Orienteering is a group of sports that require navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed. Participants are given a topographical map a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points. A training exercise in land navigation for military officers, orienteering has developed many variations. Among these, the oldest and the most popular is foot orienteering. For the purposes of this article, foot orienteering serves as a point of departure for discussion of all other variations, but any sport that involves racing against a clock and requires navigation with a map is a type of orienteering. Orienteering is included in the programs of world sporting events including the World Games and World Police and Fire Games. Orienteering sports combine significant navigation with a specific method of travel; because the method of travel determines the needed equipment and tactics, each sport requires specific rules for competition and guidelines for orienteering event logistics and course design.
International Orienteering Federation, the governing body of the sport sanctions the following four disciplines as official disciplines in the sport of orienteering: Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering Moreover, International Amateur Radio Union sanctions the following orienteering sport: Amateur radio direction finding Other orienteering disciplines include, but are not limited to: Biathlon orienteering Canoe orienteering Car orienteering Mountain marathoning Mounted orienteering Rogaining SportLabyrinth – micro orienteeringAdventure racing is a combination of two or more disciplines, includes orienteering as part of the race. At international level, the International Orienteering Federation defines rules and guidelines which govern four orienteering sports: foot orienteering, mountain bike orienteering, ski orienteering, trail orienteering, it is based in Finland and it claims on its website to aim to "spread the sport of orienteering, to promote its development and to create and maintain an attractive world event programme."
Since 1977 the IOF has been recognised by the IOC There are governing bodies for most of the individual nations that are represented in the sport of orienteering. These national bodies are the rule-making body for that nation. For example, the British Orienteering Federation is the national governing body for the United Kingdom; the federation was founded in 1967 and it is made up of 13 constituent associations. For the United States, the national governing body is Orienteering USA. Most nations have some form of regional governing bodies; these are not rule-making bodies but are there to assist in coordinating clubs within that region, e.g. they may allocate dates so that clubs do not clash with their events. Clubs are formed at a local level and affiliated to their national governing body, it is clubs who put on events open to all-comers. Clubs may put on practice and social events. Open clubs are open to anyone and there is no restriction on joining them. Closed clubs restrict their membership to specific groups.
For example, BAOC has restrictions on, principally British Army personnel. The International Rogaining Federation governs rogaining. Separate organizations govern; the International Amateur Radio Union governs amateur radio direction finding. Orienteering terms vary within English speaking countries, in other countries where English is the de facto international language of orienteering. Variations are set out in table below; the history of orienteering begins in the late 19th century in Sweden, the actual term "orientering" was first used in 1886 at the Swedish Military Academy Karlberg and meant the crossing of unknown land with the aid of a map and a compass. In Sweden, orienteering grew from military training in land navigation into a competitive sport for military officers for civilians; the name is derived from a word root meaning to find the location. The first civilian orienteering competition open to the public was held in Norway in 1897, when Norway was still a part of the Swedish union.
From the beginning, locations selected for orienteering have been chosen in part for their beauty, natural or man-made. For the first public orienteering competition in Sweden, in 1901, control points included two historic churches, Spånga kyrka and Bromma kyrka. With the invention of inexpensive yet reliable compasses, the sport gained popularity during the 1930s. By 1934, over a quarter million Swedes were participants, orienteering had spread to Finland, the Soviet Union, Hungary. Following World War II, orienteering spread throughout Europe and to Asia, North America and Oceania. In Sweden in 1959, an international orienteering conference was held. Representatives from 12 countries participated. In 1961, orienteering organizations representing 10 European nations founded the International Orienteering Federation. Since IOF has supported the founding of many national orienteering federations. By 2010, 71 national orienteering federations were member societies of the International Orienteering Federation.
These federations enable
A phonograph record simply record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In the mid-2000s records made of any material began to be called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles.
The phonograph record has made a niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the US in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. Sales in the UK increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain 18 in the US and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of record has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled, or broken, records have the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression in the case of 12-inch discs. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" trademark for legal reasons, in 1901 Johnson
Dongsi the "Eastern Four" or the "Eastern Quadrangle", is the name of an intersection and surrounding neighborhood in Dongcheng District, Beijing. Dongsi, at the intersection of what is now Dongsi Avenues North and West and Chaoyangmen Inner Street, dates to the Yuan Dynasty; the intersection is named after four paifangs or Chinese sign gates that marked the location and is known in Chinese as the Eastern Four Sign Gates or "Eastern Four" for short. Directly due west in Xicheng District, another intersection with four sign gates is called Xisi or the "Western Four"; the sign gates at Dongsi and Xisi were removed in 1958 but the location names remain. Today, the Dongsi Station on Lines 5 and 6 of the Beijing Subway is located underneath the intersection. Beijing Bus 106, 110, 116, 684, 夜10 stop south of the intersection. Bus 58, 101, 109, 112, 420, 夜13 stop east of the intersection. Dongsi is known for the Longfusi Snack Street where traditional restaurants such as Baikuilaohao serve Beijing snack cuisine.
The Dongsi Mosque, founded in 1356 and rebuilt in 1447, is located just south of the intersection. The neighborhood northeast of Dongsi, extending north to Dongsi Shitiao and east to the Second Ring Road, is administered as the Dongsi Subdistrict of Dongcheng District; the subdistrict was established in 1958 and As of 2011, consists of eight residential communities. As of 2006, the Dongsi Subdistrict has an area of 1.53 square kilometres. Running east-west through the Dongsi Subdistrict are a series of parallel alleyways called tiao; these hutongs are numbered in ascending order from south to north beginning with Dongsi Toutiao, the first alleyway of Dongsi, up to Dongsi Shisitiao or the fourteenth alleyway of Dongsi. The tenth alleyway, Dongsi Shitiao, was extended eastward through an opening in the Beijing city wall and was widened in the 1990s to become one of the main east-west thoroughfares in the old city; the Dongsi Shitiao Station on Subway Line 2 marks the intersection of the wall. Xisi Dongdan Xidan