Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, ring, or syndicate. European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. Gambetta's classic work on the Sicilian mafia generates an economic study of the mafia, which exerts great influence on studies of the Russian mafia, the Chinese triads, Hong Kong mafia and the Japanese yakuza. Other organizations—including states, militarist, police forces, corporations—may sometimes use organized-crime methods to conduct their activities, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions.
There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as white-collar crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes, treason. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter. For example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organized crime and war sometimes complement each other; the term "oligarchy" has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families and business oligarchs. In the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as "he unlawful activities of a organized, disciplined association ". Criminal activity as a structured process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups. Due to the escalating violence of Mexico's drug war, a report issued by the United States Department of Justice characterizes the Mexican drug cartels as the "greatest organized crime threat to the United States".
Various models have been proposed to describe the structure of criminal organizations. Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions, they produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition. These networks are composed of: Hierarchies based on'naturally' forming family and cultural traditions. Bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures, they focus more on how the operations works, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are typified by: A complex authority structure. However, this model of operation has some flaws: The'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to. While bureaucratic operations emphasize business processes and authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth.
An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010. A distinctive gang culture underpins many, but not organized groups; the term “street gang” is used interchangeably with “youth gang,” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Miller defines a street gang as “a self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise." Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, increase their self-esteem. A sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs. "Zones of transition"
Eaton Peak is a 2,117-metre double summit mountain located in the Canadian Cascades of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. It is situated 17 km southeast of Hope, 3 km south of Mt. Grant, 12.6 km northwest of Silvertip Mountain. The peak was first climbed in 1950 by J. Butcher, F. Rodgers, E. Jenkins; the peak was named to honor Canadian Army Private Douglas B. Eaton, from nearby Chilliwack, killed in action in World War II; the mountain's name was adopted April 7, 1955, by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. Nearby Eaton Creek and Eaton Lake were named in memory of his younger brother, William killed in action a year earlier. Precipitation runoff from the peak drains into a tributary of the Fraser River. Eaton Peak is related to the Chilliwack batholith, which intruded the region 26 to 29 million years ago after the major orogenic episodes in the region; this is part of the Pemberton Volcanic Belt, an eroded volcanic belt that formed as a result of subduction of the Farallon Plate starting 29 million years ago.
During the Pleistocene period dating back over two million years ago, glaciation advancing and retreating scoured the landscape leaving deposits of rock debris. The "U"-shaped cross section of the river valleys are a result of recent glaciation. Uplift and faulting in combination with glaciation have been the dominant processes which have created the tall peaks and deep valleys of the North Cascades area; the North Cascades features some of the most rugged topography in the Cascade Range with craggy peaks and ridges, deep glacial valleys, granite spires. Geological events occurring many years ago created the diverse topography and drastic elevation changes over the Cascade Range leading to various climate differences which lead to vegetation variety defining the ecoregions in this area. Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, travel east toward the Cascade Range where they are forced upward by the range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall; as a result, the Cascade Mountains experience high precipitation during the winter months in the form of snowfall.
