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Origami is the art of paper folding, associated with Japanese culture. In modern usage, the word "origami" is used as an inclusive term for all folding practices, regardless of their culture of origin; the goal is to transform a flat square sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques. Modern origami practitioners discourage the use of cuts, glue, or markings on the paper. Origami folders use the Japanese word kirigami to refer to designs which use cuts; the small number of basic origami folds can be combined in a variety of ways to make intricate designs. The best-known origami model is the Japanese paper crane. In general, these designs begin with a square sheet of paper whose sides may be of different colors, prints, or patterns. Traditional Japanese origami, practiced since the Edo period, has been less strict about these conventions, sometimes cutting the paper or using nonsquare shapes to start with; the principles of origami are used in stents and other engineering applications.* Distinct paperfolding traditions arose in Europe and Japan which have been well-documented by historians.

These seem to have been separate traditions, until the 20th century. In China, traditional funerals include the burning of folded paper, most representations of gold nuggets; the practice of burning paper representations instead of full-scale wood or clay replicas dates from the Song Dynasty, though it's not clear how much folding was involved. In Japan, the earliest unambiguous reference to a paper model is in a short poem by Ihara Saikaku in 1680 which mentions a traditional butterfly design used during Shinto weddings. Folding filled some ceremonial functions in Edo period Japanese culture; this developed into a form of entertainment. In Europe, there was a well-developed genre of napkin folding, which flourished during the 17th and 18th centuries. After this period, this genre declined and was forgotten. However, some of the techniques and bases associated with this tradition continued to be a part of European culture. Another example of early origami in Europe is the "parajita," a stylized bird whose origins date from at least the nineteenth century.

When Japan opened its borders in the 1860s, as part of a modernization strategy, they imported Froebel's Kindergarten system—and with it, German ideas about paperfolding. This included the ban on cuts, the starting shape of a bicolored square; these ideas, some of the European folding repertoire, were integrated into the Japanese tradition. Before this, traditional Japanese sources use a variety of starting shapes had cuts. In the early 1900s, Akira Yoshizawa, Kosho Uchiyama, others began creating and recording original origami works. Akira Yoshizawa in particular was responsible for a number of innovations, such as wet-folding and the Yoshizawa–Randlett diagramming system, his work inspired a renaissance of the art form. During the 1980s a number of folders started systematically studying the mathematical properties of folded forms, which led to a rapid increase in the complexity of origami models. Many origami books begin with a description of basic origami techniques which are used to construct the models.

This includes simple diagrams of basic folds like valley and mountain folds, reverse folds, squash folds, sinks. There are standard named bases which are used in a wide variety of models, for instance the bird base is an intermediate stage in the construction of the flapping bird. Additional bases are the preliminary base, fish base, waterbomb base, the frog base. Any laminar material can be used for folding. Origami paper referred to as "kami", is sold in prepackaged squares of various sizes ranging from 2.5 cm to 25 cm or more. It is colored on one side and white on the other. Origami paper weighs less than copy paper, making it suitable for a wider range of models. Normal copy paper with weights of 70–90 g/m2 can be used for simple folds, such as the crane and waterbomb. Heavier weight papers of 100 g/m2 or more can be wet-folded; this technique allows for a more rounded sculpting of the model, which becomes rigid and sturdy when it is dry. Foil-backed paper, as its name implies, is a sheet of thin foil glued to a sheet of thin paper.

Related to this is tissue foil, made by gluing a thin piece of tissue paper to kitchen aluminium foil. A second piece of tissue can be glued onto the reverse side to produce a tissue/foil/tissue sandwich. Foil-backed paper is available commercially, but not tissue foil. Both types of foil materials are suitable for complex models. Washi is the traditional origami paper used in Japan. Washi is tougher than ordinary paper made from wood pulp, is used in many traditiona

