To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Black Butte Lake
Black Butte Lake is an artificial lake located in Tehama and Glenn counties in the U. S. state of California. The lake was formed from Stony Creek in 1963 upon the completion of Black Butte Dam by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the dam is located 9 miles west of Orland. At full pool, the lake is 7 miles long and has a shoreline of 40 miles and a surface area of 4,460 acres; the dam and lake were constructed for flood protection for agricultural lands. The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment released a warning regarding eating fish caught from this lake based on the elevated mercury level. List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California Orland Buttes Black Butte Lake
Glenn County, California
Glenn County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,122; the county seat is Willows. It is located in the northern part of the California Central Valley. Glenn County was formed in 1891 from parts of Colusa County, it was named for Hugh J. Glenn, who came to be the largest wheat farmer in the state during his lifetime and a man of great prominence in political and commercial life in California. Peter Herman Clark William H. Sale Jack A. Bailey Newt Collins Roy D. Heard Lawrence Atherton Braden Roy D. Heard Hal Singleton - Killed in Car Crash Ben Karanig Roger Roberts Richard "Rick" Weaver Louis K. Donnelley Robert "Bob" Shadley - Resigned Larry Jones Richard L. Warren Jr. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,327 square miles, of which 1,314 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. Colusa County - south Lake County - southwest Mendocino County - west Tehama County - north Butte County - east Mendocino National Forest Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that Glenn County had a population of 28,122.
The racial makeup of Glenn County was 19,990 White, 231 African American, 619 Native American, 722 Asian, 24 Pacific Islander, 5,522 from other races, 1,014 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,539 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,453 people, 9,172 households, 6,732 families residing in the county. The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 9,982 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 2.1% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 18.2% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. 29.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 10.8% were of German, 9.4% American, 6.2% English and 5.9% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 69.5 % spoke 27.0 % Spanish and 2.1 % Hmong as their first language. There were 9,172 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families.
22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.33. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,107, the median income for a family was $37,023. Males had a median income of $29,480 versus $21,766 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,069. About 12.5% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.3% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. Glenn is a Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon Johnson in 1964.
Glenn County is split between California's 1st and 3rd congressional districts, represented by Doug LaMalfa and John Garamendi, respectively. In the State Assembly, Glenn County is in the 3rd Assembly District, represented by Republican James Gallagher. In the State Senate, the county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen. On November 4, 2008 Glenn County voted 73.3% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. Interstate 5 State Route 32 State Route 45 State Route 162 Glenn Ride runs buses from Willows to Hamilton City, on into Chico; the nearest Amtrak station is in Chico. Willows-Glenn County Airport and Haigh Field are both general aviation airports. California Northern Railroad shortline serves Willows; the main line runs north to Tehama and south to Davis, where the railroad interchanges with the Union Pacific Railroad.
Prior to the line being leased to the California Northern, the route was operated by Southern Pacific and was known as the West Side Line. The railroad first reached Willows on December 1879, from Davis. In 1882 the extension from Willows to Tehama was completed. In 1884 the West Side and Mendocino Railroad constructed a line east from Willows to Fruto. Orland Willows Artois Elk Creek Hamilton City Butte City Fruto The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Glenn County.† county seat Hiking trails in Glenn County National Register of Historic Places listings in Glenn County, California Orland Buttes Thomas D. Harp, mentions formation of the county Official website Glenn County Resource Guide
The Coast Starlight is a passenger train operated by Amtrak on the West Coast of the United States. It runs from Seattle, Washington, to Los Angeles, via the San Francisco Bay Area; the train was the first to offer direct service between the two cities. Its name is a combination of the Coast Daylight and the Starlight; the train has operated continuously since Amtrak's formation in 1971. Unique among Amtrak's long-distance trains, the Coast Starlight featured a Hi-Level lounge for sleeping car passengers — the "Pacific Parlour Car" —, discontinued in February 2018. Before the formation of Amtrak, no one passenger train ran the length of the West Coast; the closest equivalent was the Southern Pacific Railroad's West Coast, which ran via the San Joaquin Valley from Los Angeles to Portland, Oregon from 1924 to 1949, with through cars to Seattle via the Great Northern Railway. By 1971, the SP operated just two daily trains between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area: the Los Angeles–San Francisco Coast Daylight via the Coast Line, the Los Angeles–Oakland San Joaquin Daylight via the Central Valley.
