click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Orhan

Orhan Gazi was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Sultanate from 1323/4 to 1362. He was born as the son of Osman Gazi and Malhun Hatun, his grandfather was Ertuğrul. In the early stages of his reign, Orhan focused his energies on conquering most of northwestern Anatolia; the majority of these areas were under Byzantine rule and he won his first battle at Pelekanon against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Orhan occupied the lands of the Karasids of Balıkesir and the Ahis of Ankara. A series of civil wars surrounding the ascension of the nine-year-old Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos benefited Orhan. In the Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347, the regent John VI Kantakouzenos married his daughter Theodora to Orhan and employed Ottoman warriors against the rival forces of the empress dowager, allowing them to loot Thrace. In the Byzantine civil war of 1352–1357, Kantakouzenos used Ottoman forces against John V, granting them the use of a European fortress at Çimpe around 1352.

A major earthquake devastated Gallipoli two years after which Orhan's son, Süleyman Pasha, occupied the town, giving the Ottomans a strong bridgehead into mainland Europe. Orhan was Born in Söğüt around 1281, Orhan was the first son of Osman I. Orhan's grandfather, Ertuğrul Gazi, named his grandson after Orhan Alp; the early childhood and adulthood of Orhan are unknown, but he grew close to his father. Some historical articles claim that when Orhan was 20 years old, his father sent him to the small Ottoman province of Nakihir, but Orhan returned to the Ottoman capital, Sogut, in 1309. Sultan Osman Gazi died in either 1323 or 1324, Orhan succeeded him. According to Ottoman tradition, when Orhan succeeded his father, he proposed to his brother, that they should share the emerging empire; the latter refused on the grounds that their father had designated Orhan as sole successor, that the empire should not be divided. He only accepted as his share the revenues of a single village near Bursa. Orhan told him, "Since, my brother, thou will not take the flocks and the herds that I offer thee, be thou the shepherd of my people.

The word vizier, vezir in the Ottoman language, from Arabic wazīr, meant the bearer of a burden. Alaeddin, in accepting the office, accepted his brother's burden of power, according to oriental historians. Alaeddin, like many of his successors in that office, did not command the armies in person, but he occupied himself with the foundation and management of the civil and military institutions of the state. According to some authorities, it was in Alaeddin's time, by his advice, that the Ottomans ceased acting like vassals to the Seljuk ruler: they no longer stamped money with his image or used his name in public prayers; these changes are attributed by others to Osman himself, but the vast majority of the oriental writers concur in attributing to Alaeddin the introduction of laws respecting the costume of the various subjects of the empire, the creation and funding of a standing army of regular troops. It was by his advice and that of a contemporary Turkish statesman that the celebrated corps of Janissaries was formed, an institution which European writers erroneously fix at a date, ascribe to Murad I.

Alaeddin, by his military legislation, may be said to have organized victory for the Ottoman dynasty. He organised for the Ottoman Beylik a standing army of paid and disciplined infantry and horses, a full century before Charles VII of France established his fifteen permanent companies of men-at-arms, which are regarded as the first modern standing army. Orhan's predecessors, Ertuğrul and Osman I, had made war at the head of the armed vassals and volunteers; this army rode on horseback to their prince's banner when summoned for each expedition, were disbanded as soon as the campaign was over. Alaeddin determined to ensure any future success by forming a corps of paid infantry, to be kept in constant readiness for service; these troops were called piyade. They were divided into tens and thousands with their commanders, their pay was high, their pride soon caused their sovereign some anxiety. Orhan wished to provide a check to them, he took counsel for this purpose with his brother Alaeddin and Kara Khalil Çandarlı, connected with the royal house by marriage.

Çandarlı laid before the vizier a project. Out of this arose the renowned corps of Janissaries, considered the scourge of the Balkans and Central Europe for a long time, until it was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826.Çandarlı proposed to Orhan to create an army composed of the children of conquered places. Çandarlı argued that: The conquered are the responsibility of the conqueror, the lawful ruler of them, of their lands, of their goods, of their wives, of their children. We have a right to do, same as. By enforcing the enrolling them in the ranks of the army, we consult both their temporal and eternal interests, as they will be educated and given better life conditions, he claimed that the formation of Janissary out of conquered children would induce other people to adopt, not only out of the children of the conquered nations, but out of a crowd of their friends and relations, who would come as volunteers to join the Ottoman ranks. Acting on this advice, Orhan selected a thousand of the finest boys from conquered Christian families.