National Register of Historic Places listings in Clatsop County, Oregon

This list presents the full set of buildings, objects, sites, or districts designated on the National Register of Historic Places in Clatsop County and offers brief descriptive information about each of them. The National Register recognizes places of national, state, or local historic significance across the United States. Out of over 90,000 National Register sites nationwide, Oregon is home to over 2,000, 61 of those are found in Clatsop County; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 21, 2020. National Register of Historic Places listings in Oregon Listings in neighboring counties: Columbia, Tillamook, Wahkiakum List of National Historic Landmarks in Oregon Historic preservation History of Oregon Lists of Oregon-related topics Oregon Parks and Recreation Department, National Register Program National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places site Media related to National Register of Historic Places in Clatsop County, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons

Jason Barry-Smith

Jason Barry-Smith is an Australian operatic baritone, vocal coach and arranger. He works with organisations such as Opera Queensland, the Queensland Symphony Orchestra, Seven Network, the Queensland Youth Choir. Barry-Smith, born in Brisbane, Queensland, is a former student of Kedron State High School, he graduated with a Medal of Excellence from the Queensland Conservatorium of Music in 1991. He studied at the Hochschule für Musik und Theater München with Professor Hanno Blaschke during 1989/90 and in London with Janice Chapman in 1999 and in Rome with Margaret Baker-Genovesi in 2002. Barry-Smith has received numerous accolades; as a concert soloist, Barry-Smith has performed in Fauré's Requiem, Haydn's Paukenmesse, Bach's St John Passion, Nigel Butterley's Lawrence Hargrave Flying Alone, Bach's St Matthew Passion, Christmas Oratorio and Purcell's Ode to St Cecilia’s Day, as the baritone soloist in the Australian composer's Richard Mills 2001 work, Symphonic Poems. In 2012, Barry-Smith was a soloist in the Australian premiere of Graun's 1755 oratorio Der Tod Jesu.

He was the soloist in HK Gruber's Frankenstein!! at the 2016 Four Winds Festival in Bermagui, New South Wales. While still studying at the Queensland Conservatorium, he performed the title role in the Australian premiere of Billy Budd. Other roles include: Enjolras in Les Misérables for the Wellington Operatic Society Major General Stanley in The Pirates of Penzance, the Boatswain in H. M. S. Pinafore, Danilo in The Merry Widow all for Essgee Melodies King Melchior in Amahl and the Night Visitors for the National Trust of Queensland Nardo in La finta giardiniera for the Brisbane Biennial Escamillo in Carmen for Lyric Opera 21, Belfast Marullo in Rigoletto for OzOpera Mathieu in Andrea Chénier and Belcore in L'elisir d'amore for The State Opera of South Australia Geoffrey in Lawrence Hargrave Flying Alone for the Sydney Symphony Mamoud in John Adams' The Death of Klinghoffer for the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra Morales and Dancairo in Carmen, the title role of Don Giovanni, Eisenstein and Dr Falke in Die Fledermaus, Yamadori in Madama Butterfly, the title role of The Barber of Seville, Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, Papageno in The Magic Flute, Dandini in La Cenerentola, Christiano in Un ballo in maschera, Dr Malatesta in Don Pasquale, Schaunard in La bohème, Danilo in The Merry Widow, Bello in La fanciulla del West, Banjo Paterson in Waltzing Our Matilda and Mercutio in Roméo et Juliette: all for Opera Queensland.

Created the roles of Julian in Quartet by Anthony Richie and Samuel in Electric Lenin by Barry Conyngham. Barry-Smith made his directorial debut at the 2001 4MBS Festival with Purcell's Dido and Aeneas in which he sang the role of Æneas. Barry-Smith has worked as vocal coach and musical director of the Queensland Youth Choir. Together with Narelle French, Opera Queensland's Head of Music, Barry-Smith devised several touring productions for Opera Queensland, notably The Food of Love which ran for several years since 2004, in 2009 Waltzing Our Matilda, co-written with his wife Leisa Barry-Smith. In 2008, he re-mounted Opera Queensland's production of Hansel and Gretel for its tour of 83 schools through Queensland and northern New South Wales, he held the position of Artistic Director of the Queensland Youth Choir from 2008 until 2010, taught Musical Theatre/Voice at the University of Southern Queensland's Summer Schools from 2004 until 2014, classical voice at Queensland Conservatorium's Opera school from 2003 until 2013, from 2009 until 2012 was the Director of Opera Queensland's Young and Developing Artist Program.

