Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. As the air mass gains altitude it cools down adiabatically, which can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create clouds and, under the right conditions, precipitation. Precipitation induced by orographic lift occurs in many places throughout the world. Examples include: The Mogollon Rim in central Arizona The western slope of the Sierra Nevada range in California The mountains near Baja California North – La Bocana to Laguna Hanson; the windward slopes of Khasi and Jayantia Hills in the state of Meghalaya in India. The Western Highlands of Yemen, which receive by far the most rain in Arabia; the Western Ghats that run along India's western coast. The Great Dividing Range of Eastern and South Eastern Australia which forces uplift of moist air originating from the ocean to the east; the mountains of New Zealand, which faces a prevailing westerly flow off the Tasman Sea.
The mountains of western Tasmania which face a prevailing westerly flow. The southern Andes, which faces a prevailing westerly flow off the Pacific Ocean; the Northwestern United States and Canada see prevailing westerly flow off the northern Pacific Ocean. Places on the sea-facing side of coastal mountains see in excess of 140 inches of precipitation per year; these locales are on the side of the mountains which are in the path of storm systems, therefore receive the moisture, squeezed from the clouds. The ski country region of New York and Pennsylvania with lake effect snows. Transylvania County, North Carolina, which gets the most rainfall of anywhere in the Eastern U. S.. The Appalachian Mountains in West Virginia; the Eastern seaboard of Madagascar. Table Mountain, Cape Town, South Africa; the cold Atlantic air mass flows up over the north western face to 3,500 feet above sea level and is met by the warm Indian Ocean air mass from the south eastern back side of the mountain forming the famous "Table Cloth".
Oppland mountain area, Norway. The Front Range Foothills of Northern Colorado – west of Boulder to Golden as storms pass by. Winter storms can produce 5–6 feet of snow; the highest precipitation amounts are found upwind from the prevailing winds at the crests of mountain ranges, where they relieve and therefore the upward lifting is greatest. As the air descends the lee side of the mountain, it dries, creating a rain shadow. On the lee side of the mountains, sometimes as little as 15 miles away from high precipitation zones, annual precipitation can be as low as 8 inches per year. Areas where this effect is observed include: The Himalayas block moisture from the Tibetan Plateau The Atacama Desert in Peru and Chile Switzerland's Rhone valley Areas east of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest Areas east of the Olympic Mountains in Washington state, The Great Basin of the United States, east of the Sierra Nevada Geography of the United States Pacific Mountain System Pacific Cordillera California's Central Valley The Canadian Prairies All of the Hawaiian Islands.
The entire island of Kaho'olawe is in the rain shadow of Maui North East England is in the rain shadow of the Pennines, this combined with Britain's prevailing wind from the South West. This explains the significant differences between the rainfall in the North North East; the Judean Desert in the Land of Israel and the Dead Sea. Downslope winds occur on the leeward side of mountain barriers when a stable air mass is carried over the mountain by strong winds that increase in strength with height. Moisture is removed and latent heat released as the air mass is orographically lifted; as the air mass descends, it is compression heated. The warm foehn wind, locally known as the Chinook wind, Bergwind or Diablo wind or Nor'wester depending on the region, provide examples of this type of wind, are driven in part by latent heat released by orographic-lifting-induced precipitation. A similar class of winds, the Sirocco, the Bora and Santa Ana winds, are examples where orographic lifting has limited effect since there is limited moisture to remove in the Saharan or other air masses.
As air flows over mountain barriers, orographic lift can create a variety of cloud effects. Orographic fog is formed as the air rises up the slope and will envelope the summit; when the air is humid, some of the moisture will fall on the windward slope and on the summit of the mountain. When there is a high wind, a banner cloud is formed downwind of the upper slopes of isolated, steep-sided mountains, it is created by the low pressure areas in the downwind vortices drawing in humid air from the lower slopes of the mountain. This reduction in pressure compared to the surrounding air increases condensation, in the same manner as an aircraft's wingtip vortices; the most famous such cloud forms in the lee of the Matterhorn. The leeward edge of an extensive mass of orographic clouds may be quite distinct. On the leeward side of the mountain, the air flowing downward is known as a foehn wind; because some of the moisture that has condensed on the top of the mountain has precipitated, the foehn is drier, the lower moisture content causes the descending air mass to warm up more than it had cooled down during ascent.