Temperatures can drop below −20 °C with wind chill factors below −30 °C. The months July through September offer the most favorable weather for climbing Eaton Peak. Established climbing routes on Eaton Peak: West Ridge - class 3 Southeast Ridge North Ridge Geography of the North Cascades Weather forecast: Eaton Peak Eaton Peak photo: Flickr Climbing Eaton Peak: YouTube
Diaphorocetus is an extinct genus of odontocete cetacean belonging to Physeteroidea. Its remains were found in the Monte León Formation of Argentina. Diaphorocetus was named Mesocetus by Moreno. Lydekker found that Mesocetus was in use for an extinct mysticete, so he renamed the sperm whale Hypocetus. Ameghino too recognized Moreno's name as preoccupied, but unaware of Lydekker's paper, coined his own replacement name Diaphorocetus for Mesocetus. Diaphorocetus was declared a nomen protectum by Paolucci et al. because Hypocetus and Paracetus have not been used as valid since 1899 under Article 23.9 of the Code. The small teeth of Diaphorocetus and the bottleneck-like nature of the rostrum suggest that Diaphorocetus employed a feeding strategy intermediate between that of raptorial sperm whales like Acrophyseter and Livyatan and extant sperm whales
Tomb of Horrors is an adventure module written by Gary Gygax for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. It was written for and used at the 1975 Origins 1 convention. Gygax designed the adventure both to challenge the skill of expert players in his own campaign and to test players who boasted of having mighty player characters able to best any challenge; the module, coded S1, was special series of modules. Several versions of the adventure have been published, the first in 1978, the most recent, for the fifth edition of D&D, in 2017 as one of the included adventures in Tales from the Yawning Portal; the module served as the basis for a novel published in 2002. The module's plot revolves around the tomb of the demilich Acererak; the player characters must battle their way past a variety of monsters and traps, with the ultimate goal of destroying Acererak. Tomb of Horrors was considered the third greatest Dungeons & Dragons adventure of all time by the staff of Dragon in 2004; the module has influenced Dungeons & Dragons products, was followed by three other modules in the S-series: S2 White Plume Mountain, S3 Expedition to the Barrier Peaks, S4 The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth.
Tomb of Horrors is set in the World of a D&D campaign setting. In Tomb of Horrors, the adventurers encounter a number of tricks and traps while attempting to penetrate the tomb of a dead wizard; as the scenario begins, the players are told that the evil wizard Acererak is said to linger in his ancient tomb in undead form. A powerful lich, he has become a demi-lich, a more powerful form of undead that has transcended the need for any physical body apart from its skull. Player characters must survive the deadly traps in the tomb and fight their way into the demi-lich's elaborately concealed inner sanctum to destroy him once and for all; the module is divided into thirty-three encounters, beginning with two false entrances to the tomb, ending with "The Crypt of Acererak the Demi-Lich." Example encounters are the "Huge Pit Filled with 200 Spikes", or encounter 22, "The Cavern of Gold and Silver Mists": "The mists are silvery and shot through with delicate streamers of golden color. Vision extends only 6'.
There is a dim aura of good. Those who step into the mist must save versus poison or become idiots until they can breathe the clean air above ground under the warm sun." The module ends with the destruction of Acererak without any postscript. Tomb of Horrors was written by Gary Gygax for official D&D tournament play at the 1975 Origins 1 convention. Gygax developed the adventure from an idea by Alan Lucien, one of his original AD&D playtesters, "and I admit to chuckling evilly as I did so." Gygax designed the Tomb of Horrors modules for two related purposes. First, Gygax explains, "There were several expert players in my campaign, this was meant as yet another challenge to their skill—and the persistence of their theretofore-invincible characters. I had in mind foiling Rob Kuntz's PC, Ernie Gygax's PC, Tenser." Second, so that he was "ready for those fans who boasted of having mighty PCs able to best any challenge offered by the AD&D game."Tomb of Horrors was revised in late 1977 for publication as an AD&D module.
In 1978, TSR, Inc. published the module with a monochrome cover and updated for use with first edition Advanced Dungeons & Dragons rules. The module included a twenty-page book, a twelve-page book, an outer folder; the module features a book of illustrations to show to players. Tomb of Horrors was republished in 1981 as a thirty-two page booklet with identical text but a new, full-color cover; the module has been described as the first of a series of high-level scenarios, was included as part of the Realms of Horror abridged compilation produced in 1987. In 1998, the module was reprinted as part of the Return to the Tomb of Horrors module—a substantial expansion and sequel to the original adventure, written for 2nd Edition AD&D rules. Wizards of the Coast released an updated version of the original module as a free download for Halloween 2005, retaining much of the original content; this updated version was designed for use with the Dragons 3.5 Edition rules. Tomb of Horrors was adapted into a novel of the same name by Keith Francis Strohm for the Greyhawk Classics series published by Wizards of the Coast in 2002.
