Indians at the time, water was 10 to 15 feet higher than the 1853 flood, it rose from November 3 to December 3, subsided for two days rose again until December 9. At Fort Umpqua, communication up river was cut off above Scottsburg, the river was full of floating houses, barns and produce. At Port Orford, the Coquille River swept away settlers' property. Great damage occurred on the Rogue River and on other small streams; the Umpqua River boasts some of the world's best fly-fishing, salmon fishing, sturgeon fishing. Umpqua river fishing is famous for its small-mouth bass, striped bass, shad population.
There are several campgrounds and RV parks on the Umpqua River, some of which offer riverfront RV camping, boat ramps, fish cleaning stations, hot showers for guests to use. List of rivers of Oregon List of longest streams of Oregon Umpqua Basin Umpqua River in the Oregon Encyclopedia Oregon Coastal Atlas: Umpqua River Estuary The Umpqua Basin Explorer from Oregon State University Floods of November 1996 through January 1997 in the Umpqua River Basin, OregonUnited States Geological Survey
Robert B. Duncan
Robert Blackford Duncan was an American politician from the state of Oregon. A Democrat, he served multiple terms in the Oregon Legislative Assembly and as a U. S. congressman from Oregon. In the Oregon House of Representatives he served as speaker for four years, in the U. S. House he represented two different districts; the Illinois native and World War II veteran ran three unsuccessful campaigns to be elected to the U. S. Senate. Robert B. Duncan was born in Normal, Illinois, on December 4, 1920, his father, Eugene Duncan, came to Illinois from a family in Missouri whose ascendants were from Scotland. His mother, Catherine Blackford, was of Welsh origin—her parents had immigrated from Wales to the United States in the late 19th century. Robert "Bob" Duncan was the second of four boys: Carter, Bob and John Bruce, he attended public schools in Bloomington. In 1939, at the age of 18, he went with a friend to Alaska and he began college at the University of Alaska, staying through 1940 when he transferred to Illinois Wesleyan University where he graduated in 1942 with a bachelor's degree.
In college he met fellow student Marijane Beverly Dill and the two were married on December 19, 1942. The couple would have seven children together: Nancy Guri, David, Laurie, Bonnie Dee and Jeanne. While in Alaska he had worked in the gold fields, while in Illinois he had worked for a bank and seed company. During World War II, he served in the United States Merchant Marine and in the United States Naval Air Force as a pilot from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, Duncan received his LL. B passed the bar in October of that year. After graduation Duncan and his family moved from Michigan to Portland and to Medford in Southern Oregon, where he moved to join the law practice of William M. McAllister. In 1954, Duncan was nominated as a write-in candidate for the Oregon House of Representatives. Although he declined for economic reasons, in 1956, he was elected to the Oregon House, serving three terms and was elected Speaker of the Oregon House by his colleagues. In 1962, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives representing Oregon's 4th congressional district based in Medford.
In the 1966 U. S. Senate election, Duncan was the Democratic candidate for the seat vacated by retiring Senator Maurine B. Neuberger. While Duncan supported President Johnson's Vietnam War policies, his Republican opponent, Governor Mark Hatfield, was an outspoken critic; the differences between Duncan and Hatfield on the war would produce one of the great splits in the modern Oregon Democratic Party. The state's senior U. S. Senator, Wayne Morse—a staunch Democratic opponent of the Vietnam War—endorsed Hatfield over fellow Democrat Duncan, an act that infuriated Democratic Party regulars; this factor, along with Hatfield's statewide popularity, gave Hatfield a narrow victory. In 1967, Duncan moved to Portland. In 1968, Duncan came back to challenge Senator Morse in the Democratic Senate primary. Again, Duncan's war views played a role. Though Duncan was far ahead of the anti-war maverick Morse, Morse closed the gap at the end and won a narrow victory, aided by the beginning of the Paris Peace Accords, which brought the possibility of the end of the war.
Morse went on to narrowly lose in the general election to Republican state Representative Bob Packwood, who favored continued funding of the war. Duncan returned to his Portland law practice, he ran once more for the Senate in 1972, again losing the Democratic nomination to Morse, this time by a wider margin. Morse lost to Senator Hatfield. After Edith Green retired from Congress, Duncan was elected to her seat in 1974 and returned to the House, this time representing the Portland-based 3rd district, he served another three terms, was upset in the 1980 Democratic primary by eventual winner Ron Wyden. In 1985, he returned settling in the coastal community of Yachats, he served on the Northwest Power Planning Council from 1984 to 1988, as its chairperson in 1987. Following his work on the Council, Duncan spent his time working on his house in Yachats and on his collection of old cars, spending time with his seven grandchildren. Duncan's first wife, died November 9, 1990; the couple had seven children.