From 2013 until 2014 he was the Creative Director of Opera Queensland's Open Stage program. CD Something to Sing About with the Queensland Youth Choir Encore with Vocalpoint Smiley – The Musical, based on the 1945 novel for the 1956 film – Original Studio Recording Misa CriollaAriel Ramírez with the Queensland Youth Choir Songs of Inspiration ABC Classics 476 6159 Colours of Christmas with the Queensland Youth Choir Portrait of Dorian Gray – John Wikman – Original studio recordingDVD The Pirates of Penzance ABC Video R-14653-9 The Mikado H. M. S. Pinafore – Boatswain Jason Barry-Smith and his wife Leisa, a singer-actor and author, have two sons. Jason Barry-Smith on IMDb

British Indian passport

The British Indian passport was a passport, proof of national status and travel document issued to British subjects of the British Indian Empire, British subjects from other parts of the British Empire, the subjects of the British protected states in the Indian subcontinent. The title of the state used in the passport was the "Indian Empire", which covered Aden, Bangladesh and non French and Portuguese India; the use of the passport was discontinued in Aden and Burma in 1937, on becoming Crown colonies, in 1947 in the new Dominions of India and Pakistan. Bearers of the passport in the Dominions of Pakistan and India could opt for Indian, Pakistani or British nationality; the use of passports was introduced to the British Raj after the First World War. The Indian Passport Act of 1920 required the use of passports, established controls on the foreign travel of Indians, foreigners travelling to and within the Presidencies and Provinces of British India; the passport was based on the format agreed upon by the 1920 League of Nations International Conference on Passports.

However, the British Indian passport had limited usage, being valid for travel only within areas governed by the British Empire, Italian Empire, Austria, Germany, Norway and Dutch Empire. A British Indian passport could be issued to persons who were British subjects by birth, naturalisation, a British protected person or the spouse or widow of such persons; the passports were issued by the passport offices run by provincial governments and were valid for five years after issue. In 1922, applicants were charged INR 1 to receive a new passport; the price was raised to INR 3 by 1933. The passport was of navy blue colour with the emblem of the British Empire emblazoned on the front cover; the word "British Indian Passport" was printed above "Indian Empire" printed below. The text of the passport was printed in French. Other details were hand-written; the passport includes the following details describing the bearer: Passport number Name of bearer Place of issue Date of issue Accompanied by National status - British subject by Profession Place and date of birth Domicile Height Eye colour Hair colour Distinguishing features Validity and expiry datesThe passports included the photographs of the bearer and accompanying spouse.

Latter half of the passport book was allocated for the port of entry and departure stamps. The passport contains a note from the issuing state, addressed to the authorities of all other states, identifying the bearer as a citizen of that state and requesting that he or she be allowed to pass and be treated according to international norms; the note inside of Indian Passports states: These are to request and require in the name of the Viceroy and Governor-General of India all those whom it may concern to allow the bearer to pass without let or hindrance, to afford him every assistance and protection of which he or she may stand in need. By the order of the Viceroy and Governor-General of India; the note bearing page is stamped and signed by the issuing passport officer with the provincial government of the place of issue. British passport Burmese passport Indian passport Pakistani passport Sri Lankan passport British nationality law Ceylon Citizenship Act Indian nationality law Pakistani nationality law Bangladeshi passport Bangladeshi nationality law Text of the Indian Passport Act 1920 A 1927 Indian passport - images from British India - Folded Large Passport - Description and images of India's earliest passport.

Indian Empire: British Indian Passport British Indian Passport issued in 1931

Albasheer Show

Albasheer Show is an Iraqi news satire and talk show television program, which airs each Friday on DW Arabia. Hosted by Ahmad Al-Basheer, the show first premiered on August 30, 2014 on Al-Shahid Al-Mustaqil and YouTube until the end of season 1; the second season was aired only on YouTube. The third season was agreed to air on DW Arabia and Al Sumaria but later Al Sumaria managed to air only two episodes before it was shut down. NRT Arabia started airing the show, along with DW Arabia, since June 24, 2016, but the show was shut down on NRT; the show is still aired on DW Arabia from season four. Being based on the American television program, The Daily Show, the Egyptian television program, Al Bernameg, Albasheer Show draws its comedy and satire from recent news stories, political figures, media organizations, uses self-referential humor as well, it opens with a long monologue, relating to recent headlines and features exchanges with one or more correspondents, who adopted absurd or humorously exaggerated takes on current events against the presenter's straight man persona.

