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Orgasm is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure. Experienced by males and females, orgasms are controlled by the involuntary or autonomic nervous system, they are associated with other involuntary actions, including muscular spasms in multiple areas of the body, a general euphoric sensation and body movements and vocalizations. The period after orgasm is a relaxing experience, attributed to the release of the neurohormones oxytocin and prolactin as well as endorphins. Human orgasms result from physical sexual stimulation of the penis in males and of the clitoris in females. Sexual stimulation can be with a sex partner; the health effects surrounding the human orgasm are diverse. There are many physiological responses during sexual activity, including a relaxed state created by prolactin, as well as changes in the central nervous system such as a temporary decrease in the metabolic activity of large parts of the cerebral cortex while there is no change or increased metabolic activity in the limbic areas of the brain.

There is a wide range of sexual dysfunctions, such as anorgasmia. These effects impact cultural views of orgasm, such as the beliefs that orgasm and the frequency/consistency of it are either important or irrelevant for satisfaction in a sexual relationship, theories about the biological and evolutionary functions of orgasm. In a clinical context, orgasm is defined by the muscular contractions involved during sexual activity, along with the characteristic patterns of change in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate and depth; this is categorized as the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual tension during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region. However, definitions of orgasm vary and there is sentiment that consensus on how to classify it is absent. At least twenty-six definitions of orgasm were listed in the journal Clinical Psychology Review. There is some debate whether certain types of sexual sensations should be classified as orgasms, including female orgasms caused by G-spot stimulation alone, the demonstration of extended or continuous orgasms lasting several minutes or an hour.

The question centers around the clinical definition of orgasm, but this way of viewing orgasm is physiological, while there are psychological and neurological definitions of orgasm. In these and similar cases, the sensations experienced are subjective and do not involve the involuntary contractions characteristic of orgasm. However, the sensations in both sexes are pleasurable and are felt throughout the body, causing a mental state, described as transcendental, with vasocongestion and associated pleasure comparable to that of a full-contractionary orgasm. For example, modern findings support distinction between male orgasm. For this reason, there are views on both sides as to whether these can be defined as orgasms. Orgasms can be achieved during a variety of activities, including vaginal, anal or oral sex, non-penetrative sex or masturbation, they may be achieved by the use of a sex toy, such as a sensual vibrator or an erotic electrostimulation. Achieving orgasm by stimulation of the nipples or other erogenous zones is rarer.

Multiple orgasms are possible in women, but they are uncommon. Multiple orgasms are orgasms. In addition to physical stimulation, orgasm can be achieved from psychological arousal alone, such as during dreaming or by forced orgasm. Orgasm by psychological stimulation alone was first reported among people who had spinal cord injury. Although sexual function and sexuality after spinal cord injury is often impacted, this injury does not deprive one of sexual feelings such as sexual arousal and erotic desires. A person may experience an involuntary orgasm, such as in the case of rape or other sexual assault. Scientific literature focuses on the psychology of female orgasm more than it does on the psychology of male orgasm, which "appears to reflect the assumption that female orgasm is psychologically more complex than male orgasm," but "the limited empirical evidence available suggests that male and female orgasm may bear more similarities than differences. In one controlled study by Vance and Wagner, independent raters could not differentiate written descriptions of male versus female orgasm experiences".

In men, the most common way of achieving orgasm is by physical sexual stimulation of the penis. This is accompanied by ejaculation, but it is possible, though rare, for men to orgasm without ejaculation. Prepubescent boys have dry orgasms. Dry orgasms can occur as a result of retrograde ejaculation, or hypogonadism. Men may ejaculate without reaching orgasm, known as anorgasmic ejaculation, they may achieve orgasm by stimulation of the prostate. The traditional view of male orgasm is that there are two stages: emission following orgasm instantly followed by a refractory period; the refractory period is the recovery phase after orgasm during which it is physiologically impossible for a man to have additional orgasms. In 1966, Masters and Johnson published pivot