In 1995, Duncan married Kathryn Boe, widow of Jason Boe who had served in the Oregon Senate from 1970 to 1980, four terms as Senate president. Duncan lived in Portland until his death at the age of 90 at the Mirabella retirement home on April 29, 2011, his papers are housed in the Robert Blackford Duncan collection at the University of Oregon. A four volume book of his writings is in that collection and is in the archival collections of Illinois Wesleyan University, Illinois; the Political Graveyard
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the former mining community of Blue Heron is interpreted via signage; the Big South Fork region contains one of the highest concentrations of natural bridges in the eastern United States and the area is located in parts of Scott, Fentress and Morgan counties in Tennessee, McCreary County in Kentucky. Charit Creek Lodge is a wilderness lodge, accessible by trail, located within the park; the Big South Fork was legally designated a Kentucky Wild River by the Kentucky General Assembly through the Office of Kentucky Nature Preserves' Wild Rivers Program. The Big South Fork's most prominent feature is the river gorge cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of geologic change in the Big South Fork region.
Over time water action has left many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches and unusual hoodoos. Due to the substantial amount of annual rainfall of the region and the action of the Cumberland River and surrounding tributaries the water acts to erode the softer Mississippian rock composed of limestone and calcareous sandstone from beneath the much harder and erosion resistant capstone composed of Pennsylvanian sandstone. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls and gorges. Where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below; as result, water eroded. Hoodoos are a intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork; these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States.
Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, it prevents the erosion of the softer material below. The result is a formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill. "Big South Fork NPS Site". National Park Service. Retrieved 2011-08-08. "Big South Fork Landforms". Tom Dunigan. Retrieved 2011-08-08
An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle, capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, a flexible suspension, or caterpillar tracks. Other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, cranes, backhoes and golf carts. Off-road vehicles have an enthusiastic following because of their many uses and versatility. Several types of motorsports involve racing off-road vehicles; the three largest "4-wheel vehicle" off-road types of competitions are rally, desert racing, rockcrawling. The three largest types of all-terrain vehicle / motorcycle competitions are Motocross and desert racing like Dakar Rallye and Baja 1000; the most common use of these vehicles is for sight seeing in areas distant from pavement. The use of higher clearance and higher traction vehicles enables access on trails and forest roads that have rough and low traction surfaces. One of the first modified off-road vehicles was the Kégresse track, a conversion undertaken first by Adolphe Kégresse, who designed the original while working for Czar Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916.
The system uses an unusual caterpillar track which has a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments. It can be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track suitable for use over rough or soft ground. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Kégresse returned to his native France where the system was used on Citroën cars between 1921 and 1937 for off-road and military vehicles; the Citroën company sponsored several overland expeditions with their vehicles crossing North Africa and Central Asia. A huge wheeled vehicle designed from 1937 to 1939 under the direction of Thomas Poulter called Antarctic Snow Cruiser was intended to facilitate transport in the Antarctica. While having several innovative features, it failed to operate as hoped under the difficult conditions, was abandoned in Antarctica. After World War II, a huge surplus of light off-road vehicles like the Jeep and heavier lorries were available on the market; the Jeeps in particular were popular with buyers.
This was the start of off-roading as a hobby. The wartime Jeeps soon wore out and the Jeep company started to produce civilian derivatives followed by similar vehicles from British Land Rover and Japanese Toyota, Datsun/Nissan and Mitsubishi; these were all alike: small, four-wheel-drive vehicles with at most a small hardtop to protect the occupants from the elements. From the 1960s and onward, more comfortable vehicles were produced. For several years they were popular with rural buyers due to their off-road and load-lugging capabilities; the U. S. Jeep Wagoneer and the Ford Bronco, the British Range Rover, the station wagon-bodied Japanese Toyota Land Cruiser, Nissan Patrol and Suzuki Lj's series were all just station wagon bodies on light truck frames with four-wheel-drive drivetrains. During the 1990s, manufacturers started to add more luxuries to bring those off-road vehicles on par with regular cars; this evolved into what we call the SUV today. It evolved into the newer crossover vehicle, where utility and off-road capability was sacrificed for better on-road handling and luxury.
To be able to drive off the pavement, off-road vehicles need several characteristics: They need to have a low ground pressure, so as not to sink into soft ground, they need ground clearance to not get hung up on obstacles, they need to keep their wheels or tracks on the ground so as not to lose traction. Wheeled vehicles accomplish this by having a suitable balance of large or additional tires combined with tall and flexible suspension. Tracked vehicles accomplish this by having a flexible suspension on the road wheels; the choice of wheels versus tracks is one of suitability. A tracked drivetrain is more expensive to maintain. Wheeled drivetrains give a higher top speed; the tracked drivetrain has greater off-road capability. Most off-road vehicles are fitted with low gearing; this allows the operator to make the most of the engine's available power while moving through challenging terrain. An internal combustion engine coupled to a normal gearbox has an output speed too high; the vehicle has one of two things, either a low first gear or an additional gearbox in line with the first, called a reduction drive.
Some vehicles, like the Bv206 in the picture on the right have torque converters to further reduce the gearing. Many wheeled off-road vehicles provide power to all wheels to keep traction on slippery surfaces. For a typical four-wheel vehicle this is known as four-wheel drive. Vehicles designed for use both on and off road may be designed to be switched between two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive so that the vehicle uses fewer driven wheels when driven on the road. SUVs are built with higher ground clearance for off-road use and thus have a higher center of gravity, therefore increasing the risk of rollover; when an SUV turns, the vehicle's mass resists the turn and carries the weight forward, thus allowing the traction from the tires to create a lateral centripetal force as the vehicle continues through the turn. The conflict between the top weight of the SUV's desire to go straight while the friction of the tires on the road cause the bottom of the vehicle to move away and out from under the vehicle during a turn.
