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Orrery

An orrery is a mechanical model of the Solar System that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons according to the heliocentric model. It may represent the relative sizes of these bodies. Though the Greeks had working planetaria, the first orrery, a planetarium of the modern era was produced in 1704, one was presented to Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery – hence the name, they are driven by a clockwork mechanism with a globe representing the Sun at the centre, with a planet at the end of each of the arms. The Antikythera mechanism, discovered in 1901 in a wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera and extensively studied, exhibited the diurnal motions of the Sun and the five known planets, it has been dated between 150 and 100 BC. The Antikythera hand driven mechanism is now considered one of the first orreries, but for many decades was ignored as it was thought to be far too complex to be genuine, it was geocentric and used as a mechanical calculator designed to calculate astronomical positions.

According to Cicero, the Roman philosopher, writing in the first century BC, Posidonius constructed a planetary model. In 1348, Giovanni Dondi built the first known clock driven mechanism which displays the ecliptical position of Moon, Mercury, Mars and Saturn according to the complicated Ptolemaic planetary theories; the clock itself is lost, but Dondi left a complete description of the astronomic gear trains of his clock. As late as 1650, P. Schirleus built a geocentric planetarium with the Sun as a planet, with Mercury and Venus revolving around the Sun as its moons. At the court of William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel two complicated astronomic clocks were built in 1561 and 1563-1568, which show on four sites the ecliptical position of Sun, Venus, Mars and Saturn, the Moon and Dragon according to Ptolemy, a Calendar, the Sunrise and Sunset and an automated celestial sphere with an animated Sun symbol which, for the first time on a celestial globe, show the real position of the Sun, including the equation of time.

The clocks are now on display in Kassel at the Astronomisch-Physikalisches Kabinett and in Dresden at the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, published in Nuremberg in 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus challenged the Western teaching of a geocentric universe in which the Sun revolved daily around the Earth, he observed. This simplified the apparent epicyclic motions of the planets, making it feasible to represent the planets' paths as simple circles; this could be modelled by the use of gears. Tycho Brahe's improved instruments made precise observations of the skies, from these Johannes Kepler deduced that planets orbited the Sun in ellipses. In 1687 Isaac Newton explained the cause of elliptic motion in his theory of gravitation. Clock makers George Graham and Thomas Tompion built the first modern orrery around 1704 in England. Graham gave the first model, or its design, to the celebrated instrument maker John Rowley of London to make a copy for Prince Eugene of Savoy.

Rowley was commissioned to make another copy for his patron Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery, from which the device took its name in English. This model was presented to Charles' son John the 5th Earl of Cork and 5th Earl of Orrery. Independently, Christiaan Huygens published in 1703 details of a heliocentric planetary machine which he had built while resident in Paris between 1665 and 1681, he calculated the gear trains needed to represent a year of 365.242 days, used that to produce the cycles of the principal planets. Joseph Wright's painting A Philosopher giving a Lecture on the Orrery in which a lamp is put in place of the Sun, which hangs in Derby Museum and Art Gallery, depicts a group listening to a lecture by a natural philosopher; the Sun in a brass orrery provides the only light in the room. The orrery depicted in the painting has rings, which give it an appearance similar to that of an armillary sphere; the demonstration was thereby able to depict eclipses. To put this in chronological context, in 1762 John Harrison's marine chronometer first enabled accurate measurement of longitude.

In 1766, astronomer Johann Daniel Titius first demonstrated that the mean distance of each planet from the Sun could be represented by the following progression: 4 + 0 10, 4 + 3 10, 4 + 6 10, 4 + 12 10, 4 + 24 10, 4 + 48 10..... That is, 0.4, 0.7, 1.0, 1.6, 2.8, 5.2... The numbers refer to astronomical units, the mean distance between Sun and Earth, 1.496 × 10⁸ km. The Derby Orrery demonstrated the relative planetary movements. Eisinga's Planetarium was built from 1774 to 1781 by Eise Eisinga in his home in Franeker, in the Netherlands, it displays the planets across the width of a room's ceiling, has been in operation continually since it was created. This orrery is a planetarium in both senses of the word: a complex machine showing planetary orbits, a theatre for

San Domenico, Gubbio

The church of San Domenico sometimes called San Martino, is a medieval Roman Catholic church in the lower town of Gubbio, Umbria, in Italy. At one time, the church was dedicated to St Martin of Tours. A church at the site is documented since the 11th century, but the present church was first built in the 13th century and granted to the Dominican order. Further expansions of the church were made in the 15th century; the exterior remains unfinished in brick. The interior nave was transformed in the 18th century, however many of the chapels retain their original fresco decoration; the first two chapels to left and right are frescoed with the Life of St Peter Martyr by followers of Ottaviano Nelli and a late 14th-century Coronation of the Virgin. In the 5th chapel on the left is an altarpiece of St Vincent Ferrer attributed to Jacopo Bedi; the carved wooden choir stalls were completed in the 16th century