Niece and nephew

In the language of kinship, a niece is a daughter of a person's sibling, a nephew is a son of a person's sibling. Conversely, that person is the uncle of their nibling; the relationship of aunt/uncle to niece/nephew is an example of second-degree relatives, meaning that their coefficient of relationship is 25%. A half-niece is a daughter of a person's half-sibling, half-nephew is a son of a person's half-sibling and they are third-degree relative with 12.5% genetic overlap. A niece-in-law is the wife of the niece of one's spouse. A co-niece-in-law is the wife of one's spouse’s nephew/niece; the nephew-in-law is the husband of the nephew of one's spouse. The co-nephew-in-law is the husband of one's spouse’s niece/nephew; the sororal niece is the daughter of one's sister, the sororal nephew is the son of one's sister, the fraternal niece is the daughter of one's brother and the fraternal nephew is the son of one's brother. The word nephew is derived from the French word neveu, derived from the Latin nepotem.

The term nepotism, meaning familial loyalty, is derived from this Latin term. Niece entered Middle English from the Old French word nece, which derives from Latin nepotem; the word nibling is a neologism suggested by Samuel Martin in 1951 as a cover term for "nephew or niece". Sometimes in discussions involving analytic material or in abstract literature, terms such as male nibling and female nibling are preferred to describe nephews and nieces respectively. Terms such as nibling are sometimes viewed as a gender-neutral alternative to terms which may be viewed as perpetuating the overgenderization of the English language. A nephew was the logical recipient of his uncle's inheritance if the latter did not have a son or daughter, although in some northern Bangladeshi societies, a nephew takes precedence over a daughter; this happened in segments of medieval English law, where nephews were at times favored over daughters. In social environments that lacked a stable home or environments such as refugee situations and fathers would be assigned responsibility for their sons and nephews.

Among parents, some cultures have assigned equal status in their social status to daughters and nieces. This is, for instance, the case in Indian communities in Mauritius, the Thai Nakhon Phanom Province, where the transfer of cultural knowledge such as weaving was distributed among daughters and nieces-in-law by the Tai So community, some Garifuna people that would transmit languages to their nieces. In some proselytizing communities the term niece was informally extended to include non-related younger female community members as a form of endearment. Among some tribes in Manus Province of Papua New Guinea, women's roles as sisters and nieces may have taken precedence over their marital status in social importance. In some cultures and family traditions, it is common to refer to one's first cousin once-removed, as a niece or nephew. In archaic terminology, a maternal nephew is called a sister-son, emphasizing the importance as a person's nearest male relative should he have no brothers or sons of his own.

Sister-son is used to describe some knights who are nephews to King Arthur and is imitated by J. R. R. Tolkien in lists of Kings of Rohan or dwarves where the sister-son is heir. Sister-daughter is a less common parallel term for niece; the terms cousin-niece and cousin-nephew correspond to those of cousin-aunt and cousin-uncle, expressing a fifth-degree relationship. For terminology such as "cousin-uncle", "cousin-aunt", "cousin-nephew" and "cousin-niece", see first cousins once removed. For terminology such as "great-cousin-uncle", "great-cousin-aunt", "great-cousin-nephew" and "great-cousin-niece", see first cousins twice removed. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nephew". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 384. Lancaster, F. M.. "Types of Collateral Relationships - Uncle/Aunt Nephew/Niece". Genetic and Quantitative Aspects of Genealogy. Retrieved 25 June 2016., "nephew," in Unabridged. Source location: Random House, Inc. Available:

Retrieved: January 1, 2011

Classification of Built Heritage in Portugal

The Classification of Built Heritage in Portugal corresponds to a group or independent Portuguese archeological civic and religious cultural properties deemed to be of sufficient historical value by the Direção-Geral do Património Cultural for protection and conservation. The precise rules for the classification and protection of cultural properties are defined in a heritage registry, that includes inventories of the natural and man-made and intangible, movable and immovable properties of a cultural, social and scientific nature. From the beginning of the 19th century, the Portuguese State formally began to affirm the need to protect cultural heritage, that had its antecedents in the 18th century; the first conscientious move came from King John V, who induced the Academia Real de História to inventory and conserve "the ancient Monuments that existed and they could discover in the Kingdom, when it was dominated by the Phoenicians, Penos, Romans and Arab". This decree reinforced the need to safeguard the Portuguese monuments by determining its condition if it was in a state of ruin, but did not require their classification.

