An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, organ. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships and educational institutions. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organisation consisting of volunteers; such organisations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs or coordinating bodies with a goal in mind which they may express in the form of an Manifesto, Mission statement,or in an informal manner reflected in what they do because remember every action done by an organization both legal and illegal reflects a goal in mind.

Organisations may operate secretly or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organisations and resistance movements. And in some cases may have obstacles from other organizations but what makes an organization an organization is not the paperwork that makes it official but to be an organization there must be four things: A goal in mind A leader or committee making the decision action involved communication and members, but what makes an organization recognized by the government is either filling out Incorporation or recognition in the form of either societal pressure, causing concerns or being considered the spokesperson of a group of people subject to negotiation Compare the concept of social groups, which may include non-organizations. The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising organisational structure. According to management science, most human organisations fall into four types: Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organisations Pyramids or hierarchies These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group by voting.

The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables. Committees are the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote; the problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better. Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions; this organisational structure promotes internal competition.

Inefficient components of the organisation starve. Everybody is paid for what they do, so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology, it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in general, compete with one another in any way, but are autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon; this organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, measured by a boss, super-expert in the same field; the other direction tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, customer types, or some other schemes; as an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc.

Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation; this arrangement is associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence." In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, psychology and organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is referred to as orga

Parallel Lines

Parallel Lines is the third studio album by American rock band Blondie. It was released on September 1978, by Chrysalis Records to international commercial success; the album reached No. 1 in the United Kingdom in February 1979 and proved to be the band's commercial breakthrough in the United States, where it reached No. 6 in April 1979. In Billboard magazine, Parallel Lines was listed at No. 9 in the top pop albums year-end chart of 1979. As of 2008, the album had sold over 20 million copies worldwide; the album spawned several successful singles, notably the international hit "Heart of Glass". In February 1978, Blondie released their second studio album Plastic Letters, it was their last album produced by Richard Gottehrer, whose sound had formed the basis of Blondie's new wave and punk output. During a tour of the west coast of the US in support of Plastic Letters, Blondie encountered Australian producer Mike Chapman in California. Peter Leeds, Blondie's manager, conspired with Chrysalis Records to encourage Chapman to work with Blondie on new music.

Drummer Clem Burke recalls feeling enthusiastic about the proposition, believing Chapman could create innovative and eclectic records. However, lead vocalist Debbie Harry was far less enthusiastic about Chapman's involvement as she knew him only by reputation. Was L. A.". Harry's cautiousness abated after she played Chapman early cuts of "Heart of Glass" and "Sunday Girl" and he was impressed. In June 1978 the band entered the Record Plant in New York to record their third album, first with Chapman. However, Chapman found the band difficult to work with, remembering them as the worst band he worked with in terms of musical ability, although praising Frank Infante as "an amazing guitarist". Sessions with Chris Stein were hampered by his being stoned during recording, Chapman encouraged him to write songs rather than play guitar. According to Chapman, Jimmy Destri would prove himself to be far better at songwriting than as a keyboardist and Clem Burke had poor timing playing drums; as a result, Chapman spent time improving the band Stein with whom Chapman spent hours rerecording his parts to ensure they were right.

Bassist Nigel Harrison became so frustrated with Chapman's drive for perfectionism that he threw a synthesizer at him during recording. Chapman recalls the atmosphere at the Record Plant in an interview for Sound on Sound: The Blondies were tough in the studio, real tough. None of them liked each other, except Chris and Debbie, there was so much animosity, they were really juvenile in their approach to life—a classic New York underground rock band—and they didn't give a fuck about anything. They just didn't want to work too hard getting it. Chapman took an unorthodox approach when recording with Harry whom he describes as "a great singer and a great vocal stylist, with a beautifully identifiable voice. However... very moody". Chapman was far more cautious of demanding much from Harry as he saw her as a emotional person who would vest these emotions in the songs they made, he remembers Harry disappearing into the bathroom in tears for several hours at a time during recording. During a day of recording, Harry sang two lead parts and some harmonies, less work than she did with Gottehrer.

This was due to Chapman encouraging her to be cautious about the way she sang to recognise phrasing and attitude. Blondie recorded Parallel Lines in six weeks, despite being given six months by Terry Ellis, co-founder of Chrysalis Records, to do so. A traditional set-up was used and Chapman fitted Neumann microphones to the toms, snare and hi-hat, as well as several above the site; when recording, Chapman would start with the basic track, difficult to record at the time by way of "pencil erasing". Chapman explained in an interview for Sound on Sound, "that meant using a pencil to hold the tape away from the head and erasing up to the kick drum. If a bass part was ahead of the kick, you could erase it so that it sounded like it was on top of the kick. That's easy to do these days, but back it was quite a procedure just to get the bottom end sounding nice and tight." A DI/amp method was used to record Harrison's bass and Destri's synthesizer, while Shure SM57 and AKG 414 microphones were used to capture Infante's Les Paul guitar.

King Crimson guitarist Robert Fripp makes a guest appearance on his main instrument on "Fade Away and Radiate". After the basic track was complete, Chapman would record backing vocals with Harry. However, this process was hampered by many songs not being written in time for the vocals to be recorded. "Sunday Girl", "Picture This" and "One Way Or Another" were all unfinished during the rehearsal sessions. When recording vocal parts, Chapman remembers asking Harry if she was ready to sing, only for her to reply "Yeah, just a minute" as she was still writing lyrics down. Chapman notes. During the last session at the Record Plant, the band were asleep on the floor only to be awakened at six o'clock in the morning by Mike Chapman and his engineer Peter Coleman leaving for Los Angeles with the tape tracks. Despite Blondie's belief that Parallel Lines would resonate with a wider audience, Chrysalis Records was not as enthusiastic and label executives told them to start again, only to be dissuaded by Chapman's assurance that its singles would prove popular.

According to music journalist Robert Christgau, Parallel Lines was a pop rock album in which Blondie achieved their "synthesis of the Dixie Cups and the Electric Prunes". Its style of "state-of-the-art pop/rock circa 1978", as AllMusic's William Ruhlmann described it, showed Blondie deviati

Rearguard Affair of Étreux

The Rearguard Affair of Étreux was fought at Étreux by the British Expeditionary Force during the Great Retreat on the Western Front in 1914. The German 2nd Army commander General Karl von Bülow had ordered a rapid pursuit after the battles of 21–24 August against the French Fifth Army and the British Expeditionary Force; the 1st and 2nd Armies were sent to the south-west to gain the left flank of the Allied line. After encountering "especially obstinate" resistance at Marbaix and Le Grand-Fayt, the German Imperial Army's X Corps had been ordered to continue its advance to the south-west; the 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers had been ordered to hold its ground at all costs, in their first action in France. Less than a battalion strength, just 3 companies of the 2nd Battalion of "The Munsters" supported by a couple of field guns halted the advance of the German Army for fourteen hours in the area of Oisny and Étreux during the retreat from Mons on 27 August. Under continual pressure from German attacks the Munsters fell back to an orchard near the village of Étreux.

As night fell on the evening of the 27 August, they found. Having exhausted their ammunition they surrendered. In their action at Ètreux only four officers and 240 other ranks of the 2nd Munsters survived but the battalion delayed German pursuit of the British I Corps, gaining time for the British Expeditionary Force to escape; the 2nd Munsters were outnumbered at odds of over 6:1 and when defeated, the survivors were congratulated on their bravery by the German soldiers they had fought. The German X Corps continued its advance towards Wassigny and Étreux on 27 August 1914, where its constituent 19th Division reported that it had "scattered a British battalion". Battle of Étreux Battles and Engagements France and Flanders 1914