The SP operated the tri-weekly Cascade between Oakland and Portland, Oregon. The Burlington Northern Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad ran three daily round trips between Portland and Seattle; the Santa Fe ran the San Diegan between San Diego. With the start of Amtrak operations on May 1, 1971, a single train began running between Seattle and San Diego; the unnamed train ran three days a week. On November 14, Amtrak extended the Oakland–Los Angeles train to San Diego, renumbered it to #12/13, renamed it Coast Daylight; the Seattle–San Diego train became the Coast Daylight/Starlight northbound and Coast Starlight/Daylight southbound. Both trains were cut back from San Diego to Los Angeles in April 1972, replaced by a third San Diegan. On June 10, 1973, Amtrak began running the combined Coast Daylight/Starlight daily for the summer months. Positive response led to Amtrak to retain this service, the Coast Daylight name was dropped on May 19, 1974. An additional train, the Spirit of California, ran the section of the route between Sacramento and Los Angeles on an overnight schedule from October 25, 1981 to September 30, 1983.
From November 10, 1996 to October 25, 1997, through coaches were transferred between the Coast Starlight and San Diegan at Los Angeles. The Coast Starlight used the Southern Pacific West Valley Line between Tehama and Davis; that route bypassed Sacramento. On April 26, 1982, the train was rerouted via Roseville on the Southern Pacific Valley Subdivision and Martinez Subdivision, with stops added at Sacramento and Chico, per request from the state. In 1999, the Coast Starlight was rerouted onto the more direct ex-Western Pacific Sacramento Subdivision between Marysville and Sacramento, with the Marysville stop closed. Ridership declined by 26% between 1999–2005 as freight congestion and track maintenance on the Union Pacific Railroad reduced the Coast Starlight's on-time performance to 2%, which Amtrak characterized as "dismal." By mid-summer in 2006 delays of 5–11 hours were common. Critics dubbed the train the Star-late. During early summer 2008, the Coast Starlight was relaunched with new amenities and refurbished equipment.
In July 2008, refurbished Pacific Parlour cars returned to service as part of the relaunch. This was due to the success of Amtrak's relaunches of the Empire Builder. Between FY2008 and FY2009, ridership on the Coast Starlight jumped 15% from 353,657 passengers to 406,398 passengers. Operating conditions on the UP improved as well. Service was suspended north of Sacramento for a month in 2017 after a freight derailment damaged a bridge near Mount Shasta, California. On February 24, 2019, train #11 struck a fallen tree near Oakridge, Oregon after a rare heavy snowstorm; the train was stranded for 36 hours before tracks could be cleared for a Union Pacific locomotive to tow the train back to Eugene-Springfield. The 2018 California State Rail Plan, prepared by Caltrans, outlines a number of planned improvements to rail infrastructure in the state of California; these proposals include near-term plans to create additional stops on the Coast Subdivision at Soledad and King City for use by the Coast Starlight.
There is a proposal in the Capitol Corridor Vision plan to improve the right-of-way shared by the Capitol Corridor and Coast Starlight between Oakland and Martinez. The proposal would re-route the train from along the coastline to a new tunnel through Franklin Canyon and a right-of-way next to California State Route 4 that would reduce the trip time by several minutes. Except for two sections, most of the Coast Starlight route is on former Southern Pacific lines now owned by the Union Pacific Railroad; the Coast Starlight runs over the following lines: BNSF Seattle Subdivision: Seattle to Portland, Oregon UP Brooklyn Subdivision: Portland to Eugene, Oregon UP Cascade Subdivision: Eugene to Klamath Falls, Oregon UP Black Butte Subdivision: Klamath Falls to Dunsmuir, California UP Valley Subdivision: Dunsmuir to Marysville, California UP Sacramento Subdivision: Marysville to Sacramento, California UP Martinez Subdivision: Sacramento to Oakland UP Niles Subdivision: Oakland to Elmhurst UP Coast Subdivision: Elmhurst to San Luis Obispo UP Santa Barbara Subdivision: San Luis Obispo to Moorpark, California UP/Metrolink Ventura Subdivision: Moorpark to Taylor Yard, Los Angeles Metrolink River Subdivision: Taylor Yard to Los Angeles Union StationThe Coast Starlight is divert
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic