Organ (music)

In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a old musical instrument, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria, who invented the water organ, it was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire, where it continued to be used in secular and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church. Subsequently it re-emerged as a recital instrument in the Classical music tradition. Pipe organs use air moving through pipes to produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary in timbre and volume. Hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electronic additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible when the lowest of the pipes can be replaced.

Non-piped organs include the reed organ or harmonium, which like the accordion and harmonica use air to excite free reeds. Electronic organs or digital organs, notably the Hammond organ, generate electronically produced sound through one or more loudspeakers. Mechanical organs include the barrel organ, water organ, Orchestrion; these are controlled by mechanical means such as book music. Little barrel organs dispense with the hands of an organist and bigger organs are powered in most cases by an organ grinder or today by other means such as an electric motor; the pipe organ is the largest musical instrument. These instruments vary in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors, are built in churches, concert halls, homes. Small organs are called "positive" or "portative"; the pipes are controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons. Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics, some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters.

Some organs are enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive, it has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though similar designs were common in the Eastern Mediterranean from the early Byzantine period and precursors, such as the hydraulic organ, have been found dating to the late Hellenistic period. Along with the clock, it was considered one of the most complex human-made mechanical creations before the Industrial Revolution. Pipe organs range in size from a single short keyboard to huge instruments with over 10,000 pipes. A large modern organ has three or four keyboards with five octaves each, a two-and-a-half octave pedal board. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called the organ the "King of instruments"; some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes and it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. The most distinctive feature is the ability to range from the slightest sound to the most powerful, plein-jeu impressive sonic discharge, which can be sustained in time indefinitely by the organist.

For instance, the Wanamaker organ, located in Philadelphia, USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphony orchestras. Another interesting feature lies in its intrinsic "polyphony" approach: each set of pipes can be played with others, the sounds mixed and interspersed in the environment, not in the instrument itself. Most organs in Europe, the Americas, Australasia can be found in Christian churches; the introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the 7th century. Due to its simultaneous ability to provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany human voices, whether a congregation, a choir, or a cantor or soloist. Most services include solo organ repertoire for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service. Today this organ may be a pipe organ, a digital or electronic organ that generates the sound with digital signal processing chips, or a combination of pipes and electronics.

It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the theatre organ, a different style of instrument. However, as classical organ repertoire was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ became harder to draw. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, symphonic organs flourished in secular venues in the United States and the United Kingdom, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs fell out of favor as the orgelbewegung took hold in the middle of the 20th century, organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles for both secular and sacred applications; the theatre organ or cinema organ

Juan Van-Halen Acedo

Juan Van-Halen Acedo is a Spanish poet, journalist and politician member of the People's Party. His political activity is notable in the scope of the Community of Madrid, where he chaired the presidency of the regional parliament between 1995 and 1999. Born on 17 June 1944 in Torrelodones. A poet coming from the intellectual falangist ranks of the Sindicato Español Universitario, he served as chief of the Cultural Activities Section of the National Delegation for Youth between 1968 and 1970, he started a career in journalism in Ya. He collaborated in Arriba and El Alcázar, he worked as correspondent in Vietnam. He was elected member of the 2nd Assembly of Madrid within the list of People's Alliance. Subsequently re-elected in the 1991, 1995, 1999, May 2003, October 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015 regional elections representing the People's Party, he served as president of the regional legislature in its 4th term, he was senator, designated by the Assembly of Madrid, between 1989 and 1995 and between 1999 and 2011.

He is a member both of the Real Academia de la Historia and the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. Verdú Schumann, Daniel A.. "La Sala Amadís: arte y/o franquismo". Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie VII, Historia del Arte. Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia: 223–244. Doi:10.5944/etfvii.3.2015.13046. ISSN 1130-4715

Bryan Barberena

Bryan Barberena is an American mixed martial artist fighting in the Welterweight division in the Ultimate Fighting Championship. A professional competitor since 2009, he has competed for King of the Cage. Barberena was born in Montclair, but grew up in Rancho Cucamonga, where he moved with his parents at a young age, he attended Prescott High School, after moving to Arizona during his sophomore year where he played football and was a standout as a linebacker. His father is from Cali and Barberena has stated he feels both American and Colombian, he brings each country's flags to his fights. Barberena begin his professional mixed martial arts career in late 2009 with an amateur record of 1-0. Over the next five years he trained at the MMA Lab in Arizona and amassed a record of 9-2 for promotions such as Dakota Fighting Championships and King of the Cage. Barberena made his UFC debut in December 2014 when he faced Joe Ellenberger on December 13, 2014 at UFC on Fox 13, he won the fight via TKO in the third round.

In his second fight for the promotion, Barberena faced Chad Laprise at UFC 186. He lost the fight via unanimous decision. Both participants were awarded Fight of the Night honors. In his third fight for the promotion, Barberena filled in as a short notice replacement for Andrew Holbrook against Sage Northcutt at UFC on Fox: Johnson vs. Bader. With the late change, the matchup was contested at welterweight. Despite being a heavy underdog, Barberena won the bout via choke in the second round. In his fourth fight for the promotion, Barberena faced Warlley Alves at UFC 198. Once again a substantial underdog, Barberena won the fight by unanimous decision after withstanding the initial storm. Barberena next faced Colby Covington on December 17, 2016 at UFC on Fox 22, he lost the fight by unanimous decision. Barberena next faced Joe Proctor on April 23, 2017 at UFC Fight Night: Swanson vs. Lobov, he won the fight via TKO in the first round. Barberena faced Leon Edwards on September 2, 2017 at UFC Fight Night 115.

He lost the fight by unanimous decision. Barberena was expected to face Jake Ellenberger on June 1, 2018 at UFC Fight Night 131. However, on March 23, 2018, Barberena pulled out due to injury; the pairing was rescheduled and took place on August 25, 2018 at UFC Fight Night 135. He won the fight via technical knockout in the first round. After having split his training at MMA Lab and Gym-O before Ellenberger fight, Barberena decided to move his camp to Gym-O in Gastonia, North Carolina in order to be closer to his residence near Knoxville, Tennessee. Barberena faced Vicente Luque on February 17, 2019 at UFC on ESPN 1. After a back-and-forth two rounds, he lost the fight via TKO late in the third round; this fight earned him the Fight of the Night award. Barberena faced Randy Brown on June 22, 2019 at UFC on ESPN+ 12, he lost the fight via TKO in the third round. Ultimate Fighting Championship Fight of the Night vs. Chad Laprise & Vicente 2019 February Fight of the Month vs. Vicente Luque List of current UFC fighters List of male mixed martial artists Bryan Barberena at UFC Professional MMA record for Bryan Barberena from Sherdog