In July 2010, Wizards of the Coast released two adventures bearing the Tomb of Horrors name. One is a hardcover super-adventure written by Ari Marmell and Scott Fitzgerald Gray, which builds on and expands the legend of the original Tomb using the canon of Return to the Tomb of Horrors as a starting point; the second Tomb of Horrors is a conversion and update of the original module for 4th Edition rules, written by Scott Fitzgerald Gray and released to members of the RPGA as part of the DM Rewards program. All four modules of the S-series were included as part of the Dungeons of Dread hardcover collection, released on March 19, 2013. Lawrence Schick wrote in the foreword: "The dungeon of the demi-lich Acererak was, for Gary, a kind of thought experiment: If an undead sorcerer wanted to keep his tomb from being plundered by greedy adventurers, how would he do it? The answer, of course, was to defend the crypt with tricks and traps designed not to challenge the intruders but to kill them dead.
And furthermore, to do it in ways so horrific that all but the most determined party would give up and leave well enough alone."In 2017, Wizards re-released Tomb of Horrors updated to 5th Edition rules as part
When the United Kingdom declared war on Nazi Germany at the outset of World War II it controlled to varying degrees numerous crown colonies and the Indian Empire. It maintained unique political ties to four semi-independent Dominions—Australia, South Africa, New Zealand—as part of the Commonwealth. In 1939 the British Empire was a global power, with direct or de facto political and economic control of 25% of the world's population, 30% of its land mass; the contribution of the British Empire and Commonwealth in terms of manpower and materiel was critical to the Allied war effort. From September 1939 to mid-1942 Britain led Allied efforts in every global military theatre. Commonwealth forces, totalling close to 15 million serving men and women, fought the German, Italian and other Axis armies, air forces and navies across Europe, Asia, in the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans. Commonwealth forces fought in Britain, across Northwestern Europe in the effort to slow or stop the Axis advance.
Commonwealth airforces fought the Luftwaffe to a standstill over Britain, its armies fought and destroyed Italian forces in North and East Africa and occupied several overseas colonies of German-occupied European nations. Following successful engagements against Axis forces, Commonwealth troops invaded and occupied Libya, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, Iraq, Lebanon, the Faroe Islands, Madagascar; the Commonwealth defeated, held back or slowed the Axis powers for three years while mobilizing their globally integrated economy and industrial infrastructure to build what became, by 1942, the most extensive military apparatus of the war. These efforts came at the cost of 150,000 military deaths, 400,000 wounded, 100,000 prisoners, over 300,000 civilian deaths, the loss of 70 major warships, 39 submarines, 3,500 aircraft, 1,100 tanks and 65,000 vehicles. During this period the Commonwealth built industrial capacity. Britain became the nucleus of the Allied war effort in Europe, hosted governments in exile in London to rally support in occupied Europe for the Allied effort.
Canada delivered $4 billion in direct financial aid to the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand began shifting to domestic production to provide material aid to US forces in the Pacific. Following the US entry into the war in December 1941, the Commonwealth and United States coordinated their military efforts and resources globally; as the scale of the US military involvement and industrial production increased, the US undertook command of many theatres, relieving Commonwealth forces for duty elsewhere, expanding the scope and intensity of Allied military efforts. However, it proved difficult to co-ordinate the defence of far-flung colonies and Commonwealth countries from simultaneous attacks by the Axis Powers. In part this was exacerbated by disagreements over priorities and objectives, as well as the deployment and control of joint forces; the governments of Britain and Australia, in particular, turned to the United States for support. Although the British Empire and the Commonwealth countries all emerged from the war as victors, the conquered territories were returned to British rule, the costs of the war and the nationalist fervour that it had stoked became a catalyst for the decolonisation which took place in the following decades.