The recruits were trained according to their individual abilities, employed in posts ranging fro

The Idler (Canadian magazine)

The Idler was a Canadian literary magazine, published from 1985 to 1993. Named for Samuel Johnson's 18th-century historical essay series The Idler, the magazine published non-fiction essays as well as some poetry and fiction; the publication cheekily described its ideal reader as "a sprightly, octogenarian spinster with a drinking problem, an ability to conceal it."Initially a bimonthly, the magazine expanded to a monthly in 1989. However, the magazine had difficulty getting issues to press due to its financial situation, published much more irregularly than intended; the magazine was launched by David Warren, a freelance journalist and editor, in January 1985, was run by Warren as founding editor and Gerald Owen as managing editor. Funded by Warren's own savings, the first issue was entirely given away as free promotional copies in an effort to gain notice and build a subscription list for future issues, it was only modestly successful in attracting subscribers, suspended publication after the sixth issue.

Drukier spearheaded the conversion of the magazine's offices into a pub which would serve as a literary salon where customers could engage in intellectual conversation, attend literary readings, help to fund the magazine through alcohol and food sales. Although founded on the principle that it would not seek government publishing grants, it applied for grants from the Canada Council and the Ontario Arts Council in 1987, its applications that year were declined by both organizations, with statements that the juries felt the publication substandard – though the same week, the University of Ottawa made a request to reprint a half-dozen Idler articles as "examples of fine prose" in a textbook of essays and journalism. The editors and some in the mainstream press claimed that the magazine had been denied the grants because of its political outlook; because the Canada Council had approved grants to 97 other magazines, The Idler launched a subscription drive under the slogan "Subscribe to the 98th Best Literary Magazine in Canada".

In 1989, Warren left the magazine to become a political columnist for the Kingston Whig-Standard, Owen was joined by new partners Paul Wilson and Alexander Szemberg. The new editorial team announced plans to expand the magazine from a bimonthly to a monthly; that year the magazine was successful in receiving grants from both the Ontario Arts Council and the Canada Council, although Drukier withdrew his financial support. The magazine was acquired by Devon Cross in 1992. Cross brought Warren back as the magazine's editor, Owen and Szemberg left; the magazine lost its Canada Council support that year, with critics again alleging that the magazine was dropped for "political correctness" reasons, though its Ontario Arts Council support was renewed. While not a direct financial contributor to the magazine's operations, Conrad Black supported the magazine with a subscription deal, under which subscribers to the Hollinger-owned newspapers that included Saturday Night magazine as a supplement could opt to switch to The Idler.

At this time, the magazine received a $25,000 grant from the Smith Richardson Foundation. The magazine ceased publishing in 1993. Despite the magazine's cessation, The Idler Pub remained in operation until 2002. Although founded on High Tory conservative principles, contributors to the magazine represented a much more diverse range of political views. One of its sole ideological redlines was. According to columnist Barbara Amiel, "while it is inaccurate to describe it as a right-wing publication, it is accurate to say it has a right-wing cultural sensibility – insofar as it values excellence and elite cultural standards". We reviewed heavy books, devoted long articles to subjects such as birdwatching in Kenya or the anthropic cosmological principle, we printed mottoes in Latin or German without translating them; this left our natural ideological adversaries scratching their heads."Most compared to The New Yorker, the magazine was deliberately archaic in its design. It was printed on heavy stock book paper rather than glossy magazine or newspaper stock, typeset in Baskerville.

It included some cartoons similar to those in The New Yorker, but was otherwise illustrated with woodcut prints and lithographs rather than photographs. One of the magazine's most famous features was its "Amours & Companions" column, a personals column for readers looking for love, renowned for the quirkiness of many of the ads; the first appearance of "Amours & Companions" consisted of fake ads written by the staff to demonstrate the desired tone for real submissions in subsequent issues. Contributors to the magazine included Scott Symons, Michael Coren, Malcolm Muggeridge, Josef Skvorecky, Jane Jacobs, George Grant, Andrew Coyne, Neil Bissoondath, Mark Kingwell, Patricia Pearson, David Frum, Kildare Dobbs, Russell Smith and Danielle Crittenden

1997 Jiashi earthquakes

The Jiashi earthquakes were a series of earthquakes from 1997 to 2003, with several earthquakes larger than Ms 6 occurring between January and April, 1997. Two strong earthquakes with magnitudes Ms 6.4 and 6.3 occurred on January 21, 1997, at 09:47 and 09:48 local time in Jiashi County of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, NW China. The earthquakes occurred on a major strike-slip fault beneath the Tarim Basin; the fault has no surface expression and prior to the earthquake was not known about. At least 12 people were killed and 40 injured in the earthquakes of January 21. Another earthquake on March 1, 1997, at 14:04 local time with magnitude Ms 6.0 killed another person. On April 6, 6, 11, 16, other four earthquakes with magnitudes Ms 6.3, 6.4, 6.6, 6.3 killed 8 people. Several predictions were made in this earthquake series; some of the predictions were not fulfilled, while some preceded the predicted earthquake from 2.5 hours to 4 days. The April 11 earthquake occurred 30 minutes. List of earthquakes in China The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event

Ernest William Brown

Ernest William Brown FRS was an English mathematician and astronomer, who spent the majority of his career working in the United States and became a naturalised American citizen in 1923. His life's work was the study of the Moon's motion and the compilation of accurate lunar tables, he studied the motion of the planets and calculated the orbits of Trojan asteroids. Brown was born in Hull, the second of four children of William and Emma Brown, his father was a farmer and became a timber merchant. His mother and younger brother died of scarlet fever in 1870, he and his two sisters were looked after by a maiden aunt, until his father remarried five years later. Brown was educated at Totteridge Park School and Hull and East Riding College. After leaving school, he entered Christ's College, where he graduated with first-class honours as sixth Wrangler in mathematics in 1887, he continued with post-graduate studies at Cambridge and worked under the direction of George Howard Darwin. In the summer of 1888, Darwin suggested that he study the papers of George William Hill on the lunar theory.

As it turned out, this idea for a line of research was to have a major impact on the remainder of Brown's life. Brown was made a fellow of Christ's College in 1889 and was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in the same year, he received his master's degree in 1891 and left Cambridge to take up a place as a mathematics instructor at Haverford College, Pennsylvania. There, he rose to the position of Professor of Mathematics in 1893. However, he continued most years to return to Cambridge during the summer staying with his old tutor, Darwin. At Haverford, Brown continued with his studies of the lunar theory, made a thorough review of the work of earlier researchers, such as Hill, de Pontécoulant and Hansen, his mastery of the field was shown by the publication of his first great work, An Introductory Treatise on the Lunar Theory, in 1896, when Brown was still less than 30 years of age. The following year, he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society; as Brown's work progressed, he evolved a plan to create a new lunar theory.

This was published as a series of papers in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society between 1897 and 1908. In 1907, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Yale University, with which he secured an agreement for funding the massive task of calculating detailed tables of the Moon's motion, based on his lunar theory. After a period of 12 years and a cost of over $34,000, Brown's magnum opus, Tables of the Motion of the Moon, was published in 1919. Brown's objective had been to produce an accurate ephemeris of the Moon, based purely on gravitational theory. For the'main problem' of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, he calculated terms in longitude and latitude down to an uncertainty of 0.001 arcseconds. He included perturbations due to the other planets and accounted for the more difficult problem of the non-spherical nature of the Earth and Moon. Observations showed that Brown's tables were indeed superior to those of Hansen, in use since 1857, but there was still a large unexplained fluctuation in the Moon's mean longitude of the order of 10 arcseconds.

A'great empirical term', of magnitude 10.71 arcseconds and period 257 years, was introduced to eliminate this as far as possible. Given the precision of Brown's calculations, it must have come as a great disappointment to have to introduce this arbitrary adjustment, it had been discovered by Edmond Halley over two centuries that the Moon's motion appeared to be speeding up. This'secular acceleration' could not be explained by gravitational theory alone, it had been suggested by Simon Newcomb that it was in fact due to a gradual deceleration of the Earth's rate of rotation, due to friction generated by the tides; the implication of this was that it was not the Moon, speeding up – it was time that appeared to be slowing down. Brown devoted much study to this problem and proposed it should be attacked observationally, using lunar occultations to map the Moon's path more precisely, he reasoned that, if the discrepancies were caused by variations in the Earth's rotation, it implied that observations of other objects would be affected.

This was verified by observations of transits of Mercury, but Brown was not convinced. However, he concluded that Newcomb was right, not only was the Earth's rate of rotation slowing, but there were random, unpredictable fluctuations, he published these findings in a paper in 1926. Work has shown this to be true, astronomers now make a distinction between Universal Time, based on the Earth's rotation, Terrestrial Time, a uniform measure of the passage of time. Brown was an active member of the American Mathematical Society and served as its President from 1915 to 1916, he retained his professorship at Yale until he retired in 1932. As well as continuing his work on the Moon, he worked on the motion of the planets around the Sun. In 1933, he published the book, Planetary Theory, co-authored with Clarence Shook, which contained a detailed exposition of resonance in planetary orbits and examined the special case of the Trojan asteroids. In 1937, he was awarded the Watson Medal by the US National Academy of Sciences.

One of Brown's post-graduate pupils was Wallace John Eckert, who became an instructor at Columbia University while finishing his doctora

Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale

The Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale is the main entity of the Italian public retirement system. All waged labourers and most of self-employed, without a proper autonomous social security fund, must be subscribed to INPS; the entity is under the supervision of the Ministry of Social Policies. Its main activity is to guarantee the public service related to social security benefits according to art. 38 of the Italian Constitution and the special laws about the mandatory social insurances. In 1898, the Cassa nazionale di previdenza per l'invalidità e la vecchiaia degli operai was founded as a voluntary association integrated with a contribute by State and entrepreneurs. In 1919 it became mandatory according to the law-decree n. 603 of 21 April n. 603. The decree remained awaiting the conversion in law by the Chamber. On 5 February 1920 the decree was represented by the minister Carlo Ferraris and on the next 25 June it was represented again by the minister Arturo Labriola of Giolitti V Cabinet.

