SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Orestes

In Greek mythology, Orestes was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. He is the subject of several Ancient Greek plays and of various myths connected with his madness and purification, which retain obscure threads of much older ones; the Greek name Ὀρέστης, having become "Orestes" in Latin and its descendants, is derived from Greek ὄρος and ἵστημι, so can be thought to have the meaning "stands on a mountain". In the Homeric telling of the story, Orestes is a member of the doomed house of Atreus, descended from Tantalus and Niobe. Orestes is absent from Mycenae when his father, returns from the Trojan War with the Trojan princess Cassandra as his concubine, thus not present for Agamemnon's murder by his wife Clytemnestra's lover, Aegisthus. Seven years Orestes returns from Athens and avenges his father's death by slaying both Aegisthus and his own mother Clytemnestra. In the Odyssey, Orestes is held up as a favorable example to Telemachus, whose mother Penelope is plagued by suitors. According to Pindar, the young Orestes was saved by his nurse Arsinoe or his sister Electra, who conveyed him out of the country when Clytemnestra wished to kill him.

In the familiar theme of the hero's early eclipse and exile, he escaped to Phanote on Mount Parnassus, where King Strophius took charge of him. In his twentieth year, he was urged by Electra to avenge his father's death, he returned home along with Strophius's son. The same myth is told differently by Euripides in their Electra plays; the story of Orestes was the subject of the Oresteia of Aeschylus, of the Electra of Sophocles, of the Electra, Iphigeneia in Tauris, Iphigenia at Aulis and Orestes, all of Euripides. In Aeschylus's Eumenides, Orestes goes mad after the deed and is pursued by the Erinyes, whose duty it is to punish any violation of the ties of family piety, he takes refuge in the temple at Delphi. At last Athena receives him on the acropolis of Athens and arranges a formal trial of the case before twelve judges, including herself; the Erinyes demand their victim. Athena votes last announcing; the Erinyes are propitiated by a new ritual, in which they are worshipped as "Semnai Theai", "Venerable Goddesses", Orestes dedicates an altar to Athena Areia.

As Aeschylus tells it, the punishment ended there, but according to Euripides, in order to escape the persecutions of the Erinyes, Orestes was ordered by Apollo to go to Tauris, carry off the statue of Artemis which had fallen from heaven, to bring it to Athens. He went to Tauris with Pylades, the pair were at once imprisoned by the people, among whom the custom was to sacrifice all Greek strangers to Artemis; the priestess of Artemis, whose duty it was to perform the sacrifice, was Orestes' sister Iphigenia. She offered to release him. After a conflict of mutual affection, Pylades at last yielded, but the letter brought about the recognition of brother and sister, all three escaped together, carrying with them the image of Artemis. After his return to Greece, Orestes took possession of his father's kingdom of Mycenae to which were added Argos and Laconia, he was said to have died of a snakebite in Arcadia. His body was conveyed to Sparta for burial or, according to a Roman legend, to Aricia, when it was removed to Rome.

Before the Trojan War, Orestes was to marry daughter of Menelaus and Helen. Things soon changed after Orestes committed matricide: Menelaus gave his daughter to Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia. According to Euripides' play Andromache, Orestes slew Neoptolemus just outside a temple and took off with Hermione, he seized Argos and Arcadia after their thrones had become vacant, becoming ruler of all the Peloponnesus. His son by Hermione, became ruler after him but was killed by the Heracleidae. There is extant a Latin epic poem, consisting of about 1000 hexameters, called Orestes Tragoedia, ascribed to Dracontius of Carthage. Orestes appears to be a dramatic prototype for all persons whose crime is mitigated by extenuating circumstances; these legends belong to an age when higher ideas of social duty were being established. In one version of the story of Telephus, the infant Orestes was kidnapped by King Telephus, who used him as leverage in his demand that Achilles heal him. According to some sources, Orestes fathered Penthilus by Erigone.

In The History by Herodotus, the Oracle of Delphi foretold that the Spartans could not defeat the Tegeans until they moved the bones of Orestes to Sparta. Lichas discovered the body, thus Orestes would have been a Giant. For modern treatments see the Oresteia in popular culture; the relationship between Orestes and Pylades has been presented by some authors of the Roman era as romantic or homoerotic. A dialogue entitled Erotes and attributed t

Manuel Eyre

Manuel Eyre was a colonel in the Continental Army, a shipbuilder, the brother of Revolutionary War heroes Benjamin and Jehu Eyre. Manuel Eyre was born in one of five children of George and Mary Eyre, he had apprenticed as a shipwright to Richard Wright. On January 8, 1761, he married daughter of his professional master, his brother Jehu would marry Mary's sister Lydia on December 28 of the same year. Shortly after these marriages, the Eyres would take over the shipyards at Kensington. During the Revolution, the first ships built in the U. S. Navy were commissioned from the Eyres, the earliest being the gunboat Bull Dog, Philadelphia-built in August 1775. After the war, he became a member of the Pennsylvania state legislature and continued to build on his business interests; the Eyre shipping yards, so vital to the cause of independence became the international business of Eyre and Massey, one of the largest shipping companies in the world. One historian writes that, "Their vessels were known in every principal port of Europe and Asia, besides the United States and West Indian Islands... held extensive mercantile intercourse with all parts of the world."James Monroe, the fourth President of the United States, was an acquaintance of Manuel Eyre and spoke of him in his correspondence.

He is interred at Palmer Cemetery in Philadelphia. Manuel's son, Manuel, Jr. would become Director of the Second Bank of the United States in 1816

Junshan Island

Junshan Island is an island in Hunan province in China on Dongting Lake. The name means Princesses' Island, derives from the legend of the Xiang River goddesses, it is only 0.96-square-kilometre in width. It was a Daoist retreat. Junshan Island consists of 72 peaks on an oval-shaped island in Dongting Lake, it was called "Mount Xiang" in ancient times referred to as "Mount Dongting". Junshan Island is full of historical sites such as the Tomb of Xiangfei. Legend said that 4,000 years ago during Emperor Shun's inspection visit in the south, two concubines named "Ehuang" and "Nüying" followed him to Dongting Lake, but they were stopped by stormy weather; when they heard that Emperor Shun had died they cried bitterly that their teardrops turned the bamboo into mottled bamboo. Soon they died of overwhelming sadness and locals built a tomb on Junshan Island to commemorate them. Feilai Bell Junshan Garden of Love Liu Yi Well Tomb of Xiangfei Xiangfei Ancestral Temple Xiaoyao Palace Li Bai, a poet of the Tang dynasty, wrote: "淡掃明湖開玉鏡,丹靑畫出是君山".

Liu Yuxi, another poet of the Tang dynasty, eulogized: "遥望洞庭山水翠,白銀盤裏一靑螺". Junshan Island produces a lot of local specialities among which the most famous is Junshan Silver Needle Tea known as "Gold Inlaid Jade"; the tea was listed as a tribute to the imperial family in the Tang dynasty. The golden tea leaves thin as needles, are wrapped by a layer of white filaments; when the tea is being brewed, tea leaves first float up to the top and sink to the bottom in a vertical position as if they were swords standing upward creating a peculiar phenomenon in the tea cup. Zhu Xiang. 《湖南地理》. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press. ISBN 978-7-303-14646-8. Wei Ming. "Dongting Lake". Famous Lakes in China. Huangshan, Anhui: Huangshan Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-5461-2500-8