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Origen

Origen of Alexandria known as Origen Adamantius, was an early Christian scholar and theologian, born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria. He was a prolific writer who wrote 2,000 treatises in multiple branches of theology, including textual criticism, biblical exegesis and biblical hermeneutics and spirituality, he was one of the most influential figures in early Christian theology and asceticism. He has been described as "the greatest genius the early church produced". Origen sought martyrdom with his father at a young age, but was prevented from turning himself in to the authorities by his mother; when he was eighteen years old, Origen became a catechist at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. He devoted himself to his studies and adopted an ascetic lifestyle as both a vegetarian and teetotaler, he came into conflict with Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria, in 231 after he was ordained as a presbyter by his friend, the bishop of Caesarea, while on a journey to Athens through Palestine.

Demetrius condemned Origen for insubordination and accused him of having castrated himself and of having taught that Satan would attain salvation, an accusation which Origen himself vehemently denied. Origen founded the Christian School of Caesarea, where he taught logic, natural history, theology, became regarded by the churches of Palestine and Arabia as the ultimate authority on all matters of theology, he was tortured for his faith during the Decian persecution in 250 and died three to four years from his injuries. Origen was able to produce a massive quantity of writings due to the patronage of his close friend Ambrose, who provided him with a team of secretaries to copy his works, making him one of the most prolific writers in all of antiquity, his treatise On the First Principles systematically laid out the principles of Christian theology and became the foundation for theological writings. He authored Contra Celsum, the most influential work of early Christian apologetics, in which he defended Christianity against the pagan philosopher Celsus, one of its foremost early critics.

Origen produced the Hexapla, the first critical edition of the Hebrew Bible, which contained the original Hebrew text as well as five different Greek translations of it, all written in columns, side-by-side. He wrote hundreds of homilies covering the entire Bible, interpreting many passages as allegorical. Origen taught that, before the creation of the material universe, God had created the souls of all the intelligent beings; these souls, at first devoted to God, fell away from him and were given physical bodies. Origen was the first to propose the ransom theory of atonement in its developed form and, though he was a Subordinationist, he significantly contributed to the development of the concept of the Trinity. Origen hoped that all people might attain salvation, but was always careful to maintain that this was only speculation, he advocated Christian pacifism. Origen is a Church Father and is regarded as one of the most important Christian theologians of all time, his teachings were influential in the east, with Athanasius of Alexandria and the three Cappadocian Fathers being among his most devoted followers.

Argument over the orthodoxy of Origen's teachings spawned the First Origenist Crisis in the late fourth century AD, in which he was attacked by Epiphanius of Salamis and Jerome, but defended by Tyrannius Rufinus and John of Jerusalem. In 543, the emperor Justinian I condemned him as a heretic and ordered all his writings to be burned; the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 may have anathemized Origen, or it may have only condemned certain heretical teachings which claimed to be derived from Origen. His teachings on the pre-existence of souls were rejected by the Church. All information about Origen's life comes from a lengthy biography of him in Book VI of the Ecclesiastical History written by the Christian historian Eusebius. Eusebius portrays Origen as a literal saint. Eusebius, wrote this account fifty years after Origen's death and had access to few reliable sources on Origen's life his early years. Anxious for more material about his hero, Eusebius recorded events based on only unreliable hearsay evidence and made speculative inferences about Origen based on the sources he had available.

Nonetheless, scholars can reconstruct a general impression of Origen's historical life by sorting out the parts of Eusebius's account that are accurate from those that are inaccurate. Origen was born in either 186 AD in Alexandria. According to Eusebius, Origen's father was Leonides of Alexandria, a respected professor of literature and a devout Christian who practiced his religion openly. Joseph Wilson Trigg deems the details of this report unreliable, but states that Origen's father was "a prosperous and Hellenized bourgeois". According to John Anthony McGuckin, Origen's mother, whose name is unknown, may have been a member of the lower class who did not have the right of citizenship, it is that, on account of his mother's status, Origen himself was not a Roman citizen. Origen's father taught him about literature and philosophy, about the Bible and Christian doctrine. Eusebius states. Trigg accepts this tradition as genuine, given Origen's ability as an adult to recite extended passages of scripture at will.

Eusebius reports that Origen became so learned about the holy scriptures at an early age that his father was unable to answer his questions. In 202, wh

Battle of Cap-Fran├žais (1793)

The Battle of Cap-Français took place from 20 to 22 June 1793 during the Haitian Revolution. On 17 September 1792, the commissars Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Étienne Polverel and Jean-Antoine Ailhaud landed in Cap-français with 6,000 men from the French Republican army, their mission is to pacify SSaint-Domingue and enforce the law of April 4 which proclaims the right to vote for free people, including blacks and mulattoes, imposes the dissolution of the colonial assembly composed only of whites. Sonthonax remains in post at the French Cape, Polverel for its part leaves for inspection in Port-au-Prince in October. Allhaud goes south of the colony but sick of the climate consequences, he returned to France; the 6,000 French soldiers, composed of a half of troops of line and a half of volunteers, have for mission to repress the insurrections of the black slaves revolted in the north-west of the island and commanded by Jean-François Papillon and Georges Biassou. But these troops, unaccustomed to the climate, are decimated by yellow fever.

