In art history and cultural studies, Orientalism is the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are done by writers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern and North African societies. In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied and reproduced in service of imperial power. Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational and superior. Orientalism refers in reference and opposition to the Occident; the word Orient entered the English language as the Middle French orient.
The root word oriēns, from the Latin Oriēns, has synonymous denotations: The eastern part of the world. In the "Monk's Tale", Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair citee." The term "orient" refers to countries east of the Mediterranean Southern Europe. In Place of Fear, Aneurin Bevan used an expanded denotation of the Orient that comprehended East Asia: "the awakening of the Orient under the impact of Western ideas". Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but in the present." In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. In that time and scholars were described as Orientalists in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Despite such social disdain for a style of representational art, the French Society of Orientalist Painters was founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme as the honorary president.
The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement. As an art movement, Orientalist painting is treated as one of the many branches of 19th-century academic art. Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without leaving the studio. French painters such as Eugène Delacroix and Jean-Léon Gérôme are regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world. Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company, who said that the Arab culture, the culture of India, the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. Among such scholars is the philologist William Jones, whose studies of Indo-European languages established modern philology.
British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the 1820s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Additionally and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries; the academic field of Oriental studies, which comprehended the cultures of the Near East and the Far East, became the fields of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies. In the book Orientalism, the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries; the thesis of Orientalism develops Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, Michel Foucault's theorisation of discourse to criticise the scholarly tradition of Oriental studies.
Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo-Islamic cultures Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. The analyses are of Orientalism in European literature French literature, do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting. In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". Ibn Warraq in 2010 published a point-by-point refutation of Nochlin's critique of Jean-Léon Gérôme's The Snake Charmer, a defense of Orientalist painting in general, "Linda Nochlin and The Imaginary Orient."In the academy, the book Orientalism became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. Moreover, in relation to the cultural institution of citizenship, Orientalism has rendered the concept of citizenship as a problem of epistemology, because citizenship originated as a social institution of the Western world.
AC3 Thunderbolt was a cruiser tank designed and built in Australia in World War II as the successor to the AC1 Sentinel. Like the Sentinel the AC3 featured a one piece cast turret; the AC3 featured a much improved design over the AC1 with better armour protection, a more powerful engine, most increased firepower. The program was terminated in 1943. Before the AC1 Sentinel began rolling off the assembly line in August 1942 it had been seen that the 2 pounder was becoming less effective as tank armour increased in thickness on new and improved enemy tanks. To address this a 25 pounder gun-howitzer was fitted to a turret on the second prototype Australian cruiser tank hull and test fired on 29 June 1942. With this success decided to use the 25 pounder as a tank gun; the 25 pounder, redesigned as a tank gun, was tested on 10 October 1942, the work on the overhead recoil system would prove useful for the design of the Short 25 Pounder. Mounted in a traversable turret larger than that of the AC1 but using the same 54 in turret ring, it was cramped for the turret crew but gave the AC3 both armour-piercing capability as well as an effective high explosive round.
The 40 volt electrical turret traverse system of the AC1 was replaced by a more powerful 110 volt system. The hull machine gun and gunner were removed from the design to make room for stowage of the larger 25 pounder ammunition. Powered by the same three Cadillac V8 engines as the AC1, they were now mounted radially on a common crank case and geared together to form the "Perrier-Cadillac", a single 17.1 L, 24 cylinder engine similar in some respects to the A57 Chrysler multibank used in some variants of the US M3 and M4 tanks. While the AC3 shared the same armour basis as the AC1, the hull profile had been redesigned to improve the ballistic shape; the programme was authorised to build a total of 200 Thunderbolts. Although only one pilot model AC3 had been completed, large scale production of components had been ordered and 150 AC3 hulls cast. New South Wales Government Railways' production line at Chullora work had started on assembling the first 25 AC3 tanks for trials when the programme was terminated in July 1943.
At the end of World War II all but three Australian Cruiser tanks were disposed of by the Australian government. The 65 tanks that were not required to serve as a physical record in war museums in Australia and the UK were sold off by the Commonwealth Disposals Commission. One of the three saved was the only completed AC3, now located at the Treloar Resource Centre at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. An AC3 mockup was assembled from unused AC3 armour castings and a mix of AC3 and AC1 parts at the Melbourne Tank Museum in 1996–97, this piece was sold to a private collector in 2006. AC IIIA - A tentative design with the turret ring increased to 70 inches. Tanks of comparable role and era Footnotes Citations Australian War Memorial
Harry Joseph Boyle was a Canadian broadcaster and writer. He began his career in media working for a local radio station during the 1930s and as district editor for the Stratford Beacon Herald. During this time he was contributing articles to the London Free Press and Mail and the Toronto Telegram. In 1942, he began working for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation as its farm commentator as well as the director of the National Farm Radio Forum. In 1968, Boyle was appointed vice-chairman of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, in August 1975 became its chairman, he held this position until 1977. After leaving the CRTC, he became a member of faculty at the Banff School of Arts and a member of the Ontario Arts Council. Boyle's writing was autobiographical fiction dealing with life in rural southern Ontario during the interwar period. Two of his books were awarded the Stephen Leacock Medal for Humour: Homebrew and Patches in 1964 and Luck of the Irish in 1976. In 1978, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada.
The same year he received an honorary doctorate from Concordia University. The Inheritance: A Play in Three Acts Mostly in Clover Homebrew and Patches A Summer Burning With a Pinch of Sin Straws in the Wind The Great Canadian Novel Memories of a Catholic Boyhood The Luck of the Irish Tribute by Pierre Juneau "Harry Boyle: Creator of Canada's modern public radio". National Post. 25 January 2005. York University: Harry J. Boyle fonds Canadian Communications Foundation: Harry J. Boyle biography Harry J. Boyle Concordia University Honorary Degree Citation, June 1978, Concordia University Records Management and Archives