Following the destruction caused by 1755 Lisbon earthquake, there was a comprehension that works of art and buildings needed to be conserved owing to their fragility. The extinction of the religious orders in 1834, which resulted in the expropriation of lands and buildings by the State, helped to motivate further the need to establish an organ of the State, or association, that could protect and conserve cultural possessions. At that time various personalities, such as Almeida Garrett and Alexandre Herculano, alerted the public to the need for legislative protection for built heritage. Alexandre Herculano, for his part, authored various pioneering texts for the movement, writing four works on monuments, published in the magazine "O Panorama", between 1838 and 1839. In 1863, theAssociação dos Arquitetos Civis Portugueses the Real Associação dos Arquitetos Civis e Arqueológos Portugueses, presided by Joaquim Possidónio Narciso da Silva, took on the role of intervention. In 1880, the RAACAP published a report, commissioned by the Ministério de Obras Publicas that suggested why some properties of a cultural heritage should be considered national monuments.

They divided those buildings and structures into six groups: art, buildings that were significant in art history, military monuments, statues and commemorative arches, pre-historic monuments. This was the first uniform, systematic process to define possessions as important national treasures needing protection; the first legal definition of a national monument occurred on 27 February 1894. By the beginning of the 20th century, a concrete classification act emerged on 24 October 1901; this decree gave the Conselho dos Monumentos Nacionais, of the Direção-Geral das Obras Públicas e Minas, presided by Joaquim Possidónio Narciso da Silva, the mission to classify national monuments. As a legal document, it required the establishment of criteria for classifying built heritage, that included historic and archeological value. Beginning with the Castle of Elvas in 1906, 14 other buildings were classified as national monuments: the Monastery of Batalha, Monastery of Santa Maria de Belem, the Convent of Christ, the Monastery of Alcobaça, the Convent of Mafra, the Old Cathedral of Coimbra, Cathedral of Guarda, Cathedral of Lisbon, Cathedral of Évora, Church of Santa Cruz of Coimbra, the Basilicia of Coração de Jesus, the Tower of São Vicente, Roman ruins of the Temple of Évora and the ruins of the Church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo.

Four years the remaining buildings identified by the RAACAP in 1880 were classified in this framework. On 18 December 1924, it became obligatory that a partnership was necessary with Conselho Superior de Belas Artes for work to be done in areas occupied by a classified monument, it was only in 1926 when specific zones of protection 50 metres, were established around these properties, along with the classification of properties of public interest associated with archaeological sites. Two years this classification applied for all building types. On 7 March 1932, decree 20/985 established a regime of protection based on artistic, historic or archaeological value, differentiating between national monuments and properties of public interest, resulting in the necessity to expand the notion of cultural heritage. On 30 April 1929, under decree 16.791, with the distribution of national monuments, the Ministério da Instrução Pública, responsible for this area was extinguished, leading to the establishment of the Direção Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais.

A DGEMN remained active until 2007, had the principal mission to support public works on classified monuments, but was criticized in the 1940s for its work in restorations during the Estado Novo period. The DGEMN, as an extension of the Sala

University of Cincinnati College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning

The University of Cincinnati College of Design, Architecture and Planning referred to as DAAP, is a college of the University of Cincinnati. Located in the university's main campus in Cincinnati, Ohio, DAAP is ranked as one of the most prestigious design schools in the U. S. and the world. The University of Cincinnati was the only public school listed in I. D. Magazine's list of the top ten design schools worldwide. For 2005, the graduate architecture program was ranked second in the nation after Harvard and ranked as the most innovative architecture program in the nation. Two of "The New York Five" architects attended the University of Cincinnati: Michael Graves and John Hejduk. In 2008, the interior design program was ranked first in the nation for the ninth consecutive year in "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools", published by DesignIntelligence. New to the list in 2006 was the school's industrial design program ranking at No. 2, besting the Center for Creative Studies in Detroit and second only to the prestigious Art Center College of Design in California.