Two months after their landing, writes General Lacroix, of these 6,000 men, "3,000 were harvested". All the French republican forces are under the command of General Étienne Maynaud de Bizefranc de Laveaux, he enters the campaign against the revolted slaves and in January 1793, he beats them during the battles of Morne Pelé and Tannerie and reconquires the northern plains, but the insurgents allied with the Spaniards and are embedded as auxiliary in their army, in the months following the French begin to lose ground gained. Sonthonax and Polverel are close to Brissot, a notorious abolitionist and a member of the Society of Black Friends; the commissioners are themselves members of the Jacobin Club and these promote the creation of revolutionary clubs in Saint-Domingue that attracts many poor and poor settlers, called "little whites". Conversely wealthy slave owners, called the "great white" royalists, they hostile. Although they themselves abolitionist and Polverel have no authority to abolish slavery since the French government had no intention to do so.

Sonthonax is not in favor of immediate abolition because he believes in a letter written to Brissot that this "would lead to the massacre of all whites". According to the law of August 10, anyone who objects to the commissioners is declared a "traitor to the fatherland"; the commissioners had every power to deport their opponents. In particular, Sonthonax arrested Governor Philippe François Rouxel de Blanchelande on September 20, suspected of conspiracy, deported to France where he was guillotined on April 11, 1793, he was replaced by General d'Esparbes, but the latter, a royalist, attempted to provoke an insurrection when he learns of the fall of the monarchy on the Insurrection of 10 August 1792. Arrested, he is in turn deported. On October 12, the colonial assembly was dissolved because composed of whites, it is replaced by a commission mixing white and free people of color; this measure causes the adhesion of Free Colors to the commissioners. Sonthonax gives them degrees and jobs and wants to integrate Mulatto officers in the Cape Regiment entirely composed of whites.

The latter are uncomfortable with this measure. During a parade in town and whites of the Cape regiment clash in a shootout; the authority of the commissioners can be re-established only with the help of General Laveaux. These measures, favorable to the mulattoes and the free of color provokes the irritation of the "big Whites" who fear the abolition of slavery. Although this message is false, the settlers are hostile to the commissioners; the "little whites," republicans, were at first favorable to them, but they are as hostile as the "great whites" to mulattoes and to men free of colors, whom they hate more than the first. The "big whites" and the "little whites" enemies, allied themselves against the commissioners, the mulattoes and the free people of colors. On January 25, 1793, in Port-au-Prince, the colonists, led by Borel, arm their slaves, join forces with the soldiers of the Artois regiment and make themselves masters of the city; the colonists send a courier to London and declare themselves ready to pass under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Great Britain in exchange for the conservation of their laws.

The troops loyal to the commissioners commanded by generals Lassale and Beauvais put the siege to Port-au-Prince, resumed on April 14, 1793. The colonists of Jérémie in the south of the island revolt in their turn, they form a government which takes the name of "Federation of Grande Anse", arm their slaves and make massacre the free of color, whose heads are brought on spades and exposed at Fort Lapointe; the board of directors forms an army composed of whites commanded by La Chaise and blacks commanded by Noël Bras. In order to suppress this rebellion, the commissioners organize an army commanded by the mulatto André Rigaud; the mulattoes and the free of color arm their slaves and led by Rigaud, take possession of Jacmel but they fail to take Jeremiah. On May 7, 1793, while the commissioners were busy fighting the rebellion in the south, Brigadier General Francois Thomas Galbaud-Dufort, of the Republican army, landed in Cap-French to hold the post of governor; this nomination arouses the hopes of the colonists because Galbaud does not show any favor for mulattoes and free people.

The colonists show more and more their opposition to the commissioners, Sonthonax and Polverel must hastily return to Cape Town on June 10th. Whites and mulattos are on the brink of confrontation; the commissioners begin by ousting Galbaud, he is Creole. Ga

Ectopia cordis

Ectopia cordis or ectopic heart is a congenital malformation in which the heart is abnormally located either or outside of the thorax. The ectopic heart can be found along a spectrum of anatomical locations, including the neck, chest, or abdomen. In most cases, the heart protrudes outside the chest through a split sternum. Ectopia cordis results from a failure of proper maturation of midline mesoderm and ventral body wall formation during embryonic development; the exact etiology remains unknown, but abnormalities in the lateral body wall folds are believed to be involved. The lateral body walls are responsible for fusion at the midline to form the ventral wall. Corruption of this process may underlie ectopia cordis. Defective ventral body wall formation yields a heart unprotected by the pericardium, sternum, or skin. Other organs may have formed outside the skin, as well. Many cases of ectopia cordis have associated congenital heart defects, in which the heart has failed to properly form. Defects more associated with ectopia cordis include: Intracardiac defects Atrial septal defect Ventricular septal defect Tetralogy of Fallot Tricuspid atresia Double outlet right ventricle Non-cardiac malformations Pentalogy of Cantrell Omphalocele Anterior diaphragmatic hernia Cleft palate Due to the rarity and rapid postpartum mortality of ectopia cordis, limited treatment options have been developed.

Only some successful surgeries have been performed as of now, the mortality rate remains high. The prognosis of ectopia cordis depends on classification according to three factors: Location of the defect Cervical Thoracic Thoracoabdominal Abdominal Extent of the cardiac displacement Presence or absence of intracardiac defectsSome studies have suggested a better prognosis with surgery in cases of thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis or less severe pentalogy of Cantrell. In general, the prognosis for ectopia cordis is poor—most cases result in death shortly after birth due to infection, hypoxemia, or cardiac failure; the occurrence of ectopia cordis is 8 per million births. It is classified according to location of the ectopic heart, which includes: Cervical Thoracic Thoracoabdominal AbdominalThoracic and thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis constitute the vast majority of known cases