In biology, an organism is any individual entity that embodies the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into groups such as multicellular animals and fungi. All types of organisms are capable of reproduction and development, some degree of response to stimuli. Humans, squids and vascular plants are examples of multicellular organisms that differentiate specialized tissues and organs during development. An organism may be either a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains -- archaea. Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles. Fungi and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 2 million to 1 trillion, of which over 1.7 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that lived are estimated to be extinct.
In 2016, a set of 355 genes from the last universal common ancestor of all organisms was identified. The term "organism" first appeared in the English language in 1703 and took on its current definition by 1834, it is directly related to the term "organization". There is a long tradition of defining organisms as self-organizing beings, going back at least to Immanuel Kant's 1790 Critique of Judgment. An organism may be defined as an assembly of molecules functioning as a more or less stable whole that exhibits the properties of life. Dictionary definitions can be broad, using phrases such as "any living structure, such as a plant, fungus or bacterium, capable of growth and reproduction". Many definitions exclude viruses and possible man-made non-organic life forms, as viruses are dependent on the biochemical machinery of a host cell for reproduction. A superorganism is an organism consisting of many individuals working together as a single functional or social unit. There has been controversy about the best way to define the organism and indeed about whether or not such a definition is necessary.
Several contributions are responses to the suggestion that the category of "organism" may well not be adequate in biology. Viruses are not considered to be organisms because they are incapable of autonomous reproduction, growth or metabolism. Although some organisms are incapable of independent survival and live as obligatory intracellular parasites, they are capable of independent metabolism and procreation. Although viruses have a few enzymes and molecules characteristic of living organisms, they have no metabolism of their own; this rules out autonomous reproduction: they can only be passively replicated by the machinery of the host cell. In this sense, they are similar to inanimate matter. While viruses sustain no independent metabolism and thus are not classified as organisms, they do have their own genes, they do evolve by mechanisms similar to the evolutionary mechanisms of organisms. Thus, an argument that viruses should be classed as living organisms is their ability to undergo evolution and replicate through self-assembly.
However, some scientists argue that viruses neither self-reproduce. Instead, viruses are evolved by their host cells, meaning that there was co-evolution of viruses and host cells. If host cells did not exist, viral evolution would be impossible; this is not true for cells. If viruses did not exist, the direction of cellular evolution could be different, but cells would be able to evolve; as for the reproduction, viruses rely on hosts' machinery to replicate. The discovery of viruses with genes coding for energy metabolism and protein synthesis fuelled the debate about whether viruses are living organisms; the presence of these genes suggested. However, it was found that the genes coding for energy and protein metabolism have a cellular origin. Most these genes were acquired through horizontal gene transfer from viral hosts. Organisms are complex chemical systems, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of sustainability or survival; the same laws that govern non-living chemistry govern the chemical processes of life.
It is the phenomena of entire organisms that determine their fitness to an environment and therefore the survivability of their DNA-based genes. Organisms owe their origin and many other internal functions to chemical phenomena the chemistry of large organic molecules. Organisms are complex systems of chemical compounds that, through interaction and environment, play a wide variety of roles. Organisms are semi-closed chemical systems. Although they are individual units of life, they are not closed to the environment around them. To operate they take in and release energy. Autotrophs produce usable energy using light from the sun or inorganic compounds while heterotrophs take in organic compounds from the environment; the primary chemical element in these compounds is carbon. The chemical properties of this element such as its great affinity for bonding with other small atoms, including
Microsoft Active Accessibility is an Application Programming Interface for user interface accessibility. MSAA was introduced as a platform add-on to Microsoft Windows 95 in 1997. MSAA is designed to help Assistive Technology products interact with standard and custom user interface elements of an application, as well as to access and manipulate an application's UI elements. AT products work with MSAA enabled applications in order to provide better access for individuals who have physical or cognitive difficulties, impairments, or disabilities; some examples of AT products are screen readers for users with limited sight, on screen keyboards for users with limited physical access, or narrators for users with limited hearing. MSAA can be used for automated testing tools, computer-based training applications; the current and latest specification of MSAA is found in part of Microsoft UI Automation Community Promise Specification. Active Accessibility was referred to as OLE Accessibility and this heritage is reflected in the naming of its binary components such as oleacc.dll and the header file oleacc.h which contains definitions and declarations.
