The Whitman massacre was the murder of Oregon missionaries Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa, along with eleven others, on November 29, 1847. They were killed by members of the Cayuse tribe who accused him of having poisoned 200 Cayuse in his medical care; the incident began the Cayuse War. It took place in southeastern Washington state near the town of Walla Walla and was one of the most notorious episodes in the U. S. settlement of the Pacific Northwest. Whitman had helped lead the first wagon train to cross Oregon's Blue Mountains and reach the Columbia River via the Oregon Trail, this incident was the climax of several years of complex interaction between him and the local Indians; the story of the massacre shocked the United States Congress into action concerning the future territorial status of the Oregon Country, the Oregon Territory was established on August 14, 1848. The killings are ascribed in part to a clash of cultures and in part to the inability of Whitman, a physician, to halt the spread of measles among the Indians.
The Cayuse held Whitman responsible for subsequent deaths. The incident remains controversial to this day. Sahaptin nations came into direct contact with whites several decades before the arrival of the members of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions; these relations set expectations among the Cayuse for how exchanges and dialogue with whites would operate. The early Euro-Americans engaged in the North American fur trade and the Maritime fur trade. Marine captains gave small gifts to indigenous merchants as a means to encourage commercial transactions. Land-based trading posts, operated by the Pacific Fur Company, the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, regularized economic and cultural exchanges, including gift giving. Interactions were not always peaceful. Native Americans suspected. Reports from the period note that members of the Umpqua and Chinookan nations faced threats of destruction through white-carried illnesses, as the natives had no immunity to these new infectious diseases.
After becoming the premier fur gathering operation in the region, the HBC continued to develop ties on the Columbian Plateau. Historian Cameron Addis recounted that after 1840, much of the Columbian Plateau was no longer important in the fur trade and that:... most of its people were not dependent on agriculture, but traders had spread Christianity for thirty years. When Catholic and Protestant missionaries arrived they met Indians content with their blend of Christianity and native religions, skeptical toward farming, wary of the whites' apparent power to inflict diseases. Local Indians expected trade and gifts as part of any interaction with whites, religious or medical. Samuel Parker and Marcus Whitman journeyed overland in 1835 from the Rocky Mountains into portions of the modern states of Idaho and Washington to locate potential mission locations. Parker hired a translator from Pierre-Chrysologue Pambrun, manager of the Hudson's Bay Company trading post Fort Nez Percés, he wanted help in consulting with the elite of the Liksiyu and Niimíipu in order to identify particular places for missions and Christian proselytizing.
During specific negotiations over what became the Waiilatpu Mission, six miles from the site of the present-day city of Walla Walla, Parker told the assembled Cayuse men that: I do not intend to take your lands for nothing. After the Doctor is come, there will come every year a big ship, loaded with goods to be divided among the Indians; those goods will not be given to you. The missionaries will bring you plows and hoes, to teach you how to cultivate the land, they will not sell, but give them to you." Whitman returned the following year with his wife, mechanic William H. Gray, the missionary couple Rev. Henry Spalding and Eliza Hart Spalding; the wives were the first known white American women to enter the Pacific Northwest overland. HBC Chief Factor Dr. John McLoughlin advised against the missionaries residing on the Columbia Plateau, but offered material support for their venture regardless. In particular, he allowed the women to reside at Fort Vancouver that winter as the men went to begin work on constructing the Waiilatpu Mission.
Because the beaver population of the Columbian Plateau had declined, British fur trading activities were being curtailed. Despite this, the HBC practices during previous decades shaped the perceptions and expectations of the Cayuse in relation to the missionaries. Whitman was frustrated. In particular, they requested that he purchase their stockpiles of beaver skins, at rates comparable to those at Fort Nez Percés; the Mission supplies were, in general, not appealing enough to the Sahaptin to serve as compensation for their labor. Whitman lacked sizable stockpiles of gunpowder, tobacco, or clothing, so he had to assign most labor to Hawaiian Kanaka or whites. To bolster food supplies for the first winter, Whitman purchased several horses from the Cayuse. Additionally, the initial plowing of the Waiilatpu farm was done with draft animals loaned by a Cayuse noble and Fort Nez Percés; the missionary family suffered from a lack of privacy, as the Cayuse thought nothing of entering their quarters. Narcissa complained that the kitchen was "always filled with four or five
Salem is the capital of the U. S. state of Oregon, the county seat of Marion County. It is located in the center of the Willamette Valley alongside the Willamette River, which runs north through the city; the river forms the boundary between Marion and Polk counties, the city neighborhood of West Salem is in Polk County. Salem was founded in 1842, became the capital of the Oregon Territory in 1851, was incorporated in 1857. Salem had a population of 169,798 in 2017, making it the second-largest city in the state after Portland. Salem is a little under an hour's driving distance away from Portland. Salem is the principal city of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Marion and Polk counties and had a combined population of 390,738 at the 2010 census. A 2013 estimate placed the metropolitan population at the state's second largest; the city is home to Willamette University, Corban University, Chemeketa Community College. The State of Oregon is the largest public employer in the city, Salem Health is the largest private employer.