It was converted only in 1923 through a decree giving law force to the provision. The entity was renamed as Cassa nazionale per le assicurazioni sociali; the Mussolini Cabinet changed the National Fund into the Istituto nazionale fascista della previdenza sociale or INFPS. Its first president was Giuseppe Bottai, succeeded in 1935 by Bruno Biagi. Subsequent interventions made by Italian lawmakers expanded the purposes of the institute to which were assigned the management of first interventions in benefit of the income in 1939. In 1944 the institute became the Istituto nazionale della previdenza sociale, a public entity with legal personality and autonomous management. During the period 1968-1972, the Italian State introduced retirement pensions and social pensions for every citizen over 65 years and under a certain income threshold; the extraordinary wage supplementation fund and early retirement were introduced along with tax relieves for the production. In 1978 the National Healthcare Service was established and INPS had been charged of collecting illness contributions and pay the related benefits.

The law n. 88 of 9 March 1989 had reformed INPS and financially divided the assistance from the social security. Since the nineties various social security institutions of category and some professional orders, have been merged into INPS, with the assumption by the latter of the related debts and savings on administrative costs, deriving from pension management by a single body. Since 1992, reforms had been oriented to contain the social security bubble caused by the generous reforms of the seventies such as baby pensions, retirement pensions and inflated pensions. In 1995 the separated management was introduced, obligatory for autonomous and para-subordinated workers. INPS gives pensions and other social security services with taxes derived for about the 70% from mandatory contributions for obligatory insurances and for the remaining 30% through direct transfers by the State; the law decree n. 201 of 6 December 2011, known as "Salva Italia", ordered the incorporation of INPDAP and ENPALS into the INPS, transferring to it the related functions and increasing the number of subscribers on INPS funds to the 95% of Italian workers.

With this new law, the transition from the corporative social security model to the universal one started with the Dini reform has been confirmed. Vittorio Conti had been president of INPS since 1º February 2014 as commissioner after the resign of Antonio Mastrapasqua. On 1º October 2014, Tiziano Treu became president as extraordinary commissioner. On 24 December 2014, former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi announced the nominee of the economist Tito Boeri as new president of INPS. During the Council of Ministers of 21 May 2019, Pasquale Tridico has been chosen as the president of INPS. In the Italian regions where there is bilingualism, the name and abbreviation of INPS are translated: In Aosta Valley, bilingual Italian/French, Institut national de la prévoyance sociale In South Tyrol, bilingual Italian/German, Nationalinstitut für Soziale Fürsorge The main activity of INPS consists on providing pensions and other services of social security to who has the right, it does contributory activity collecting the contributions.

The services are based on a mandatory insurance relationship and are funded with the contributions of employed workers, elaborated as a percentage of the wage. Along with pensions, the institute pays all the services supporting the income such as: Unemployment benefits Benefits for sick leave Benefits for maternity leave Allowances to the family unit Interventions of ordinary and extraordinary wage supplementation fund Interventions of the guarantee fund for severance packages Interventions against tuberculosis Interventions for spa healthcare Mobility allowances Interventions for rural unemployment Interventions according to law n. 104 of 2 May 1990 Payment for assistance services provided by the comune ISEE declarations Management of medical control visits for private workers Management of authorizations for the right to the allowances to the family unit "Welfare" pensions are considered as welfare state interventions and they are managed by INPS outside an insurance relationship. These pensions are funded by public financings for INPS.

The vigilance activity of INPS is aimed to control the precise payment of contributions according to the law as well as the compliance with the mandatory rules in benefit of the employee. Alr

Churachandpur Autonomous District Council

Churachandpur Autonomous District Council is an autonomous district council in Churachandpur district, India. Manipur District Council Act 1971 provide for safeguarding the Hill Areas and protection of Tribals in Manipur thereby the creation of six ADC in Hill Areas of Manipur for ultimate conversion to full-fledged District. One of the first six ADC is Autonomous District Council Churachandpur whose members in 1973 include 18 elected and 2 nominated; however the institution has remain in dormant for 23 years and revived again in 2010 with elections held since then. Churachandpur is a hill area inhabited by indigenous people; this area is excluded from Part IX and Part IX-A of the constitution as it does not sync with the indigenous culture/system. Administration is carried out by the Deputy Commissioners or District Magistrates with support of the District level officer and Block Development officers. At the district level there is Autonomous Districts Council created by the "The Manipur District Council Act, 1971,” passed by the Parliament.

There are 24 district council constituencies