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Original sin

Original sin called ancestral sin, is a Christian belief in a state of sin in which humanity has existed since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Theologians have characterized this condition in many ways, seeing it as ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred to as a "sin nature", to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt of all humans through collective guilt. Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon first alluded to the concept of original sin in the 2nd century in his controversy with certain dualist Gnostics. Other church fathers such as Augustine shaped and developed the doctrine, seeing it as based on the New Testament teaching of Paul the Apostle and the Old Testament verse of Psalms 51:5. Tertullian, Cyprian and Ambrosiaster considered that humanity shares in Adam's sin, transmitted by human generation.

Augustine's formulation of original sin after 412 CE was popular among Protestant reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin, who equated original sin with concupiscence, affirming that it persisted after baptism and destroyed freedom to do good. Before 412 CE, Augustine said that free will was not destroyed by original sin, but after 412 CE Augustine proposed. Modern Augustinian Calvinism holds this view; the Jansenist movement, which the Catholic Church declared heretical from 1653 maintained that original sin destroyed freedom of will. Instead the Catholic Church declares "Baptism, by imparting the life of Christ's grace, erases original sin and turns a man back towards God, but the consequences for nature and inclined to evil, persist in man and summon him to spiritual battle." "Weakened and diminished by Adam's fall, free will is yet not destroyed in the race." The doctrine of ancestral fault, i.e. the sins of the forefathers leading to punishment of their descendants, was presented as a tradition of immemorial antiquity in ancient Greek religion by Celsus in his True Doctrine, a polemic attacking Christianity.

Celsus is quoted as attributing to "a priest of Apollo or of Zeus" the saying that "the mills of the gods grind even to children's children, to those who are born after them". The idea of divine justice taking the form of collective punishment is ubiquitous in the Hebrew Bible. St Paul's idea of redemption hinged upon the contrast between the sin of Adam and the death and resurrection of Jesus. "Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, death through sin, in this way death came to all people, because all sinned." "For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive." Up till the transgression in the Garden of Eden had not been given great significance. According to the Jesus scholar Geza Vermes: Paul believed that Adam's transgression in a mysterious way affected the nature of the human race; the primeval sin, a Pauline creation with no biblical or post-biblical Jewish precedent, was irreparable by ordinary human effort. The formalized Christian doctrine of original sin was first developed in the 2nd century by Irenaeus, the Bishop of Lyon, in his struggle against Gnosticism.

Irenaeus contrasted their doctrine with the view that the Fall was a step in the wrong direction by Adam, with whom, Irenaeus believed, his descendants had some solidarity or identity. However, Irenaeus did not believe that Adam's sin was as severe as tradition would hold, he was not wholly clear about its consequences. While the belief that all human beings participate in Adam's sin and share his guilt are not foreign concepts for Irenaeus, still his doctrine of Original Sin is rather mild compared with what would be found in the writings of Augustine. One recurring theme in Irenaeus is his view that Adam, in his transgression, is a child who partook of the tree ahead of his time. For Irenaeus, knowing good and evil was an integral aspect of human nature. Other Greek Fathers would come to emphasize the cosmic dimension of the Fall, namely that since Adam human beings are born into a fallen world, but held fast to belief that man, though fallen, is free, they thus did not teach that human beings are deprived of free will and involved in total depravity, one understanding of original sin among the leaders of the Reformation.

During this period the doctrines of human depravity and the inherently sinful nature of human flesh were taught by Gnostics, orthodox Christian writers took great pains to counter them. Christian apologists insisted that God's future judgment of humanity implied humanity must have the ability to live righteously. Historian Robin Lane Fox argues that the foundation of the doctrine of original sin as accepted by the Church was based on a mistranslation of Paul the Apostle's Epistle to the Romans by Augustine, in his On the Grace of Christ, on Original Sin". However, while it is true that the Latin rendering of Rom. 5:12d'in quo omnes peccaverunt' is a mistranslation, many contemporary exegetes argue that this does not show that Paul had no notion of Original Sin in light of verses 18 and 19 of the same chapter. Rom. 5:12–21, it is argued, must be taken as a whole. The original sin doctrine can be found in the fourth Book of Esdras, which refers Adam