The distinct cut-off line which forms along and parallel to the ridge line is sometimes known as a foehn wall. This is because the edge appears stationary and it appears to h
The 1990 Yugoslavian motorcycle Grand Prix was the seventh round of the 1990 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season. It took place on the weekend of 15–17 June 1990 at the Rijeka circuit. In qualifying Christian Sarron went down hard and was heaved off the tarmac by track marshals, which brought complaints from riders that the race organization was unprofessional. At the start, Wayne Rainey led, followed by Mick Doohan and Niall Mackenzie, while behind them two Cagiva riders collided and crashed: Ron Haslam and Randy Mamola. Haslam touched the back of a bike, fell off into Mamola. Kevin Schwantz was in 9th place after either a bad start or a mechanical problem; the field was getting strung out, Rainey ahead Doohan, Pierfrancesco Chili, Jean-Philippe Ruggia, with Schwantz in eighth. Alex Barros put Cagiva's Yugoslavian GP to bed. Schwantz found his rhythm and caught the group of three chasing Rainey: Doohan and Chili; the gap to Rainey looked too big to close, the fight for second narrowed down to Mackenzie and Schwantz.
Behind him, Doohan led Pons and Chili, but Pons lost the front end on the exit of a right turn, Chili hit the fallen rider or bike and was thrown into the air. The marshals put Pons on the stretcher like there were snipers in the bleachers, the question of race organization came to mind again. During the practice Wilco Zeelenberg was hurt; the rain disturbed the race, stopped 2 laps before the end. But the drivers continued due to a bad coordination between marshals, with red flags that did not appear. Darren Milner, allowed to fill the empty place left on the grid by Zeelenberg saw the red flag, he was one lap behind the leaders. Milner slowed to a point, and in fact Reinhold Roth, going still at full speed, smashed into Milner. As the red flags come out the situation worsened, with people and rescuers crossing the track on the site of the shunt with the riders still going at good speed to pit. While Milner and Criville were lifted by rescuers again with unprofessional methods, Reinhold Roth was airlifted in critical state with cerebral injuries and thoracic trauma.
Scenes of desperation from the Mobile Clinic were broadcast live on TV, making clear to everyone the heavy consequences of the crash. Reinhold Roth survived the crash but he remained hemiplegic. Carlos Cardus won the race
The 69th Annual Tony Awards were held on June 7, 2015, to recognize achievement in Broadway productions during the 2014–15 season. The ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City and broadcast live by CBS. Kristin Chenoweth and Alan Cumming hosted the ceremony. Of the ceremony's most winning productions, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time and Fun Home each won five Tony Awards in the play and musical categories, respectively. Both An American in Paris and the Lincoln Center revival of The King and I took home four Tony Awards. Shows that opened on Broadway during the 2014–15 season before April 23, 2015 were eligible for consideration; the Tony Award nominations were announced on April 2015 by Mary-Louise Parker and Bruce Willis. The musicals An American in Paris and Fun Home had the most nominations with 12, followed by Something Rotten! with 10, the revival of The King and I with 9 and Wolf Hall Parts One & Two with 8. This is the first year; the award was presented to an educator who demonstrates "a positive impact on the lives of students, advancing the theatre profession and a commitment to excellence."This year, the number of nominees in several categories may be increased, depending upon the number of eligible candidates.
This change affects performance categories, Best Direction of both plays and musicals, Best Choreography. The Creative Arts Awards portion of the awards ceremony was hosted by Jessie Mueller and James Monroe Iglehart; the Creative Arts Awards include Best Lighting Design of a Play, Best Lighting Design of a Musical, Best Costume Design of a Play, Best Costume Design of a Musical, Best Orchestrations. There were performances at the awards ceremony from musicals which have been nominated for a Tony Award, those which have not been nominated, including: An American in Paris, The King and I, On the Town, On the Twentieth Century, The Visit, Fun Home, Something Rotten!, It Shoulda Been You, Finding Neverland and Gigi. The presenters included: Tommy Tune received the Lifetime Achievement Award; the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre award recipients are: Adrian Bryan-Brown, Gene O'Donovan, Arnold Abramson. The Cleveland Play House received the Regional Theatre Tony Award. John Cameron Mitchell received the Special Tony Award for his return to the Angry Inch.
Stephen Schwartz was given the Isabelle Stevenson Award. The new education award was presented to Corey Mitchell, Performing Arts Teacher and Theatre Director, Northwest School of the Arts, North Carolina. 4: Bob Crowley 2: Paule Constable, Natasha Katz, Lisa Kron, Japhy Weideman During the tribute Josh Groban sang the song "You'll Never Walk Alone" from the musical Carousel. Drama Desk Awards 2015 Laurence Olivier Awards Obie Award New York Drama Critics' Circle Theatre World Award Lucille Lortel Awards Tony Awards Official Site