2010 FIFA World Cup Group C

Group C of the 2010 FIFA World Cup began on 12 June and ended on 23 June 2010. The group consisted of England, the United States and Slovenia. Only England and the United States had met at a World Cup: in 1950, when the United States defeated England 1–0; the United States and England finished tied at the top of the group with five points each. United States advanced to play Ghana in the round of 16. England advanced to play Germany in the round of 16. All times local England controlled the early part of the match and got off to a quick lead when an unmarked Steven Gerrard made a run into the box and beat United States goalkeeper Tim Howard in the fourth minute with the outside of his right foot; the United States levelled the game in the 40th minute when a harmless shot by Clint Dempsey was mishandled by England goalkeeper Robert Green and rolled into the net. The United States had a good opportunity to take the lead and pull off a surprise upset in the second half. England had a good opportunity to win the game when Emile Heskey fired straight at the goalkeeper in a one-on-one situation.

Once again the U. S. was outplayed early, as Valter Birsa netted for Slovenia from distance and Zlatan Ljubijankić extended the lead soon after to give them a 2–0 lead at half-time. In the 48th minute, Landon Donovan cut the lead in half for the United States when he dribbled into the Slovenian box and blasted a close-range shot over Samir Handanović into the roof of the net; the United States kept their hopes of advancement alive. Altidore placed a header into the Slovenian box, run down by midfielder Michael Bradley, who lobbed the keeper to tie the game. A few minutes the United States looked as if they were going to complete their comeback when a Donovan free kick was volleyed in by substitute Maurice Edu. Jermain Defoe's 23rd-minute goal allowed England to claim the win and progress to the knockout stage of the competition. After the goal, England were unable to add to their lead. Early in the game, the United States nearly allowed another early goal as an Algerian shot hit the crossbar. Throughout the remainder of the game, the United States had a number of good chances against a solid Algerian defence that allowed just one goal from two games.

After 90 minutes of a scoreless affair, the United States were at risk of elimination: with England leading Slovenia 1–0, a 0–0 draw for the United States would have caused them to finish third in Group C on three points. However, in stoppage time, American goalkeeper Tim Howard threw an outlet pass to Landon Donovan, who moved the ball up the pitch and passed the ball just outside the box to Altidore, who crossed the ball to an open Dempsey in the middle of the box. With the Algerian goalkeeper closing in, Dempsey shot and was blocked; the United States held on for the final few minutes for a 1–0 victory. The late goal not only saved the United States from elimination but allowed them to win their group for the first time since 1930, advancing to play Ghana in the round of 16

Fluorapatite

Fluorapatite with the alternate spelling of fluoroapatite, is a phosphate mineral with the formula Ca53F. Fluorapatite is a hard crystalline solid. Although samples can have various color, the pure mineral is colorless as expected for a material lacking transition metals. Along with hydroxylapatite, it can be a component of tooth enamel. Fluorapatite crystallizes in a hexagonal crystal system, it is combined as a solid solution with hydroxylapatite in biological matrices. Chlorapatite is another related structure. Industrially, the mineral is an important source of both hydrofluoric acids. Fluorapatite as a mineral is the most common phosphate mineral, it occurs as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks and in calcium rich metamorphic rocks. It occurs as a detrital or diagenic mineral in sedimentary rocks and is an essential component of phosphorite ore deposits, it occurs as a residual mineral in lateritic soils. Fluorapatite is found in the teeth of other fishes in varying concentrations, it is present in human teeth that have been exposed to fluoride ions, for example, through water fluoridation or by using fluoride-containing toothpaste.

The presence of fluorapatite helps prevent tooth decay or dental caries. Fluoroapatite has a critical pH of 4.5, thus it makes tooth structure more resistant to additional caries attack. It has a mild bacteriostatic property as well, which helps decrease the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans, the predominant bacteria related to dental caries. Fluorapatite can be synthesized in a three step process. First, calcium phosphate is generated by combining calcium and phosphate salts at neutral pH; this material reacts further with fluoride sources to give the mineral. This reaction is integral in the global phosphorus cycle. 3 Ca2+ + 2 PO3−4 → Ca323 Ca32 + CaF2 → 2 Ca53F Fluorapatite as a occurring impurity in apatite generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct during the production of phosphoric acid, as apatite is digested by sulfuric acid. The hydrogen fluoride byproduct is now one of the industrial sources of hydrofluoric acid, which in turn is used as a starting reagent for synthesis of a range of important industrial and pharmaceutical fluorine compounds.

Synthetic fluorapatite doped with manganese-II and antimony-V formed the basis for the second generation of fluorescent tube phosphors referred to as halophosphors. When irradiated with 253.7 nm mercury resonance radiation they fluoresced with broad emission which appeared within the range of acceptable whites. The antimony-V produced a broad blue emission. Addition of manganese-II produced a second broad peak to appear at the red end of the emission spectrum at the expense of the antimony peak, excitation energy being transferred from the antimony to the manganese by a non radiative process and making the emitted light appear less blue and more pink. Replacement of some of the fluoride ions with chloride ions in the lattice caused a general shift of the emission bands to the longer wavelength red end of the spectrum; these alterations allowed phosphors for Warm White and Daylight tubes, to be made. The amounts of the manganese and antimony activators vary between 0.5 mole percent. The reaction used to create halophosphor is shown below.

