Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne. Orne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790, it was created from parts of the former provinces of Perche. It is the birthplace of Charlotte Corday and the assassin of Jean-Paul Marat. Orne is in the region of Normandy neighbouring Eure, Eure-et-Loir, Manche and Calvados, it is the only department of Normandy to be landlocked. The largest town by a considerable margin is the prefecture, Alençon, an administrative and commercial centre for what is still an overwhelmingly a rural department. There are no large industrial centres; the inhabitants of the department are called Ornais. The recorded population level peaked at 443,688 in 1836. Declining farm incomes and the lure of better prospects in the overseas empire led to a sustained reduction in population levels in many rural departments. By the time of the 1936 census, the recorded population stood at just 269,331. Once motor car ownership started to surge in the 1960s, employment opportunities became less restricted and by 2008, the population level had recovered a little to 292,282.

The two major cities in the Orne are Alençon, the prefecture, Flers. Alençon is the chief town of the Orne department. Camembert, the village where Camembert cheese is made, is located in Orne; the local dialect is known as Augeron. Cantons of the Orne department Communes of the Orne department Arrondissements of the Orne department Haras National du Pin, a French stud farm Prefecture website General Council website Orne at Curlie Orne Tourism Life in the Orne, WW1 with images

Sea Serpent (Morey's Piers)

Sea Serpent is a steel roller coaster at Morey's Piers in Wildwood, New Jersey. Opened in 1984, it was built by Vekoma, was the first boomerang-style coaster to be built in the US; the coaster's installation was part of a redevelopment of the Marine Pier into a new Mariner's Landing area in 1984. The Sea Serpent sits in the middle of Mariners Landing and serves as the icon for the pier. Riders board yellow and green trains to go with the theme, it is a single train with 7 cars. Riders are arranged 2 across in 2 rows for a total of 28 riders; the train begins its backwards climb up the first of the ride's two 116 foot lift hills, both of which are placed diagonally towards each other. The train continues to rise for thirty seconds before dropping at forty-seven miles per hour right through the station and through the coaster's first inversion, a Cobra Roll, exerting as many as 5.2 g's on riders throughout the two elements. The train goes through a Loop before ending up on the second lift section.

The second lift pulls riders upwards for a few seconds releases, sending riders backwards. The train encounters the loop first this time, only to go through the cobra roll once again which leads riders back through the station and up the first lift section again; the train slowly lowers back down into the station, having sent riders through 935 feet of three inversions in total, both forwards and backwards. During the 2019-2020 off season, the ride is undergoing a makeover, which includes replacing the second lift hill and the trains. In June 1998 the coaster suffered its first accident, injuring 14 of the 23 riders on board, some of whom were stranded upside down. According to Will Morey, chief executive officer of the Morey Organization, the accident was thought to have been due to a wheel coming off a rear axle, causing the coaster train to jerk to a stop midway through the ride, as it was looping backwards


NAIBER is an acronym for non-accelerating inflation buffer employment ratio and refers to a systemic proposal for an in-built inflation control mechanism devised by economists Bill Mitchell and Warren Mosler, advocated by Modern Money Theory as replacement for NAIRU. The concept of NAIBER is related to the idea of a Job Guarantee aimed to create full employment and price stability, by having the state promise to hire unemployed workers as an employer of last resort. If the Phillips curve displays hysteresis - that is, if episodes of high unemployment raise the NAIRU - the NAIRU analysis is problematic; this could happen, for example, if unemployed workers lose skills so that employers prefer to bid up of the wages of existing workers when demand increases, rather than hiring the unemployed. Economists as Abba Lerner and Hyman Minsky have argued that a similar effect can be achieved without the human costs of unemployment via a Job Guarantee, where rather than being unemployed, those who cannot find work in the private sector should be employed by the government.

This theory, the policy of the JG replaces the NAIRU with the NAIBER. The buffer employment ratio is the ratio of JG employment to total employment; the BER conditions the overall rate of wage demands. When the BER is high, real wage demands will be correspondingly lower. If inflation exceeds the government’s announced target, tighter fiscal and monetary policy would be triggered to increase the BER, which entails workers transferring from the inflating sector to the fixed price JG sector; this reduces the inflation spiral. So instead of a buffer stock of unemployed being used to discipline the distributional struggle, the JG policy achieves this via compositional shifts in employment. Replacing the current non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment, the BER that results in stable inflation is called the non-accelerating inflation buffer employment ratio, it is a full employment steady state JG level, dependent on a range of factors, such as the path of the economy. Centre of Full Employment and Equity Full Employment Abandoned Job Guarantee Employer of last resort Involuntary unemployment Natural rate of unemployment