Transportation includes public transit from Salem-Keizer Transit, Amtrak service, non-commercial air travel at McNary Field. Major roads include Interstate 5, Oregon Route 99E, Oregon Route 22, which connects West Salem across the Willamette River via the Marion Street and Center Street bridges; the Native Americans who inhabited the central Willamette Valley at first European contact, the Kalapuya, called the area Chim-i-ki-ti, which means "meeting or resting place" in the Central Kalapuya language. When the Methodist Mission moved to the area, they called the new establishment Chemeketa; when the Oregon Institute was established, the community became known as the Institute. When the Institute was dissolved, the trustees decided to lay out a town site on the Institute lands; some possible sources for the name "Salem" include William H. Willson, who in 1850 and 1851 filed the plans for the main part of the city, suggested adopting an Anglicized version of the Biblical word "Shalom", meaning "peace".
The Reverend David Leslie, President of the town's Trustees wanted a Biblical name, suggested using the last five letters of "Jerusalem". Or, the town may be named after Salem, where Leslie was educated. There were many names suggested, after the change to Salem, some people, such as Asahel Bush, believed the name should be changed back to Chemeketa; the Vern Miller Civic Center, which houses the city offices and library, has a public space dedicated as the Peace Plaza in recognition of the names by which the city has been known. It is estimated; the Kalapuya peoples would gather on the plateau east and south of the current downtown area in the winter and establish camps. They harvested in the streams and fields of the area. One staple of life was the camas root, periodically the Kalapuya would set fires that would clear and fertilize the meadows where it grew. In the early 1850s, the Kalapuya, along with the other native peoples west of the Cascade Mountains, were removed by the U. S. government through a combination of treaties and force.
Most Kalapuya people were moved to the Grande Ronde Reservation somewhat to the west of Salem, with smaller numbers ending up at Siletz Reservation and other Oregon and Washington reservations. The first people of European descent arrived in the area as early as 1812; the first permanent American settlement in the area was the Jason Lee Methodist mission located in the area north of Salem known as Wheatland. In 1842, the missionaries established the Oregon Institute in the area, to become the site of Salem. In 1844, the mission was dissolved and the town site established. In 1851, Salem became the territorial capital; the capital was moved to Corvallis in 1855, but was moved back to Salem permanently that same year. Salem incorporated as a city in 1857, with the coming of statehood in 1859, it became the state capital. Oregon has had three capitol buildings in Salem. A two-story state house, occupied for only two months, burned to the ground in December 1855. Oregon's second capitol building was completed in 1876 on the site of the original.
The Revival-style building was based in part on the U. S. Capitol building; the building received its distinctive copper dome in 1893. On April 25, 1935, this building was destroyed by fire; the third and current Oregon State Capitol was completed on the same site in 1938. It is recognizable by its distinctive pioneer statue atop the capitol dome, plated with gold-leaf and named the Oregon Pioneer. Agriculture has always been important to Salem, the city has recognized and celebrated it in a number of ways. In 1861, Salem was chosen as the permanent site of the Oregon State Fair by the Oregon State Agricultural Association. Salem is nicknamed the "Cherry City", because of the past importance of the local cherry-growing industry; the first cherry festival in Salem was held in 1903 and was an annual event, with parades and the election of a cherry queen, until sometime after World War I. The event was revived as the Salem Cherryland Festival for several years in the late 1940s. Salem is located in Marion and Polk counties.
The 45th Parallel
The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America. The region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders from before 1810, American settlers from the mid-1830s, with its coastal areas north from the Columbia River frequented by ships from all nations engaged in the maritime fur trade, most of these from the 1790s through 1810s being Boston-based; the Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel. Oregon was a distinctly American term for the region; the British used the term Columbia District instead. The Oregon Country consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40′N latitude, west of the Rocky Mountains—with the eastern border running on or close to the Continental Divide—westwards to the Pacific Ocean; the area now forms part of the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, all of the US states of Oregon and Idaho, parts of Montana and Wyoming.