The antimony and manganese must be incorporated in the correct trace amounts if the product is to be fluorescent. 6 CaHPO4 + CaCO3 + CaF2 + NH4Cl → 2 Ca53 + CO2 + H2O+ NH3Sometimes some of the calcium was substituted with strontium giving narrower emission peaks. For special purpose or colored tubes the halophosphor was mixed with small quantities of other phosphors in De-Luxe tubes with higher color rendering index for use in food market or art studio lighting. Prior to the development of halophosphor in 1942, the first generation willemite latticed, manganese-II activated zinc orthosilicate and zinc beryllium orthosilicate phosphors were used in fluorescent tubes. Due to the respiratory toxicity of beryllium compounds the obselescence of these early phosphor types were advantageous to health. Since about 1990 the third generation tri-phosphors, three separate red and green phosphors activated with rare earth ions and mixed in proportions to produce acceptable whites, have replaced halophosphors.

Fluorapatite can be used as a precursor for the production of phosphorus. It can be reduced by carbon in the presence of quartz: 4 Ca53F + 21 SiO2 + 30 C → 20 CaSiO3 + 30 CO + SiF4 + 6 P2Upon cooling, white phosphorus is generated: 2 P2 → P4Fluorapatite is used as a gemstone

Cryptocheilus

Cryptocheilus is a genus of spider wasps of the subfamily Pepsinae, they are found in the world's warmer regions. They vary in size from medium to large and are strikingly coloured; the females construct multicellular nests in cavities, once built each cell is stocked with a spider, captured by the female. They are found in open habitats such as heaths and forest edges. There are 24 species of Cryptocheilus known from Europe, 6 from North America and 2 described from the Neotropics. Selected species include Cryptocheilus albosignatus Sustera, 1924 Cryptocheilus alternatus Cryptocheilus annulatus Cryptocheilus attenuatum Banks 1933 Cryptocheilus australis Guerin 1830 Golden Spider Wasp Cryptocheilus bicolor Orange Spider Wasp Cryptocheilus bruneipes Haupt, 1962 Cryptocheilus discolor Cryptocheilus dusmeti Junco y Reyes, 1943 Cryptocheilus egregius Cryptocheilus elegans Cryptocheilus fabricii Cryptocheilus fischeri Cryptocheilus freygessneri Cryptocheilus fulvicollis Cryptocheilus gazella Haupt 1962 Cryptocheilus guttulatus Cryptocheilus hesperus Cryptocheilus hispanicus Sustera 1924 Cryptocheilus ichneumonoides Cryptocheilus idoneum Banks 1910 Cryptocheilus infumatus Cryptocheilus juncoi Wahis 1986 Cryptocheilus limbatus Haupt 1962 Cryptocheilus minimus Priesner 1966 Cryptocheilus neotropicalis Cambra & Wahis 2005 Cryptocheilus notatus Cryptocheilus octomaculatus Cryptocheilus pallidipennis Cryptocheilus perezi Cryptocheilus richardsi Moczar 1953 Cryptocheilus rubellus Cryptocheilus sanguinolentus Haupt 1962 Cryptocheilus santosi Cambra & Wahis 2005 Cryptocheilus severini Banks 1926 Cryptocheilus strigifrons Haupt 1962 Cryptocheilus terminatus Cryptocheilus tredecimmaculatus Haupt 1962 Cryptocheilus umbrosus Haupt 1962 Cryptocheilus unicolor Cryptocheilus variabilis Cryptocheilus variipennis Sustera 1924 Cryptocheilus versicolor

Back in the Day (2014 film)

Back in the Day is a 2014 comedy film and written by Smallville actor Michael Rosenbaum. It is distributed by Screen Media Films; when Jim Owens makes a surprise visit to his high school reunion, all hell breaks loose. Hilarity ensues. Cruising the old strip, seeking vengeance on an old high school principal and nearly breaking up a wedding gets Jim into hot water with his friends and their wives. Back in the Day is written and directed by Michael Rosenbaum and stars Rosenbaum, Morena Baccarin, Nick Swardson, Harland Williams, Sarah Colonna, Isaiah Mustafa; the film was produced by Kim Waltrip. Michael Rosenbaum as Jim Owens Morena Baccarin as Laurie Kristoffer Polaha as Len Brenneman Isaiah Mustafa as T Harland Williams as Skunk Emma Caulfield as Molly Liz Carey as Angie Kramer Sarah Colonna as Carol Nick Swardson as Ron Freeman Danielle Bisutti as Annette Taylor Jay R. Ferguson as Mark Mike Hagerty as Principal Teagley On Rotten Tomatoes the film has a rating of 11% based on reviews from 9 critics, with an average rating of 3.4/10 based on 7 reviews.

On Metacritic the film has a score of 7 out of 100 based on reviews from 5 critics, indicating "overwhelming dislike". Back in the Day on IMDb