The combination of these three top-ranking disciplines gave the college of DAAP the title as the Best Art College in the nation. In 2012, Business Insider ranked the world’s best 25 design schools listing DAAP as third, second only to RISD and MIT; the college is known for having the only School of Planning in the U. S. to have accredited programs at the undergraduate and doctorate levels. Born out of the School of Architecture in 1961, their postgraduate degrees have been ranked at near the top in the Midwest as well as in the top 20 nationwide; the college is distinguished for its mandatory co-operative education program, first conceived at the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering in 1906. Students alternate between working as paid employees in design firms and attending classes, giving them experience that enables them to enter the workplace after graduation. Students are required to spend a certain amount of time in the workplace adding up to several years of job experience, before they are able to graduate.

This extends most of the programs that would be four-year programs into five or more years. The college is housed in a facility consisting of four buildings: Frederick H. and Eleanora C. U. Alms Memorial Hall, DAA Addition, the Wolfson Center for Environmental Design, the newest addition, the Aronoff Center; the Aronoff Center, which ties together the three older buildings and houses the college library, auditorium, art supply store, photography lab, was designed by Peter Eisenman and opened in 1996. School of Design Fashion Design Fashion Product Development Graphic Communication Design Industrial Design - #1 in the nation, MSD #2 in the nation. Master of Design School of Architecture and Interior Design Architecture -#6 in the nation Interior Design #1 in the nation School of Art Art History Fine Arts Postgraduate: Art Education Art History Fine Arts Certificate in Museum Studies School of Planning Urban Planning Urban Studies Postgraduate: Community Planning Regional Development Planning Horticulture Bachelor of Science in Horticulture Certificates in Horticulture, Green Roofs, Sustainable Landscape Design, Urban Agriculture and Urban Landscapes American Institute of Architecture Students The American Institute of Architecture Students is a national group dedicated to services interests for architecture students at universities nationwide.

A student chapter is maintained in the College of Design, Architecture and Planning to provide early association with the professional parent group, permit participation in architectural activities on both a local and national basis. Lectures by practicing architects and designers, discussion groups, visits to conferences and important building sites are some of the chapter's yearly activities. American Institute of Graphic Arts The AIGA student group is an organization of ambitious designers who are focused on promoting design awareness and excellence; the group's obtainable objectives are creating a design mentoring program, as well as hosting prominent designers from across the country to lecture at the University of Cincinnati. Alpha Rho Chi Alpha Rho Chi is a co-educational professional fraternity for students who are in the Architecture field, an allied field, or have a great interest in either of the two. DAAP Union Membership in the DAAP Union is open to all undergraduate DAAP students.

The Union serves to stimulate and sponsor various student activities. It provides liaison with the Student Senate of the university and with the college faculty and administration through representation on many college committees. Fashion Design Student Association Design students join this organization to promote social and professional activities with students at UC and in other schools, to sponsor programs and lectures, to participate in community and professional activities. Fine Arts Association The Fine Arts Association is an artists' organization, structured to give undergraduate School of Art students a forum for the exploration and exhibition of their individual and shared expression; the FAA offers opportunities for development as an artist through the exchange of ideas as well as a chance for young artists to show their work. Through association sponsorship, the FAA provides a means for students to see shows at a distance from Cincinnati. Industrial Designers Society of America The purposes of this student group are t

Necklace (horse)

Necklace is a British, Irish-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare. She had her greatest success as a two-year-old in 2003 when she won two of her four races including the Debutante Stakes and the Moyglare Stud Stakes. In the following year failed to win but did finish third in the Beverly D. Stakes and fourth in the Epsom Oaks before being retired from racing with a record of two wins from nine starts in four different counties, she had little success as a broodmare, producing only one minor winner. Necklace is a bay mare bred in England by the Hampshire-based Meon Valley Stud; as a yearling in October 2002, the filly was consigned to the Tattersalls sale and was bought for 600,000 guineas by the bloodstock agent Dermot "Demi" O'Byrne on behalf John Magnier's Coolmore Stud organisation. She was sent into training with Aidan O'Brien at Ballydoyle. During her racing career she raced for the partnership of Michael Tabor and Susan Magnier carrying the blue and orange colours of Tabor, she was sired by Darshaan who won the Prix du Jockey Club for the Aga Khan in 1984 before becoming a successful breeding stallion.