From 1923, defence of British colonies and protectorates in East Asia and Southeast Asia was centred on the "Singapore strategy". This made the assumption that Britain could send a fleet to its naval base in Singapore within two or three days of a Japanese attack, while relying on France to provide assistance in Asia via its colony in Indochina and, in the event of war with Italy, to help defend British territories in the Mediterranean. Pre-war planners did not anticipate the fall of France: Nazi occupation, the loss of control over the Channel, the employment of French Atlantic ports as forward bases for U-boats directly threatened Britain itself, forcing a significant reassessment of naval defence priorities. During the 1930s, a triple threat emerged for the British Commonwealth in the form of right-wing, militaristic governments in Germany and Japan. Germany threatened Britain itself, while Italy and Japan's imperial ambitions looked set to clash with the British imperial presence in the Mediterranean and East Asia respectively.
However, there were differences of opinion within the UK and the Dominions as to which posed the most serious threat, whether any attack would come from more than one power at the same time. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Two days on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored and France declared war on Germany. Britain's declaration of war automatically committed India, the Crown colonies, the protectorates, but the 1931 Statute of Westminster had granted autonomy to the Dominions so each decided their course separately. Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies joined the British declaration on 3 September, believing that it applied to all subjects of the Empire and Commonwealth. New Zealand followed suit at 9.30 pm on 3 September, after Peter Fraser consulted the Cabinet. South Africa took three days to make its decision, as the Prime Minister General J. B. M. Hertzog favoured neutrality but was defeated by the pro-wa
Somayanur village is part of 22 Nanjundapuram Panchayat located in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Somayanur village lies in the outskirts of Coimbatore City. Somayanur village will come under 22 Nanjundapuram panchayat. People in this village are engaged in the agriculture business and the cultivation of vegetables and coconuts; the brick business is the primary source of income around Chinnathdagam and surrounding areas. There are more than 1000 brick factories in this area. Somayanur is a part of 22 Nanjundapuram Panchayat located near Chinnathadagam; this village is surrounded by Western Ghats. It enjoys a pleasant climate throughout the year. More than 1000 families live in this village. Somayanur has a pleasant, salubrious climate due to its proximity to thickly forested mountain ranges and the cool breeze blowing through the Palghat gap during the monsoon seasons; this village has moderate summers. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures during summer and winter varies between 35 °C to 18 °C.
Due to the presence of the mountain pass, major parts of the coimbatore district benefit from the south-west monsoon in the months from June to August. After a warm, humid September, the regular monsoon starts from October lasting till early November; these monsoons are brought about by the retreating North-eastern monsoon. The average annual rainfall is around 700 mm with the North East and the South West monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% to the total rainfall. Panchayat Union middle school, Somayanur,Chinnathadagam,Coimbatore Mariamman Temple Vinayagar temple Kavaya kali Amman Temple Shridi Saibaba TempleThere are around ten temples in this village; some of the famous temples near this village: Anuvavi Subramniam Kovil Temple, Periyathadagam 3 km Maruthamalai Temple - 8 km Perur Kovil- 20 km Ponnuthu Temple - 4 km Sri Dayananda Saraswathi swamiji's Arsha Vidya Gurukulam Ashram in Anaikatti - 10 kmPonnuthu Temple - 8 km Thambitta Parai - 2 km Melmudi Temple - 7 km Anaikatty- Bhavani river - 18 km from this place.
Anuvavi subramaniam kovil - 3 km from this place Ooty - 60 km from this place Kovai Kutralam - 20 km from this place Silent Valley - 50 km from this place Water falls, Mangarai - 6 km Mariamman temple festival Pongal festivalPongal is one of the main festival of South Indians. Which is celebrated well in Somayanur. On pongal day people of somayanoor use to celebrate pongal with lot of love and enjoyment; the main thing is that people all together used to conduct the sports on pongal day which has a history of more than 30 years. These sports are conducted to encourage the children as well as the youngsters of Somayanur; the participants for this sports event will come from all the nearest villages. Kabadi is one of the main sports. Elephant entered into village Somayanur and http://www.dinamalar.com/News_Detail.asp? Id=277084 http://www.deccanchronicle.com/chennai/tiruchy-master-plan-approved-356 Child labor issue http://www.thehindu.com/2009/03/27/stories/2009032758310300.html Pongal festival at Somayanur www.coimbatorelive.blogspot.com/2008_01_01_archive.html