The final segment was devoted to a celebrity interview, with guests ranging from actors and musicians to nonfiction authors and political figures. Part of what makes Ahmad Al-Basheer and the show so popular—the audience sums to millions—is how relatable his personal suffering is to many Iraqis. During the now-protracted chaos that has engulfed Iraq, al-Basheer lost a brother to one terrorist attack and seven of his best friends in another, watched his father die after the trauma of being kidnapped ruined his health, he himself was kidnapped and tortured for 40 days in 2005. But as Ahmed says, "instead of getting revenge with a weapon, I try to fix the situation so nobody has to go through the things I went through. Instead of turning violent…I see this as the best way to respond to all the killing."

Houghton Wines

Houghton Wines is an Australian winery originating in Middle Swan, in the Swan Valley wine region of Western Australia. A subsidiary of Accolade Wines, the company operates one of Western Australia's earliest established vineyards and wineries; the 50 hectares of vineyards surrounding the Swan Valley winery consist of plantings of Verdelho, Chardonnay, Sémillon and Chenin blanc. Early documentation and current research suggests the first vines were planted between 1830 and 1836. In addition Houghton operates four of Western Australia's largest vineyards at Moondah Brook, Mount Barker and Frankland River, sources fruit from Margaret River and the Ferguson Valley. Expansion into the Western Australian South West and the Great Southern wine region led to the establishment of a second winery, located at Nannup in the Blackwood Valley; the Houghton portfolio includes the brands of Houghton Line Range, Houghton Crofters, Moondah Brook, Houghton Regional Range, Houghton Gladstone and Jack Mann. The land of which Houghton was part was assigned by Governor James Stirling to Rivett Henry Bland in 1829.

In 1836, a syndicate of three British Army Officers, Houghton and Yule purchased the northern half of Swan location II. The syndicate named the property Houghton after the senior ranking officer of their group, Lieutenant Colonel Richmond Houghton. Houghton himself did not come to Western Australia and for the next 23 years the property was managed and developed by one of the members of the syndicate, Thomas Newte Yule. In 1859, Dr John Ferguson purchased the Houghton property for the sum of 350 pounds and in that same year produced the first commercial vintage of wine from the vineyard a total of 25 imperial gallons. Moondyne Joe, Western Australia's most famous bushranger, was captured on the Houghton property in the act of stealing wine from the cellars on 25 February 1869. By chance, the owner, Charles William Ferguson had been helping with a police search, afterwards invited a group of police back to the vineyard for refreshments; when Ferguson entered the cellar, Joe assumed that he was discovered, made a dash for the door into the arms of the police.

In 1950, Valencia Vineyards, a subsidiary of the Emu Wine Company of Morphett Vale, South Australia, purchased the Houghton vineyards and distillery from the Ferguson family. In April 1976, the South Australian winemaking Hardy family acquired the stock of the Emu Wine Company and with that purchase, became owners of Houghton. Jack Mann was considered a pioneer of Western Australia's wine industry, and served a total of 51 consecutive vintages at Houghton. His awards included being awarded an MBE in 1964; the West Australian newspaper included him in their list of Western Australia's 100 most influential people. One of Mann's most significant accomplishments was the creation of the Houghton White Burgundy in 1937, a full bodied chenin blanc wine; the Houghton White Burgundy was so named because the judges and winemakers at the 1937 Melbourne Wine Show likened it to the style of wines from Burgundy, France. The Houghton White Burgundy has become one of Australia's most popular white wines. Houghton White Burgundy was renamed Houghton White Classic in 2005 to comply with an international trade agreement between Australia and the EU.

Australian wine List of wineries in Western Australia Western Australian wine Houghton official website