The British presence in the region was administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, whose Columbia Department comprised most of the Oregon Country and extended north into New Caledonia and beyond 54°40′N, with operations reaching tributaries of the Yukon River. George Vancouver explored Puget Sound in 1792. Vancouver claimed it for Great Britain on 4 June 1792, naming it for one of his officers, Lieutenant Peter Puget. Alexander Mackenzie was the first European to cross North America by land north of New Spain. Arriving at Bella Coola on what is now the Central Coast of British Columbia in 1793. From 1805 to 1806 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the territory for the United States on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. David Thompson, working for the Montreal-based North West Company, explored much of the region beginning in 1807, with his friend and colleague Simon Fraser following the Fraser River to its mouth in 1808, attempting to ascertain whether or not it was the Columbia, as had been theorized about it in its northern reaches through New Caledonia, where it was known by its Dakleh name as the "Tacoutche Tesse".
Thompson was the first European to voyage down the entire length of Columbia River. Along the way, his party camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9, 1811, he erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post on the site. In 1811, on the same expedition, he finished his survey of the entire Columbia, arriving at a constructed Fort Astoria two months after the departure of John Jacob Astor's ill-fated Tonquin; the earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins. The term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Motezuma and made reference to the Columbia river when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; this chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins such as the name Oregano which grows in the southern part of the region.
It is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón", situated in the province of Ciudad Real considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another subsequent theory is that French Canadian fur company employees called the Columbia River "hurricane river" le fleuve d'ouragan, because of the strong winds of the Columbia Gorge. George R. Stewart argued in a 1944 article in American Speech that the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so that there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon"; this theory was endorsed in Oregon Geographic Names as "the most plausible explanation". The Oregon Country was claimed by Great Britain, France and Spain; the extent of the region being claimed was vague at first, evolving over decades into the specific borders specified in the US-British treaty of 1818.
The U. S.-based its claim in part on Robert Gray's entry of the Columbia River in 1792 and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Great Britain based its claim in part on British overland explorations of the Columbia River by David Thompson and on prior discovery and exploration along the Coast. Spain's claim was based on the Inter caetera and Treaty of Tordesillas of 1493–94, as well as explorations of the Pacific coast in the late 18th century. Russia based its claim off its explorations and trading activities in the region and asserted its ownership of the region north of the 51st parallel by the Ukase of 1821, challenged by the other powers and withdrawn to 54°40′N by separate treaties with the US and Britain in 1824 and 1825 respectively. Spain gave up its claims of exclusivity via the Nootka Conventions of the 1790s. In the Nootka Conventions, which followed the Nootka Crisis, Spain granted Britain rights to the Pacific Northwest, although it did not establish a northern boundary for Spanish California, nor did it extinguish Spanish rights to the Pacific Northwest.
Spain relinquished any remaining claims to territory north of the 42nd parallel to the United States as part of the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. In the 1820s, Russia gave up its claims south of 54°40′ and east
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, is the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects; the seal-making device is referred to as the seal matrix or die. If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief; the design on the impression will reverse that of the matrix, important when script is included in the design, as it often is. This will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, both matrix and impression are in relief; however engraved gems were carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals.
The process is that of a mould. Most seals have always given a single impression on an flat surface, but in medieval Europe two-sided seals with two matrices were used by institutions or rulers to make two-sided or three-dimensional impressions in wax, with a "tag", a piece of ribbon or strip of parchment, running through them; these "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps or specified signature-accompanying words such as "seal" or "L. S." to be the legal equivalent of, i.e. an effective substitute for, a seal. In the United States, the word "seal" is sometimes assigned to a facsimile of the seal design, which may be used in a variety of contexts including architectural settings, on flags, or on official letterheads. Thus, for example, the Great Seal of the United States, among other uses, appears on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. S. states appear on their respective state flags.
In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the seal design in its entirety appears as a graphical emblem and is used as intended: as an impression on documents. The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used; these could be rolled along to create an impression on clay, used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings, including some with the names of kings, have been found. Seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse so as to read in the impression.
From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were formed of soft stone and ivory and show particular characteristic forms. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms and materials appear. Hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques; the Late Bronze Age is the time par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring, which continued into the Archaic and Hellenistic periods, in the form of pictorial engraved gems. These were a major luxury art form and became keenly collected, with King Mithridates VI of Pontus the first major collector according to Pliny the Elder, his collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great. Engraved gems continued to be collected until the 19th century. Pliny explained the significance of the signet ring, how over time this ring was worn on the little finger. Known as yinzhang in China, injang in Korea, inshō in Japan, ấn giám in Vietnam, seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the Qin dynasty.