Single person

In legal definitions for interpersonal status, a single person is someone, unmarried, not in a serious, committed relationship or not part of a civil union. In common usage, the term'single' is used to refer to someone, not involved in any type of serious romantic relationship, including long-term dating, marriage, or someone who is'single by choice'. Single people may participate in other activities to find a long-term partner or spouse. People may remain single for a variety of reasons, including: Financial duress Their mental health Pursuing educational or professional advancement Lack of suitable partners Changes in perceptions of the necessity of marriage Dedication to religions orders that do not allow for marriage In some cases, single people may be uninterested in marriage, domestic partnership, or other types of committed relationships. Traumatic experiences including domestic violence, dysfunctional family, rape and/or sexual assault The increasing trend of marrying in life and cohabitationSome single people regard and appreciate solitude as an opportunity.

Some people stay single by choice. In addition to choosing singleness as a preferential option, there are those who choose not to marry for religious reasons; these religious traditions include: The Christian monastics cultures of Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Coptism The specific Buddhist monastic traditions According to the United States Bureau of the Census, the fastest-growing household type since the 1980s has been the single person. Both uncommon and unaccepted due to perceived roles, public awareness, modern socioeconomic factors and available popular and lengthier education and careers have made the single lifestyle a viable option for many Americans after the Vietnam War. According the United States Bureau of the Census, in 2016 single adult counted for over 45% of the US population. Sixty-Five Percent of this group had never been married. In 2014, Pew Research Center notes that the highest percentage of never married adults between White, Black and Asian Americans were Black Americans.

The same study projected that about 25% of millennials may not get married. Similar to the United States, single-person households have been seen to be popular in the United Kingdom. In the 2000s, studies found that more citizens were seen to be valuing their career over personal relationships; the increase in single-person households was partly attributed to the high self-esteem it can offer to some people. In Japan, it is not uncommon for citizens to choose to remain single; this has been illustrated with celebrities. Women value friendships over romantic relationships. However, people in Japan who do wish to date have reported that it is difficult to find the time to do so due to being overworked. In Stockholm, sixty per cent of the people live by themselves. Terminology for singleness vary; the variation based on gender and country. Singles can be categorized by the following terms: never married, separated and widowed. Terms used to describe single men are used, carry positive connotations. Single men are simply referred to as bachelors.

The English language has more terms for unwed women. These terms carry a negative connotation. Single women are sometimes called bachelorettes in festive contexts in American English. However, the historic term for unwed women is spinster; the connotations of the word spinster have changed so much over time that it is now considered a derogatory term. The Oxford English Dictionary says in its usage notes for the word: The development of the word spinster is a good example of the way in which a word acquires strong connotations to the extent that it can no longer be used in a neutral sense. From the 17th century the word was appended to names as the official legal description of an unmarried woman: Elizabeth Harris of London, Spinster; this type of use survives today in some religious contexts. In modern everyday English, spinster cannot be used to mean ‘unmarried woman’. Though spinster has a long history of being negative, there are some authors, such as Katie Bolick, that are trying to change the word's connotation into something positive.

Additionally, the phrase Old Maid is used to describe an unmarried women. Catherinette was a traditional French label for girls of 25 years old who were still unmarried by the Feast of Saint Catherine; the term sheng nu is used to describe unmarried women who are in mid to late twenties in China and East Asia. In Japan, men that have no interest in getting married are called Sōshoku Herbivore men; this term describes as young men who have lost their "manliness". Being single, like being in a relationship, affects people's health. People have different perspectives on the ways. According to researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, "Being single is not good for your health and lifespan". Being single makes it easier for people to lose connection to others. Lack of social relationships will cause people to lose self-identity and purpose according to psychology professor Peggy A. Thoits at Indiana University. In a recent survey "There are 32 percent higher rates of early death in single men compared to married men.

While single women have 23 percent higher rates of death compared to married women" report by the American Journals

Jones Very

Jones Very was an American poet, essayist and mystic associated with the American Transcendentalism movement. He was known as a scholar of William Shakespeare and many of his poems were Shakespearean sonnets, he was well-known and respected amongst the Transcendentalists, though he had a mental breakdown early in his career. Born in Salem, Massachusetts to two unwed first cousins, Jones Very became associated with Harvard University, first as an undergraduate as a student in the Harvard Divinity School and as a tutor of Greek, he studied epic poetry and was invited to lecture on the topic in his home town, which drew the attention of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Soon after, Very asserted that he was the Second Coming of Christ, which resulted in his dismissal from Harvard and his eventual institutionalization in an insane asylum; when he was released, Emerson helped him issue a collection called Essays and Poems in 1839. Lived the majority of his life as a recluse from on, issuing poetry only sparingly.