SUVs are more to be in rollover accidents than passenger cars. According to a study conducted in the United
Dune is a 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert published as two separate serials in Analog magazine. It tied with Roger Zelazny's This Immortal for the Hugo Award in 1966, it won the inaugural Nebula Award for Best Novel, it is the first installment of the Dune saga, in 2003 was cited as the world's best-selling science fiction novel. Set in the distant future amidst a feudal interstellar society in which various noble houses control planetary fiefs, Dune tells the story of young Paul Atreides, whose family accepts the stewardship of the planet Arrakis. While the planet is an inhospitable and sparsely populated desert wasteland, it is the only source of melange, or "the spice", a drug that extends life and enhances mental abilities; as melange can only be produced on Arrakis, control of the planet is a coveted and dangerous undertaking. The story explores the multi-layered interactions of politics, ecology and human emotion, as the factions of the empire confront each other in a struggle for the control of Arrakis and its spice.
The scion and heir of the Atreides family, Paul is believed to be a candidate for the Kwisatz Haderach, a messianic figure whose coming is fortold by the Bene Gesserit sisterhood. On Arrakis and his family are betrayed by the Emperor and the former overlords of the planet, House Harkonnen, Paul seeks refuge with the Fremen, the nomadic natives of Arrakis. Paul is dubbed Muad ` Dib, he is trained in the Fremen ways, including the riding of gigantic sandworms, whose life cycle is important in the production of melange. Paul trains the Fremen into a fighting force, leads an assault on the Emperor and the Harkonnen for control of Arrakis; the book ends with Paul's defeat of the Emperor, upon assuming the Imperial throne himself, he expresses doubt that he can control the Fremen or stop the coming revolution that he has unleashed on the universe. Herbert wrote five sequels: Dune Messiah, Children of Dune, God Emperor of Dune, Heretics of Dune, Chapterhouse: Dune; the first novel inspired a 1984 film adaptation by David Lynch, the 2000 Sci-Fi Channel miniseries Frank Herbert's Dune and its 2003 sequel Frank Herbert's Children of Dune, a series of computer games, several board games, a series of followups, including prequels and sequels, that were co-written by Kevin J. Anderson and the author's son, Brian Herbert, starting in 1999.
A new film adaptation directed by Denis Villeneuve is scheduled to be released on November 20, 2020. Since 2009, the names of planets from the Dune novels have been adopted for the real-life nomenclature of plains and other features on Saturn's moon Titan. After his novel The Dragon in the Sea was published in 1957, Herbert traveled to Florence, Oregon, at the north end of the Oregon Dunes. Here, the United States Department of Agriculture was attempting to use poverty grasses to stabilize the sand dunes. Herbert claimed in a letter to his literary agent, Lurton Blassingame, that the moving dunes could "swallow whole cities, rivers, highways." Herbert's article on the dunes, "They Stopped the Moving Sands", was never completed but its research sparked Herbert's interest in ecology. Herbert spent the next five years researching and revising, he published a three-part serial Dune World in the monthly Analog, from December 1963 to February 1964. The serial was accompanied by several illustrations.
After an interval of a year, he published the much slower-paced five-part The Prophet of Dune in the January – May 1965 issues. The serialized version was expanded and submitted to more than twenty publishers, each of whom rejected it; the novel, was accepted and published in August 1965 by Chilton Books, a printing house better known for publishing auto repair manuals. Herbert dedicated his work "to the people whose labors go beyond ideas into the realm of'real materials'—to the dry-land ecologists, wherever they may be, in whatever time they work, this effort at prediction is dedicated in humility and admiration." In the far future, humanity has eschewed advanced computers due to a religious prohibition, in favor of adapting their minds to be capable of complex tasks. Much of this is enabled by the spice melange, found only on Arrakis, a desert planet with giant sandworms as its most notable native lifeform. Melange improves general health, extends life and can bestow limited prescience, its rarity makes it a form of currency in the interstellar empire.
Melange allows the Spacing Guild's Navigators to safely route faster-than-light travel between planets, helps the Reverend Mothers of the matriarchal Bene Gesserit to access their Other Memory, the ego and experiences of their female ancestors. As the novel opens, each planet is ruled by a Great House that owes allegiance to the Padishah Emperor Shaddam IV; the Emperor suspects that Duke Leto Atreides of House Atreides has become a potential challenger to his throne as Leto gains favor with other Great Houses in the Landsraad. The Emperor seeks the downfall of House Atreides by assigning them control of Arrakis ruled by Baron Vladimir Harkonnen of House Harkonnen; the Atreides and Harkonnen houses have had a generations-long feud, the Emperor secretly plots with the Baron to attack House Atreides after its move to Arrakis. While masking his involvement in the Baron's attack, the Emperor plans to ensure its success by deploying some of his elite Sardaukar troopers in Harkonnen disguise. Leto Atreides, on hearing of thi