The seals of the Han dynasty were impressed in a soft clay, but from the Tang dynasty a red ink made from cinnabar was used. In modern times, seals known as "chops" in local colloquial English, are still used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, they have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals bear the names of the people or organizations represented, but they can bear poems or personal mottoes. Sometimes both types of seals, or large seals that bear both names and mottoes, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that for
The Champoeg Meetings were the first attempts at formal governance by European-American and French Canadian pioneers in the Oregon Country on the Pacific Northwest coast of North America. Between 1841 and 1843, a series of public councils was held at Champoeg, a settlement on the French Prairie of the Willamette River valley in present-day Marion County, at surrounding settlements; the meetings were organized by newly arrived settlers as well as Protestant missionaries from the Methodist Mission and Catholic Jesuit priests from Canada. Since the first decade of the 19th century, a small but growing number of pioneers had settled in the Oregon Country to pursue business interests in the North American fur trade. Despite its economic value, the region was so vast and remote that it was left unorganized for several decades, with no European-American government in place to set laws and resolve disputes. Prior to the Champoeg Meetings, the closest thing to a government in the Oregon Country was the owned Hudson's Bay Company, which effected a loose authority through the efforts of Dr. John McLoughlin at Fort Vancouver in present-day Vancouver, Washington.
The death of prominent settler Ewing Young in 1841 stirred a group of settlers led by missionary Jason Lee to advocate for a settler-run local government in the region. The assemblies at Champoeg addressed issues of probate law and estate administration, how to reward hunters who killed animals preying on livestock, how to compromise on a system of leadership for the proposed government; the meetings culminated in a vote on May 2, 1843, which concluded in favor of forming what became the Provisional Government of Oregon. Though supported by American pioneers and opposed by French Canadian settlers in anticipation of the region's annexation by the United States, several French Canadians voted in favor of forming a provisional government. A state park and marker at the site of the May 2 vote commemorate the proceedings, as well as a large mural behind the desk of the Oregon Speaker of the House at the Oregon State Capitol in Salem; the Oregon Country was an enormous area of indeterminate boundaries on the Pacific Northwest coast.
By 1805, it was claimed by the United States as well as by three colonial European powers: Russia, Great Britain and Spain. Interest by these nations was stimulated by the prospect for enormous wealth to be obtained from the area's rich natural resources in the burgeoning fur trade. Several voyages were proposed to map the coast, with Alessandro Malaspina, Robert Gray, George Vancouver arriving in the early 1790s; the overland treks of Alexander Mackenzie and Lewis and Clark which reached the Pacific coast in 1793 and 1805 continued to ferment interest by Europe and the United States. In 1818, the United States and Britain signed a treaty that called for the two countries to peaceably co-exist in the region, but not to exclude other claims. Through a series of other treaties the number of countries claiming the Oregon Country was reduced to just two, the United States and Great Britain; as such expeditions expanded Euro-American knowledge of the Pacific Northwest, the possibilities of exploiting the fur trade provoked several companies to attempt to establish a permanent presence there.
The first to do so was the Montréal-based North West Company, which under David Thompson arrived in what is now Montana and created posts such as the Saleesh House to trade with the Salish and Kootenai tribes. The American Pacific Fur Company financed the next commercial push into the region, working with Chinookan peoples at Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River; the War of 1812 ended the American venture and its operations were sold to its competitor, the North West Company, itself amalgamated into the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821. From Fort Vancouver, located near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, the operations of the Hudson's Bay Company grew and became the primary commercial force in the Oregon Country. Despite the activities of American mountain men and upwards of 12 attempted companies, the commercial hegemony of the British company remained in force until after the formation of the Provisional Government. Britain and the U. S. continued a tense "joint occupation".
In the 1830s, including Protestants such as Jason Lee, Henry H. Spalding, Marcus Whitman and Catholics such as François Norbert Blanchet, Modeste Demers and Pierre-Jean De Smet, would travel overland to the Oregon Country and establish missions among the Native Americans there; as time passed many of the trappers and missionaries settled the land and developed farms and timber and grist mills. Beginning in the 1840s, more and more settlers arrived via the Oregon Trail that the early missionaries and trappers had helped to blaze. Enough Americans and Europeans were living in the ungoverned land that a critical mass was reached and the settlers began to develop plans for a government; the plans called for meetings to be held at the French-Canadian enclave of Champoeg on the banks of the Willamette River. This part of the Willamette Valley was and still is known as the French Prairie, since its early settlers spoke French as their first language; some of the meetings were held at the Oregon Institute further south of Champoeg in present-day Salem and downriver in Oregon City.
The name Champoeg has an unknown origin. Some theories are that it was a Native American name for its location along the Willamette River Champooik. Other theories are that it is of French origin, or a French variation on the Native