He died in 1880. Was born on August 28, 1813, in Salem and spent much of his childhood at sea, he was the oldest of six children, born out of wedlock to two first cousins. His mother, Lydia Very, was known for being an aggressive freethinker who made her atheistic beliefs known to all, she believed. His father named Jones Very, was a captain during the War of 1812 and was held in Nova Scotia for a time by the British as a prisoner of war; when the younger Jones Very was ten, his father, by a shipmaster, took him on a sailing voyage to Russia. A year his father had Very serve as a cabin boy on a trip to New Orleans, Louisiana, his father died on the return trip due to a lung disease he contracted while in Nova Scotia. As a boy, Very was studious, well-behaved, solitary. By 1827, he left school when his mother told him he must take the place of his father and care for the family. After working at an auction house, Very became a paid assistant to the principal of a private school in Salem as a teenager.

The principal, Henry Kemble Oliver, exposed his young assistant to philosophers and writers, including James Mackintosh, to influence his religious beliefs and counteract his mother's atheism. He composed a poem for the dedication of a new Unitarian church in Salem: "O God. Enrolled at Harvard College in 1834. During his college years, he was shy and ambitious of literary fame, he had become interested in the works of Lord Byron, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. His first few poems were published in his hometown newspaper, the Salem Observer, while he completed his studies, he graduated from Harvard in 1836, ranked number two in his class. He was chosen to speak at his commencement. After graduating, Very served as a tutor in Greek before entering Harvard Divinity School, thanks to the financial assistance of an uncle. Though Very never completed his divinity degree, he held temporary pastorates in Maine and Rhode Island. Became known for his ability to draw people into literature, was asked to speak at a lyceum in his hometown of Salem in 1837.

There he was befriended by Elizabeth Peabody, who wrote to Emerson suggesting Very lecture in Concord. In 1838, Ralph Waldo Emerson arranged a talk by Very at the Concord Lyceum. Lectured on epic poetry on April 4 of that year, after he had walked twenty miles from Salem to Concord to deliver it. Emerson made up for the meager $10 payment by inviting Very to his home for dinner. Emerson signed Very's personal copy of Nature with the words: "Har of Man with Nature Must Be Reconciled With God". For a time, Very tried to recruit Nathaniel Hawthorne as a brother figure in his life. Though Hawthorne treated him kindly, he was not impressed by Very. Unlike Hawthorne, Emerson found him "remarkable" and, when Very showed up at his home unannounced along with Cornelius Conway Felton in 1838, Emerson invited several other friends, including Henry David Thoreau, to meet him. Emerson, was surprised at Very's behavior in larger groups. "When he is in the room with other persons, speech stops, as if there were a corpse in the apartment", he wrote.

So, in May 1838, the same month Very published his "Epic Poetry" lecture in the Christian Examiner, Emerson brought Very to a meeting of the Transcendental Club, where the topic of discussion was "the question of mysticism". At the meeting, held at the home of Caleb Stetson in Medford, Very was engaged in the discussion, building his reputation as a mystic within that circle. Was known as an eccentric, prone to odd behavior and may have suffered from bipolar disorder; the first signs of a breakdown came shortly after meeting Emerson, as Very was completing an essay on William Shakespeare. As Very explained, "I felt within me a new will... it was not a feeling of my own but a sensible will, not my own... These two consciousnesses, as I may call them, continued with me". In August 1837, while traveling by train, he was overcome with terror at its speed until he realized he was being "borne along by a divine engine and undertaking his life-journey"; as he told Henry Ware Jr. professor of pulpit eloquence and pastoral care at Harvard Divinity School, divine inspiration helped him understand the twenty-fourth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew and that Christ was having his Second Coming within him.

When Ware did not believe him, Very said, "I had thought you did the will of the Father, that I should receive so