Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry that studies the structure and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding. Study of structure determines their chemical formula. Study of properties includes physical and chemical properties, evaluation of chemical reactivity to understand their behavior; the study of organic reactions includes the chemical synthesis of natural products and polymers, study of individual organic molecules in the laboratory and via theoretical study. The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry includes hydrocarbons as well as compounds based on carbon, but containing other elements oxygen, sulfur and the halogens. Organometallic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon–metal bonds. In addition, contemporary research focuses on organic chemistry involving other organometallics including the lanthanides, but the transition metals zinc, palladium, cobalt and chromium. Organic compounds constitute the majority of known chemicals.
The bonding patterns of carbon, with its valence of four—formal single and triple bonds, plus structures with delocalized electrons—make the array of organic compounds structurally diverse, their range of applications enormous. They form the basis of, or are constituents of, many commercial products including pharmaceuticals; the study of organic chemistry overlaps organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, but with medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, materials science. Before the nineteenth century, chemists believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were endowed with a vital force that distinguished them from inorganic compounds. According to the concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with a "vital force". During the first half of the nineteenth century, some of the first systematic studies of organic compounds were reported. Around 1816 Michel Chevreul started a study of soaps made from various alkalis, he separated the acids. Since these were all individual compounds, he demonstrated that it was possible to make a chemical change in various fats, producing new compounds, without "vital force".
In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler produced the organic chemical urea, a constituent of urine, from inorganic starting materials, in what is now called the Wöhler synthesis. Although Wöhler himself was cautious about claiming he had disproved vitalism, this was the first time a substance thought to be organic was synthesized in the laboratory without biological starting materials; the event is now accepted as indeed disproving the doctrine of vitalism. In 1856 William Henry Perkin, while trying to manufacture quinine accidentally produced the organic dye now known as Perkin's mauve, his discovery, made known through its financial success increased interest in organic chemistry. A crucial breakthrough for organic chemistry was the concept of chemical structure, developed independently in 1858 by both Friedrich August Kekulé and Archibald Scott Couper. Both researchers suggested that tetravalent carbon atoms could link to each other to form a carbon lattice, that the detailed patterns of atomic bonding could be discerned by skillful interpretations of appropriate chemical reactions.
The era of the pharmaceutical industry began in the last decade of the 19th century when the manufacturing of acetylsalicylic acid—more referred to as aspirin—in Germany was started by Bayer. By 1910 Paul Ehrlich and his laboratory group began developing arsenic-based arsphenamine, as the first effective medicinal treatment of syphilis, thereby initiated the medical practice of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularized the concepts of "magic bullet" drugs and of systematically improving drug therapies, his laboratory made decisive contributions to developing antiserum for diphtheria and standardizing therapeutic serums. Early examples of organic reactions and applications were found because of a combination of luck and preparation for unexpected observations; the latter half of the 19th century however witnessed systematic studies of organic compounds. The development of synthetic indigo is illustrative; the production of indigo from plant sources dropped from 19,000 tons in 1897 to 1,000 tons by 1914 thanks to the synthetic methods developed by Adolf von Baeyer.
In 2002, 17,000 tons of synthetic indigo were produced from petrochemicals. In the early part of the 20th century and enzymes were shown to be large organic molecules, petroleum was shown to be of biological origin; the multiple-step synthesis of complex organic compounds is called total synthesis. Total synthesis of complex natural compounds increased in complexity to terpineol. For example, cholesterol-related compounds have opened ways to synthesize complex human hormones and their modified derivatives. Since the start of the 20th century, complexity of total syntheses has been increased to include molecules of high complexity such as lysergic acid and vitamin B12; the discovery of petroleum and the development of the petrochemical industry spurred the development of organic chemistry. Converting individual petroleum compounds into types of compounds by various chemical processes led to organic reactions enabling a broad range of industrial and comme
Karl-Josef Assenmacher is a former German referee. Assenmacher, born in Hürth, has officiated a total of 153 games in the Bundesliga and 99 games in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1983 to 1993, he was a FIFA referee and refereed 18 European Cup games, including the 1993 European Cup Winners' Cup Final between Parma of Italy and Antwerp of Belgium, held at Wembley Stadium in London, England, on 12 May 1993, his career was marked by his refereeing of the World Cup qualifying game, held on 13 October 1993 at Rotterdam, between Holland and England. The game ended with Holland winning 2-0; the result meant that England would not qualify for the 1994 World Cup and caused English coach Graham Taylor to resign his post. Subsequently, Taylor, as well as most English media, criticized some of the referee's decisions in that game. Late in the second half, with the game at 0–0, David Platt was fouled by Ronald Koeman as he raced in clear on goal; the German referee failed to apply the rule of sending the Dutch player off for a "professional foul," and showed him only a yellow card.