As part of Microsoft's ActiveX branding push in March 1996, OLE Accessibility was renamed ActiveX Accessibility and presented as such at the Microsoft Professional Developers Conference in San Francisco, March 1996. The ActiveX branding was reserved for internet-specific technologies, ActiveX Accessibility became Active Accessibility and shortened to MSAA. MSAA was made available in April 1997 as part of the Microsoft Active Accessibility Software Developers Kit version 1.0. The SDK packaged included documentation, programming libraries, sample source code, a Re-Distributable Kit for accessible technology vendors to include with their products; the RDK included updated operating system components for Microsoft Windows 95. Since Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 4, MSAA has been built-into all versions of the Windows platform, has received periodic upgrades and patches over time. Programmatic exposure for assistive technology applications on Windows has been provided through MSAA; however newer applications are now using Microsoft UI Automation, introduced in Windows Vista and the.
NET Framework 3.0. The following Active Accessibility versions have been released: The motivating factor behind the development of MSAA was to allow an available and seamless communication mechanism between the underlying operating system or applications and assistive technology products; the programmatic goal of MSAA is to allow Windows controls to expose basic information, such as name, location on screen, or type of control, state information such as visibility, enabled, or selected. MSAA is based on the Component Object Model. COM defines a mechanism for applications and operating systems to communicate. Figure 1 shows a high-level architecture of MSAA. Applications are called Servers in MSAA because they provide, or serve, information about their user interfaces. Accessibility tools are called Clients in MSAA because they consume and interact with UI information from an application; the system component of the MSAA framework, Oleacc.dll, aids in the communication between accessibility tools and applications.
The code boundary indicates the programmatic boundaries between applications that provide UI accessibility information and accessibility tools that interact with the UI on behalf of users. The boundary can be a process boundary when MSAA clients have their own process; the UI is represented as a hierarchy of accessible objects. The accessible object is the central interface of MSAA, is represented by an IAccessible COM interface and an integer ChildId, it allows applications to expose a tree structure that represents the structure of the UI. Each element of this tree exposes a set of properties and methods that allow the corresponding UI element to be manipulated. MSAA clients can access the programmatic UI information through a standard API. MSAA communicates information by sending small chunks of information about elements of a program to the assistive technology object; the four critical pieces of information on which the AT relies to help users interact with applications are an element's role, name and state: Role: Conveys to users via AT what type of object a control is, such as a button or a table.
The IAccessible method for this is get_accRole. Name: Provides a label for an element, such as Next on a button that moves users to the next page, or First Name for an edit box; the IAccessible method for this is get_accName. Value: Provides the value of the specified object such as the value on a slider bar, or the information in an editable text box. Not all objects have a value; the IAccessible method for this is get_accValue. State: Identifies the current condition of the control, such as checked for a checkbox. State advises whether a control can be selected, and/or other types of changeable functionality; the IAccessible method for this is get_accState. Microsoft provides a complete list of their functions. Role information is based on the type of UI control. For example, if a developer is implementing a button, clickable, the developer would select Pushbutton as the Role to implement; the following table shows an example list of their related descriptions. The Names for elements in an application are assigned in the code by the developer.
Many objects such as icons, check boxes, combo boxes, other controls
The Breeders' Cup Filly & Mare Sprint is a 7-furlong Weight for Age stakes race for thoroughbred fillies and mares three years old and up. As its name implies, it is a part of the Breeders' Cup World Championships, the de facto year-end championship for North American thoroughbred racing held in the United States; the race is run on a dirt course. The race was run for the first time in 2007 during the first day of the expanded Breeders' Cup at that year's host track, Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport, New Jersey. In 2009, the race became a Grade I event; the 2007 race was held at a distance of 6 furlongs instead of the normal distance of 7 furlongs because of the configuration of the dirt track at Monmouth Park. Beginning in 2007, the Breeders' Cup developed "The Breeders' Cup Challenge," a series of races in each division that allotted automatic qualifying bids to winners of defined races; each of the thirteen divisions has between three and twelve of these "Win and You're In" qualifying races.
In the Breeders' Cup Filly and Mare Sprint division, runners are limited to 14, with up to three automatic berths. Note though that one horse may win multiple challenge races, while other challenge winners will not be entered in the Breeders' Cup for a variety of reasons such as injury or travel considerations; the 2019 "Win and You're In" races are: the Princess Rooney Handicap, a Grade 2 race run in July at Gulfstream Park in Florida the Ballerina Stakes, a Grade 1 race at Saratoga Race Course in upstate New York the Thoroughbred Club of America Stakes, a Grade 2 race at Keeneland Race Course in Kentucky Most wins: 2 - Groupie Doll Most wins by a jockey: 2 - Rajiv Maragh 2 - Mike E. Smith 2 - Irad Ortiz Jr. Most wins by a trainer: 2 - William Bradley Most wins by an owner: 2 - Bradley F & W/Hurst/Brent † - Run at 6 furlongs Breeders' Cup Filly & Mare Sprint "top three finishers" and starters Breeders' Cup World Thoroughbred Championships American Thoroughbred Racing top Attended Events Breeders' Cup official website Racing Post: 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016