The best of his other offspring included Mark of Esteem and Kotashaan. Necklace's dam Spinning the Yarn showed noracing ability, finishing seventh in her only race but was a daughter of the Irish Oaks winner Colorspin, making her a half-sister to Opera House and Kayf Tara. Necklace was ridden in all of her races by Mick Kinane. On her racecourse debut ahe faced eleven opponents in a maiden race over six furlongs on 12 July at the Curragh, she was made the 3/1 favourite but despite recovering from a poor start she failed to overhaul the Jim Bolger-trained Soviet Belle and was beaten three quarters of a length into second place. The filly was stepped up to Group 3 class for the Debutante Stakes over seven furlongs at the same track four weeks and started 7/4 favourite against twelve opponents, she was restrained towards the rear before coming through to take the lead a furlong out and winning by a length from the British-trained Caldy Dancer with Red Feather in third. On 31 August Necklace was moved up again in class for the Group 1 Moyglare Stud Stakes and started 5/4 favourite in an eleven-runner field.

Soviet Belle and Red Feather were again in opposition while the other fancied runners included River Belle and Maroochydore. Kinane restrained the filly in the early stages as her stablemate Oh So Precious set the pace before giving way to the Clive Brittain-trained Menhoubah approaching the last quarter mile. Necklace moved into third place a furlong out and finished to take the lead and win by a length and a short head from Red Feather and Menhoubah. Commenting on the winner's future prospects Kinane said "Another furlong would be up her street, she is going to be an Oaks filly next season and she would have a shout in the 1,000 Guineas too". Aidan O'Brien said "Necklace has improved with each run and is a lovely filly."On her final race of the year Necklace was sent to France for the Group 1 Prix Marcel Boussac over 1400 metres at Longchamp Racecourse on 5 October. She started favourite but never looked to have any chance of winning and came home tenth of the sixteen runners behind Denebola.

Necklace began her second season in the 191st running of the 1000 Guineas over the Rowley mile at Newmarket Racecourse on 2 May. She started at odds of 8/1 and made no impact, tiring in the last quarter mile and finishing twelfth behind Attraction, she did a little better in the Irish 1000 Guineas three weeks when she came home sixth behind Attraction, beaten six lengths by the winner. On 4 June the filly was moved up in distance for the 225th Epsom Oaks over one and a half miles in which she finished fourth behind Ouija Board, All Too Beautiful and Punctilious. In autumn Nacklace was sent to compete in the United States. In August she started a 25/1 outsider for the Beverly D. Stakes at Arlington Park and finished to take third place, beaten half a length and a head by Crimson Palace and Riskaverse. At Belmont Park in September she started second favourite for the Garden City Breeders' Cup Handicap but finished fourth of the seven runners behind Lucifer's Stone. After her retirement from racing Necklace became a broodmare for the Coolmore Stud.

She was mated with Sadler's Wells, her great-grandfather, or to that stallions male-line descendants. She produced one minor winner from eight foals: Sapphire Bracelet, a bay filly, foaled in 2006, sired by Sadler's Wells. Failed to win in three races. Scottish Reel, bay colt, 2007 by Sadler's Wells. Failed to win in 28 races. Ruby Necklace, bay filly, 2008, by Sadler's Wells. Unraced. Purple, bay filly, 2009, Galileo. Won one race. Quel Avantage, bay colt, 2010, by Galileo. Failed to win in five races. Gold Bracelet, bay filly, 2013, by Montjeu. Unplaced in only race. Afternoon, bay filly, 2014, by Rip Van Winkle. Unplaced in only race. California Gold, filly, 2015, by Camelot. Failed to win in two races


Al-Ghizlaniyah is a village in southern Syria, administratively part of the Douma District of the Rif Dimashq Governorate, located east of Damascus. Nearby localities include Khirbet al-Ward to the west, al-Adiliyah to the southwest, Burraq to the south, al-Hayjanah to the southeast, Judaydat al-Khas to the east and Harran al-Awamid, Sakka to the north, Deir al-Asafir and Shabaa to the northwest. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, al-Ghizlaniyah had a population of 10,473 in the 2004 census, it is the administrative center of the al-Ghizlaniyah nahiyah which consisted of 13 localities with a collective population of 36,715 in 2004