The Dutch players charged down the free kick, "encroaching the kicker" and the shot was blocked, while the referee waved play to carry on. Minutes Ronald Koeman took a similar free kick outside England's penalty area, his first shot was blocked, one England player was booked for encroaching. The free kick was ordered retaken and Koeman scored at the second attempt. Dennis Bergkamp scored Holland's 2nd goal ostensibly "using his arm to control the ball." However, two minutes before half-time, England were said to have been fortunate because a Frank Rijkaard goal was ruled out for offside though replays showed the goal was legitimate. A week after the game, on 20 October 1993, FIFA issued a statement to the effect that Assenmacher, scheduled to referee the World Cup qualifier between Belgium and Czechoslovakia on 17 November, would be replaced by another German referee, Hellmut Krug; the statement read, "After analysing the performance of, the Fifa Referees' Committee has decided to replace him with Krug."
Assenmacher would not officiate an international game again. Assenmacher is an expert table tennis player, he has won the 2008 Table Tennis World Master Series. Michel Kitabdjian General referencesEdworthy, Niall. England: The Official F. A History, Virgin Publishers, 1997, ISBN 1-85227-699-1 Glanville, Brian. England Managers: The Toughest Job in Football, Headline, 320 pages, 31 May 2007, ISBN 978-0755316519 Karl-Josef Assenmacher data, at FootballDatabase.eu Database on German referees Profile at worldfootball.net
Arthur Webb-Jones was an eminent British gynaecologist who served extensively as a surgeon with the British Army in Egypt. Born in Glamorgan, Arthur was the second son of William Matthew Jones, co-owner of a trans-European shipping agents M. Jones and Brothers, Agnes Ida Long, his only sibling was Ernest William Jones the first class cricketer and father of choral conductor James William Webb-Jones. His cousins included Edwin Price Jones, Vice-Consul for Chile and Secretary to the Chamber of Commerce, Right Rev. William Wynne Jones, Anglican Bishop of Central Tanganyika in Africa. Arthur Webb-Jones was educated at Malvern College, St Thomas’s Hospital, the University of London, where the subject of his MD thesis was "Bilharziosis in Women", a subject was able to write authoritatively as a consequence of his extensive experience in gynaecological surgery in Alexandria, Egypt, his notable published works include'Lumbar Hernia' ) and'Two Cases of Gynaecomastia'. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 31 May 1900.
From 1900-1904, Webb-Jones served in the Egyptian Army in the Sudan, where he subsequently settled and established a private practice at Rue Stamboul and was appointed Surgeon and Gynaecologist to the Government Hospital and Medical Officer to the Egyptian State Railway, Alexandria District. He received the thanks of the Governor-General of the Sudan for his services. During the Gallipoli Campaign, Webb Jones performed yeoman service with the British Army from May 1915 to December 1916, he resided in Egypt from 1913 to 1917. When, in spring 1917, an epidemic of typhus broke out in Alexandria, Webb-Jones was called upon to give an intravenous injection of saline solution to a brother practitioner, dying from typhus, fatally infected himself in the process, as a consequence of which he died eleven days on 30 April 1917, his death warranted a mention in a special intelligence report to the Houses of Parliament, published in The Lancet. His name was placed in the Roll of Honour of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
Arthur Webb-Jones married Lillian Bell Long in 1906 and the couple had three children: Francis Arthur John Webb-Jones who changed his surname to Wakeman-Long at the time of his marriage. Francis was a barrister who served as Chairman of the family Steamship company, M. Jones and Brothers, until it was wound up in 1942. Marjorie Agnes Webb-Jones Married Lionel C. Lord Sept 1935 at Kensington. Arthur. Captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Married Doreen Ariadne Elwood