Orrorin tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at 6.1 to 5.7 million years and discovered in 2000. It is not confirmed, its discovery was an argument against the hypothesis that australopithecines are human ancestors, as much as it still remains the most prevalent hypothesis of human evolution as of 2012. The name of genus Orrorin means "original man" in Tugen, the name of the only classified species, O. tugenensis, derives from Tugen Hills in Kenya, where the first fossil was found in 2000. As of 2007, 20 fossils of the species have been found; the 20 specimens found as of 2007 include: the posterior part of a mandible in two pieces. Orrorin had small teeth relative to its body size, its dentition differs from that found in Australopithecus in that its cheek teeth are smaller and less elongated mesiodistally and from Ardipithecus in that its enamel is thicker. The dentition differs from both these species in the presence of a mesial groove on the upper canines; the canines reduced, like those found in Miocene apes and female chimpanzees.

Orrorin had small post-canines and was microdont, like modern humans, whereas robust australopithecines were megadont. In the femur, the head rotated anteriorly. While these suggest that Orrorin was bipedal, the rest of the postcranium indicates it climbed trees. While the proximal phalanx is curved, the distal pollical phalanx is of human proportions and has thus been associated with toolmaking, but should be associated with grasping abilities useful for tree-climbing in this context. After the fossils were found in 2000, they were held at the Kipsaraman village community museum, but the museum was subsequently closed. Since according to the Community Museums of Kenya chairman Eustace Kitonga, the fossils are stored at a secret bank vault in Nairobi. If Orrorin proves to be a direct human ancestor australopithecines such as Australopithecus afarensis may be considered a side branch of the hominid family tree: Orrorin is both earlier, by 3 million years, more similar to modern humans than is A. afarensis.

The main similarity is that the Orrorin femur is morphologically closer to that of H. sapiens than is Lucy's. Other fossils found in the Lukeino Formation show that Orrorin lived in a dry evergreen forest environment, not the savanna assumed by many theories of human evolution; the team that found these fossils in 2000 was led by Brigitte Senut and Martin Pickford from the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. The 20 fossils have been found at four sites in the Lukeino Formation, located in Kenya: of these, the fossils at Cheboit and Aragai are the oldest, while those in Kapsomin and Kapcheberek are found in the upper levels of the formation. Orrorin tugenensis - The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History


Qobong is a community council located in the Mohale's Hoek District of Lesotho. Its population in 2006 was 9,324; the community of Qobong includes the villages of Biafa, Boitelo, Boritsa, Ha'Mankieane, Ha Beila, Ha Challa, Ha Koenane, Ha Kori, Ha Lepeli, Ha Lephoto, Ha Mahaha, Ha Maponyane, Ha Masia, Ha Matebesi, Ha Mavela, Ha Mokoenehi, Ha Mokotjane, Ha Mololi, Ha Mosaletsane, Ha Moshaba, Ha Motalane, Ha Motopi, Ha Motumi, Ha Mpeki, Ha Nohana, Ha Ntebele, Ha Ntinyane, Ha Ntja, Ha Ntsokoane, Ha Nyape, Ha Pokola, Ha Rabosiu, Ha Ramorake, Ha Ranyali, Ha Raseboko, Ha Sebili, Ha Sebinane, Ha Seithati, Ha Sekhohola, Ha Sele, Ha Senyane, Ha Sethobane, Ha Shokhoa, Ha Tau, Ha Thaba, Ha Tlhabeli, Ha Toko, Ha Tsuinyane, Kamor'a-Thaba, Khoating, Khorong, Khotha, Khutsong, Lefarung, Leqatha, Letlapeng, Liefereng, Liqaleng, Litšiloaneng, Mafika-Lisiu, Mamollo, Masuoaneng, Matebeleng, Matlapaneng, Matsoapong, Mokoallong, Paka-tsa-matsatsa, Poling, Qomo-Qomo, Ralitšibana, Seshaing, Terai Hoek, Thaba-Lethu, Thababa-Litlholo, Thoteng, Tšepong and Tsoelike.

Google map of community villages

Bettina Hohls

Bettina Hohls is a German artist and designer. She raised the attention of an international audience with her design and photographic work for the covers of two Peter Hammill albums in 1973 and 1974 as well as with her vocal contributions to releases of the German rock band Ash Ra Tempel in 1972. Bettina Hohls works as a certified cultural manager. Bettina Hohls attended the Hölty-Gymnasium in Celle until 1963. In 1969 Bettina Hohls graduated as Designer at the Werkkunstschule in Hannover and attended Hochschule der Künste in Berlin until 1975. Hohls was associated with the German psychedelic rock group Ash Ra Tempel, contributing vocals to their 1972 album Seven Up and the single "Gedanken", she designed the cover of The Silent Corner and the Empty Stage, a 1974 album by the British singer and songwriter Peter Hammill and took the photograph "Hamburg foliage" on the cover of Hammill's 1973 album Chameleon in the Shadow of the Night. In the 1980s and 1990s Bettina Hohls worked as a teacher for arts and took part in various exhibitions and art symposiums in Germany as well as in Korea and Japan.

She assisted Peter Gabriel in preparing the first WOMAD festival in 1982. She is engaged in intercultural studies, works as an artist agent and, on a small scale level, as a concert manager. Bettina Hohls has a daughter and has lived in Berlin since 1969, she is interested in intercultural communications in Asian culture. She is member of the Deutsch-Japanische Gesellschaft. Bettina Hohls is a multiple synesthete. Bettina Hohls at MySpace